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This material is protected by U.S. copyright law. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited. To purchase quantity reprints, please e-mail [email protected] or to request permission to reproduce multiple copies, please e-mail [email protected]. An Interdisciplinary Consensus on Managing Skin Reactions Associated With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors Beth Eaby, MSN, CRNP, OCN®, Ann Culkin, RN, OCN®, and Mario E. Lacouture, MD The use of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1/EGFR) inhibitors, such as erlotinib, cetuximab, and panitumumab, often is accompanied by the development of a characteristic spectrum of skin toxicities. Although these toxicities rarely are life threatening, they can cause physical and emotional distress for patients and caregivers. As a result, practitioners often withdraw the drug, potentially depriving patients of a beneficial clinical outcome. These reactions do not necessarily require any alteration in HER1/EGFR-inhibitor treatment and often are best addressed through symptomatic treatment. Although the evidence for using such therapies is limited, an interdisciplinary HER1/EGFR-inhibitor dermatologic toxicity forum was held in October 2006 to discuss the underlying mechanisms of these toxicities and evaluate commonly used therapeutic interventions. The result was a proposal for a simple, three-tiered grading system for skin toxicities related to HER1/EGFR inhibitors to be used in therapeutic decision making and as a framework for building a stepwise approach to intervention. At a Glance
 e use of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1/ The use of HER1/EGFR-targeted therapies, such as erlo-
tinib (Tarceva®, OSI Pharmaceuticals, Inc.), cetuximab (Erbitux®, Bristol-Myers Squibb), and panitumumab (VectibixTM, Amgen Inc.), often is accompanied by EGFR) inhibitors often is accompanied by the development the development of a characteristic spectrum of skin of a characteristic class-specific spectrum of skin toxicities.
toxicities (Rhee, Oishi, Garey, & Kim, 2005). Although these  in toxicities related to HER1/EGFR inhibitors do not necessar- events rarely are life threatening, they can cause physical and ily require alteration in HER1/EGFR-inhibitor treatment and of- emotional distress for patients and caregivers. Often, the rash ten are addressed best through symptomatic management.
may be mistaken as an uncontrollable adverse effect rather than a treatable side effect. As a result, practitioners withdraw the drug,  idence-based treatment recommendations for skin tox- potentially depriving patients of a beneficial clinical outcome. icities related to HER1/EGFR inhibitors are not available Oncology nurses often are the first point of contact for patients because no data from control ed clinical studies have been who are receiving treatment; therefore, understanding the clinical basis for such skin reactions and offering effective and appropriate assessments and interventions are critical. On October 29, 2006, an interdisciplinary forum was held in Beth Eaby, MSN, CRNP, OCN®, is a nurse practitioner at the University of Chicago, IL, to discuss skin toxicities associated with HER1/EGFR- Pennsylvania in Philadelphia; Ann Culkin, RN, OCN®, is a clinical nurse at targeted therapies. Oncologists, dermatologists, pharmacists, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, NY; and Mario E. nurses shared their knowledge on the underlying mechanisms Lacouture, MD, is a dermatologist in the Department of Dermatology at of these events and evaluated existing practices in the hope of SERIES Clinic and the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center at reaching a consensus strategy on how best to manage them. This Northwestern University in Chicago, IL. Eaby is a member of the Tarceva® article provides an overview of their discussions.
speakers bureau and Culkin is a member of the Advisory Board and speak-ers bureau, both for Genentech. Lacouture received an honorarium from Genentech and is a speaker for Genentech, ImClone, and OSI Pharmaceu- Human Epidermal Growth Factor
ticals. Mention of specific products and opinions related to those products do not indicate or imply endosement by the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing or the Oncology Nursing Society. (Submitted July 2007. Accepted As a result of an increased understanding of the underly- for publication September 1, 2007.) ing molecular causes of cancer, biologic targeted agents have Digital Object Identifier:10.1188/08.CJON.283-290 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing • Volume 12, Number 2 • Managing Skin Reactions emerged since the mid-1990s as a new strategy in the treat- tyrosine kinase (Yarden & Sliwkowski, 2001). Both prevent ment of various malignancies. These targeted agents interact the initiation of cell-signaling pathways that normally promote with specific molecules that are pivotal in tumor growth and tumor-cell proliferation, migration, adhesion and angiogenesis, development. Traditional "cytotoxic" chemotherapies not and inhibit apoptosis (Arteaga, 2001). A fourth agent, the TKI only kill tumor cells by affecting processes that commonly are gefitinib (Iressa®, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals), initially was overactive or enhanced in cancerous tissue but also may be approved in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) important in affecting normal cells. Targeted agents can exert for third-line use, based on the results of a randomized phase II their influence by, among other things, inhibiting tumor-cell trial (Kris et al., 2003). However, data from a phase III confir- proliferation, inducing programmed cell death, inhibiting matory trial failed to show a survival benefit and its use now is angiogenesis, and enhancing antitumor immune responses restricted to patients currently or previously benefiting from it (Hoang & Schiller, 2002). Common targets for these agents or to patients enrolled in a clinical study (FDA, 2005). include growth factors such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); intracellular signaling molecules, including Skin Reactions Associated
cyclooxygenase-2 and the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase; and cell-surface receptors (e.g., members of the HER family, which With Human Epidermal Growth Factor
includes HER1/EGFR). The HER1/EGFR is an attractive target for new biologic targeted agents because it has been implicated in the develop- Largely because of their specificity of action, biologic targeted ment of a range of tumor types (Greatens et al., 1998; Ohsaki agents often are considered to have a more favorable toxic- et al., 2000; Salomon, Brandt, Ciardiello, & Normanno, 1995). ity profile than traditional chemotherapy. This also is true for Overexpression of the receptor also has been correlated with HER1/EGFR-targeted therapies, which generally are associated disease progression, poor prognosis, and a reduced sensitivity with fewer hematologic adverse events than chemotherapy. to chemotherapy (Cooke, Reeves, Lannigan, & Stanton, 2001; However, patients treated with HER1/EGFR-targeted therapies Nicholson, Gee, & Harper, 2001). Several HER1/EGFR inhibitors often do present with a unique group of skin reactions (Rhee et are in clinical development, and three (erlotinib, cetuximab, al., 2005), which occur in more than 50% of patients receiving and panitumumab) have demonstrated efficacy in a range of these treatments (Segaert & Van Cutsem, 2005).
indications and received U.S. Food and Drug Administration Clinical trials with HER1/EGFR-targeted inhibitors have (FDA) approval. Erlotinib is an oral, reversible, tyrosine kinase revealed a spectrum of skin toxicities of varying severity (see inhibitor (TKI), whereas cetuximab and panitumumab are IV Table 1 and Figure 1). The most commonly reported reactions administered anti-HER1/EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). are mild-to-moderate skin rashes that occur most frequently MAbs prevent ligands, such as the EGF, from binding to the on the face and upper trunk. Other common dermatologic receptor, whereas TKIs block the activity of the receptor's reactions include xerosis (dry skin), pruritus, nail changes Table 1. Spectrum of Dermatologic Reactions Associated With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

Monomorphous erythematous maculopapular, follicular, Onset: one to three weeks of treatment; or pustular lesions, which may be associated with mild maximum: three to five weeks of treatment; resolution: within four weeks of treatment cessation but may wax and wane Paronychia and fissuring Painful periungual granulation-type or friable pyogenic Onset: after two to four months of treat- granuloma-like changes associated with erythema, ment; resolution: persistent, several months swelling and fissuring of lateral nailfolds, and/or distal Curlier, finer, and more brittle hair on scalp and extremi- Variable onset: after 7–10 weeks to many ties; also extensive growth and curling of eyelashes and Diffuse fine scaling Occurs after appearance of rash Flushing, urticaria, and anaphylaxis Occurs on the first day of initial dosing Mild to moderate mucositis, stomatitis, aphthous ulcers Onset during treatment, not related to dose or schedule; resolution without specific measures Note. From "Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor–Associated Cutaneous Toxicities: An Evolving Paradigm in Clinical Management," by T.J. Lynch, Jr., E.S. Kim, B. Eaby, J. Garey, D.P. West, and M.E. Lacouture, 2007, Oncologist, 12(5), p. 614. Copyright 2007 by AlphaMed Press. Reprinted with permission.
April 2008 • Volume 12, Number 2 • Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing

The severity of rash also appears to vary between agents. In general, rash associated with the use of anti-HER1/EGFR MAbs tends to be more severe than that observed with TKIs, present-ing as a more purulent and pustular reaction, which may require more aggressive interventions (Sipples, 2006).
The different modes of administration for these agents might be one reason: TKIs (e.g., erlotinib, gefitinib) are administered orally on a daily basis, whereas MAbs (e.g., cetuximab, panit-mumumab) are given intravenously once a week or every two weeks. The pharmacokinetic properties of these agents are therefore different, with potentially greater differences in peak and trough concentrations for MAbs than for TKIs. This may ex-plain the differing incidence and manifestation of rash observed To view this image,
with these agents, particularly because preclinical data support a correlation between the appearance of rash and concentration please see the print version.
for these agents (Bruno, Mass, Jones, Lu, & Winer, 2003). Some evidence suggests that the appearance of skin rash may be useful as a marker of efficacy for HER1/EGFR-targeted agents. Several studies with erlotinib have demonstrated a relationship between severity of skin reaction and treatment efficacy. Phase II studies in NSCLC, head and neck cancer, and ovarian cancer sug-gest that survival rates are significantly increased in patients with skin reactions, compared to those without (Clark, Perez-Soler, Siu, Gordon, & Santabarbara, 2003; Perez-Soler et al., 2004). This observation was repeated in the pivotal phase III trial of erlotinib Figure 1. Dermatologic Toxicities Secondary
monotherapy for NSCLC, in which the patients who developed to Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
a rash (75%) survived significantly longer than those who did not: 8.5 months for patients with grade 1 rash and 19.6 months Note. From "Mechanisms of Cutaneous Toxicities to EGFR Inhibitors," for patients with grade 2 or 3 rash versus 1.5 months for patients by M.E. Lacouture, 2006, Nature Reviews Cancer, 61(1), p. 804. Copy- who did not develop any rash (p < 0.0001) (Perez-Soler, 2006). right 2006 by Nature Publishing Group. Reprinted with permission.
Overall, these observations support the consensus that patients who develop rash should be treated for the reaction while being maintained on anti-HER1/EGFR therapy; those patients may ob- (usually manifested as paronychia), and hair changes (usually tain the greatest benefit from the drugs. manifested as mild hair loss) (Lacouture, 2006; Segaert & Van Cutsem, 2005). These adverse events are observed during pathobiology of Skin Reactions
treatment with all HER1/EGFR-targeted agents, MAbs, and TKIs, and their etiology suggests that such skin toxicities are Associated With Human Epidermal
a class effect of HER1/EGFR-targeted therapies. However, dif- Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors
ferences may exist in the incidence and manifestation of these events with different treatments. Although the pathobiology of HER1/EGFR-targeted inhibitor- The papulopustular rash generally develops along a char- associated skin reactions is not understood fully, drug-induced acteristic course. Within the first week, patients experience inhibition of the HER1/EGFR is believed to affect keratinocyte a sensory disturbance on the face with erythema and edema, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and attachment (Jost, followed by a papulopustular eruption (in weeks 1–3). In Kari, & Rodeck, 2000; Woodworth et al., 2005). HER1/EGFR is week 4, a crusting of the rash develops. Provided that the rash expressed in epidermal keratinocytes, sebaceous and eccrine is treated successfully, patients may continue to experience glands, and the epithelium of the hair follicle (Nanney, Sto- erythema and dry skin in the areas previously affected by the scheck, King, Underwood, & Holbrook, 1990). Such expression papulopustular eruption. is particularly high in proliferating and undifferentiated kerati-nocytes, which commonly are found in the basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis, and in the outer root sheath of the hair Directly comparing the incidence of skin toxicities (and, in follicle (Fox, 2006). Inhibition of the HER1/EGFR signaling particular, rash) for different agents is challenging. Descriptive pathway is believed to play a critical role in inflammatory cell terms often differ in gradation schemes between trials, and in recruitment and subsequent cutaneous injury, which can lead some instances skin toxicities are recorded as a single event to the development of dry skin, papulopustules, and periungual (e.g., dermatitis), whereas in others, they may be broken down inflammation (Lacouture, 2006). The potential effects of HER1/ into separate categories (e.g., rash, acne, dry skin). EGFR inhibition in the skin are illustrated in Figure 2.
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing • Volume 12, Number 2 • Managing Skin Reactions

Guidelines for the Treatment
of Skin Reactions Associated
With Human Epidermal Growth Factor
As yet, no data from controlled clinical studies investigating treatment options for HER1/EGFR-targeted inhibitor-associated skin reactions have been published; therefore, no peer-reviewed, evidence-based treatment recommendations are available. To date, proposed treatments are based mostly on qualitative rather than quantitative evidence (Lacouture, Basti, Patel, & Benson, 2006; Rhee et al., 2005). However, patients still require treatment and advice for skin reactions, and in the absence of suitable clini-cal data, best practice offers the best treatment advice. The aim of the forum in Chicago was to bring a number of experts together in an attempt to amalgamate their interdisci-plinary knowledge (published or otherwise) as well as to distill the common practices employed by their institutions into a consensus approach for the treatment of dermatologic adverse events associated with HER1/EGFR-targeted inhibitor therapy. Discussion at the forum focused primarily on the clinical man-agement of cutaneous toxicities; however, the experts also advocated a proactive approach for patients that could minimize the occurrence and severity of toxicities.
To view this image,
practical Guidelines for patients
please see the print version.
Two key patient education recommendations were made at the forum: Patients should regularly use a thick, alcohol-free emollient for dry skin (alcohol can dry the skin). A number of recommended emollients are listed in Table 2. Application of high-sun protection factor (≥ 15) physical sunscreen (i.e., containing zinc oxide or tita-nium dioxide) each morning and prior to sun exposure is recom-mended for all patients receiving HER1/EGFR-targeted agents.
Based on the existing literature, a range of other practical guidelines also might be considered to help prevent rash and a. Normal expression of HER1/EGFR-dependent molecular markers. Be- other cutaneous toxicities, which include the following (Herb- fore treatment, the basal layer shows expression of phosphorylated st, Fox, Viele, & Messner, 2006; O'Keeffe, Parrilli, & Lacouture, HER1/EGFR, MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and the prolif- 2006; People Living With Cancer, 2006). eration marker KI67, and suprabasal expression of phopsphorylated • Patients should take care to remain hydrated. HER1/EGFR, the cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitor p27, KRT1 (keratin • Patients should ensure that they apply an adequate amount 1) and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). of sunscreen: more than half a teaspoon of sunscreen to b. During HER1/EGFR inhibitor therapy, phosphorylated HER1/EGFR each arm, the face, and neck, and a little more than one is abolished in all epidermal cells and the expression of MAPK is teaspoon to the chest and abdomen, back, and each leg. The reduced. Inhibition of HER1/EGFR in basal keratinocytes leads to use of a broad-brimmed hat also is advised if going outside.
growth arrest and premature differentiation, as demonstrated by upregulated p27 KIP1, KRT1 and STAT3 in the basal layer. • Patients should avoid long, hot showers. Instead, patients c. Subsequently, the release of inflammatory cell chemoattractants should use lukewarm water and mild (preferably scent-free) (such as CXCLs and CCLs) recruits leukocytes that release enzymes, soap, ensuring that genital, rectal, and skin-fold areas are causing apoptosis and tissue damage, with consequent apoptotic cleaned thoroughly. A moisturizer should be applied within 15 keratinocytes and ectatic (dilated) vessels. minutes of showering or bathing (to prevent skin drying). d. A decrease in epidermal thickness is observed, with a thin stratum • Patients should avoid laundry detergent with strong per- corneum that lacks its characteristic basket weave configuration, fumes and use only hypoallergenic makeup.
indicating abnormal differentiation.
• The use of saline nasal spray followed by petroleum jelly may reduce risk of nosebleeds.
Figure 2. The Effects of Human Epidermal Growth
• Patients should use personal lubricant for intercourse.
Factor Receptor (HER1/EGFR) Inhibition in Skin
• To prevent nail problems, patients should keep finger and toe- Note. From "Mechanisms of Cutaneous Toxicities to EGFR Inhibitors," nails clean and trimmed; avoid biting of nails, pushing back cu- by M.E. Lacouture, 2006, Nature Reviews Cancer, 61(1), p. 806. Copy- ticles, tearing the skin around the nail bed, or applying artificial right 2006 by Nature Publishing Group. Reprinted with permission.
nails; and avoid tight-fitting shoes. Patients also are advised to April 2008 • Volume 12, Number 2 • Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing therapeutic decision making, forum attendees felt that a simple, Table 2. Recommended Agents for Dry Skin,
more specific grading system would be the most appropriate rash Itching, and Sun Exposure
associated with HER1/EGFR-targeted inhibitors. Thus, classifying skin reactions as mild, moderate, or severe was believed to be the most effective system for assigning therapeutic intervention. The following is a stepwise approach to intervention, employ- • Vanicream® (Pharmaceutical Specialties, Inc.), ing the suggested three-tiered grading system developed by the Eucerin® (Beiersdorf AG), Aquaphor® (Beiersdorf consensus group.
AG), Aveeno® (Johnson & Johnson Consumer Com- panies, Inc.), and Cutemol® (Summers Laboratories mild Skin Toxicity
Mild skin toxicity (papulopustular rash) is defined as generally Exfoliants (for scaly areas) localized, minimally symptomatic, with no sign of superinfection, • Ammonium lactate12% (Am-Lactin®, Upsher-Smith and no impact on daily activities. Some attendees suggested that, Laboratories, Inc.) for body in many instances, no intervention was necessary, whereas others • Urea 20%–40% cream for palms, soles, and fissures felt that intervention of either topical hydrocortisone (1% or 2.5% cream) or clindamycin (1% gel) would be beneficial. Dose reduc- • Body: Sarna Ultra® (PharmaDerm) cream and Re- tion of the HER1/EGFR-targeted agent was not recommended.
genecare® (MPM Medical, Inc.) gel as needed • Scalp: Fluocinonide 0.05% shampoo or clobetasol moderate Skin Toxicity
Moderate rash is defined as papulopustules with mild pruritus or tenderness, with minimal impact on activities of daily living • Antihistamines (diphenhydramine 25–50 mg twice and no signs of superinfection. The suggested therapeutic inter- daily and/or cetirizine 10–20 mg per day) vention is hydrocortisone (2.5% cream), clindamycin (1% gel), or • Pregabalin (Lyrica®, Pfizer) 75–100 mg twice daily pimecrolimus (Elidel®, Novartis) (1% cream), with the addition of • Any broad-spectrum sunscreen containing zinc ox- doxycycline (100 mg PO BID) or minocycline (100 mg PO BID) ide or titanium dioxide (Micantonio et al., 2005; Molinari, De Quatrebarbes, Andre, & Aractingi, 2005; Sapadin & Fleischmajer, 2006). Dose reduction of the HER1/EGFR-targeted agent was not recommended.
wear gloves when washing dishes or using chemical clean-ing agents. Hands and feet should be moisturized frequently; Severe Skin Toxicity
petroleum jelly is particularly effective and should be applied to the skin around the nails periodically throughout the day. Severe skin toxicity is defined as a rash that may be generalized At night, applying a thick coat to hands and feet and covering and accompanied by severe pruritus or tenderness; this level of with white cotton gloves and socks may be helpful.
toxicity has a significant impact on activities of daily living and • If a patient develops trichomegaly (i.e., excessive eyelash has the potential for superinfection. The dose of the HER1/EGFR growth) or eye complaints, the eyelashes should be trimmed inhibitor should be reduced (according to the principal investiga- and the patient should have an ophthalmologic consultation. tor). The skin toxicity should be treated the same as for moderate Most importantly, patients should be educated to call a health- rash but with the addition of a methylprednisolone dose pack. In care professional as soon as they develop any symptoms of the event that severe rash symptoms fail to respond to the above- cutaneous toxicity. Early intervention is critical in the clinical mentioned interventions, interruption of the HER1/EGFRI-tar- management of these events, so an early (< 14 days from EGFR- geted therapy is recommended. However, treatment may resume inhibitor therapy onset) follow-up is advisable.
(most likely at a lower dose) once skin reactions have diminished in severity at a recommended follow-up of two weeks. clinical management
The use of pimecrolimus or tacrolimus (Protopic®, Astellas Pharma, Inc.) for HER1/EGFR-associated skin reactions is being The treatment algorithm presented in Figure 3 represents the investigated at a number of institutions; however, it is an immu- key output from the forum. The effective treatment of skin rashes nosuppressant, which should be taken into account when con- associated with HER1/EGFR-targeted inhibitors depends largely sidering treatment options (Novartis, 2006). Although a causal on accurate grading of skin reactions to allow for appropriate relationship has not been established, rare cases of skin malig- intervention. The National Cancer Institute (2006) Common nancies and lymphoma have been observed in patients treated Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) is used most commonly to grade with calcineurin inhibitors, such as pimecrolimus (Novartis). adverse events in clinical trials with HER1/EGFR-targeted agents Such incidences most likely are associated with long-term usage; (see Table 3); it is designed, primarily, as a surveillance tool and pimecrolimus is not recommended, however, in immunosup- is of limited use as an aid to selecting intervention. Although cer- presed patients (Novartis). As a result, great care should be tain categories are relevant to events associated with HER1/EGFR taken when considering its use in patients with cancer.
inhibitors, including rash and desquamation, they often are not sufficiently specific. For example, within the NCI-CTC, rash sever- ity is based on body surface area coverage; this can be misleading because rash associated with HER1/EGFR inhibitors generally The skin toxicities associated with HER1/EGFR-targeted are confined to the face and upper trunk. For the purposes of inhibitors can cause patients physical and psychological symp- Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing • Volume 12, Number 2 • Managing Skin Reactions • Employ a proactive approach in managing skin reactions.
• Suggest patients use a thick, alcohol-free emollient cream.
• Suggest patients use a sunscreen of SPF 15 or higher, preferably containing zinc oxide or titanium dioxide.
• If a patient presents with rash, verify appropriate administration and follow the proceeding algorithm in a step-wise manner.
Continue EGFR inhibitor at current dose and monitor for change in severity.
• Generally localized• Minimally symptomatic• No impact on ADL Topical hydrocortisone 1% or 2.5% cream* and/or clindamycin 1% gel • No sign of superinfection Reassess after 2 weeks (either by healthcare professional or patient self-reported); if reactions worsen or do not improve, proceed to next step.
Continue EGFR inhibitor at current dose and monitor for change in severity; continue treatment of • Mild symptoms (e.g., skin reaction with the following: pruritus, tenderness) • Minimal impact on ADL• No sign of superinfection Hydrocortisone 2.5% cream* or Clindamycin 1% gel or pimecrolimus 1% cream PLUS doxycycline
100 mg BID or minocycline 100 mg BID
Reassess after 2 weeks (either by healthcare professional or patient self-reported); if reactions worsen or do not improve, proceed to next step.
Severe• Generalized• Severe symptoms (e.g., pruritus, tenderness) Reduce EGFR-inhibitor dose as per label and monitor for change in severity; continue treatment of • Significant impact on skin reaction with the following: • Potential for Hydrocortisone 2.5% cream* or clindamycin 1% gel or pimecrolimus 1% cream PLUS doxycycline
100 mg BID or minocycline 100 mg BID PLUS medrol dose pack
Reassess after 2 weeks; if reactions worsen, dose interruption or discontinuation may be necessary.
* The use of topical steroids should be employed in a pulse manner based on your institution's guidelines.
ADL—activities of daily living; BID—twice daily; EGFR—epidermal growth factor receptor; SPF—sun protection factor Figure 3. proposed Therapy Algorithm for the management of Skin Reaction Associated
With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors
Note. From "Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor–Associated Cutaneous Toxicities: An Evolving Paradigm in Clinical Management," by T.J. Lynch, Jr., E.S.
Kim, B. Eaby, J. Garey, D.P. West, and M.E. Lacouture," 2007, Oncologist, 12(5), p. 618. Copyright 2007 by AlphaMed Press. Reprinted with permission.
toms, particularly given that rash characteristically occurs The algorithm suggested by the consensus group and pre- on exposed areas such as the face. Although the concerns of sented in this article represents current best practice for the patients (and caregivers) must be addressed sympathetically, treatment of rash associated with HER1/EGFR inhibitors. Con- in most cases, these adverse events can be managed without trolled studies remain necessary to fully evaluate the efficacy the need for dose modification or interruption to the HER1/ of the strategies presented in the algorithm, but this approach EGFR-inhibitor regimen. Moreover, in refractory cases, the hopefully will be a useful guide for nurses and other healthcare suspension of HER1/EGFR inhibitor therapy is temporary, professionals, ensuring that patients receive the maximum pos- allowing for appropriate intervention and diminution of skin- sible clinical benefits from the continued and uninterrupted use toxicity severity. of the HER1/EGFR inhibitors.
April 2008 • Volume 12, Number 2 • Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing Table 3. classification of Dermatologic Toxicities Associated With Human Epidermal Growth Factor
Receptor Inhibitors

Symptomatic, not interfering with Interfering with ADL Discoloration, ridging, Partial or complete loss of nails; Interfering with ADL pain in nailbed(s) Mild or localized Intense or widespread Intense or widespread and inter- Macular or papular Macular or papular eruption or Severe, generalized erythro- Generalized exfolia- eruption or erythema erythema with pruritus or other derma or macular, papular, or tive, ulcerative, or without associated associated symptoms; localized vesicular eruption; desquamation bullous dermatitis desquamation or other lesions covering > 50% BSA covering < 50% BSA Intervention not Intervention indicated Associated with pain, disfigure- ment, ulceration, or desquamation Life threatening; ADL—activities of daily living; BSA—body surface areaNote. From Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) [v.3.0], by National Cancer Institute, 2006. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from Adapted with permission.
The authors gratefully the participants of the October 2006 inter- Greatens, T.M., Niehans, G.A., Rubins, J.B., Jessurun, J., Kratzke, R.A., disciplinary forum: Jean Pierre DeLord, Jody Gary, Giuseppe Giaccone, Maddaus, M.A., et al. (1998). Do molecular markers predict survival Patricia LoRusso, Thomas J. Lynch, Barbara Melosky, Martin Reck, in non-small-cell lung cancer? American Journal of Respiratory Roman Perez-Soler, Jennifer Temel, and Dennis P. West. The authors and Critical Care Medicine, 157(4, Pt. 1), 1093–1097.
also acknowledge third-party medical writing support from Gardiner Herbst, R., Fox, L.P., Viele, C.S., & Messner, M. (2006). Managing Caldwell US, funded by Genentech, Inc., OSI Pharmaceuticals, Inc., rash and other skin reactions to targeted treatment. Retrieved and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. February 20, 2008, from Author contact: Beth Eaby, MSN, CRNP, OCN®, can be reached at eabyb@
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Perez-Soler, R., Chachoua, A., Hammond, L.A., Rowinsky, E.K., Huber- Receive free continuing nursing education credit
man, M., Karp, D., et al. (2004). Determinants of tumor response for reading this article and taking a brief quiz on-
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cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22(16), 3238–3247.
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April 2008 • Volume 12, Number 2 • Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing


XYLAN & ARABINOXYLAN (100 Assays per Kit) or (1000 Microplate Assays per Kit) or (1300 Auto-Analyser Assays per Kit) © Megazyme International Ireland 2012 INTRODUCTION:In nature, D-xylose occurs mainly in the polysaccharide form as xylan, arabinoxylan, glucuronoarabinoxylan, xyloglucan and xylogalacturonan. Mixed linkage D-xylans are also found in certain seaweed species and a similar polysaccharide is thought to make up the backbone of psyllium gum. Free D-xylose is found in guava, pears, blackberries, loganberries, raspberries, aloe vera gel, kelp, echinacea, boswellia, broccoli, spinach, eggplant, peas, green beans, okra, cabbage and corn. In humans, D-xylose is used in an absorption test to help diagnose problems that prevent the small intestine from absorbing nutrients, vitamins and minerals in food. D-Xylose is normally easily absorbed by the intestine. When problems with absorption occur, D-xylose is not absorbed and blood and urine levels are low. A D-xylose test can help to determine the cause of a child's failure to gain weight, especially when the child seems to be eating enough food. If in a polysaccharide, the ratio of D-xylose to other sugars etc. is known, then the amount of the polysaccharide can be quantitated from this knowledge plus the determined concentration of D-xylose in an acid hydrolysate. Xylans are a major portion of the polysaccharides that could potentially be hydrolysed to fermentable sugar for biofuel production.

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