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New mexico ems


NEW MEXICO
EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES
GUIDELINES
EMS FIRST RESPONDER
EMT - BASIC
EMT- INTERMEDIATE
Updated November 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACETYLCYSTEINE MUCOMYST® .
ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID (ASA, ASPIRIN) .
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL .
ADENOSINE (ADENOCARD®) .
ALBUTEROL .
AMIODARONE (CORDARONE®) .
ANTIBIOTICS AND OTHER ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS .
ANTI-EMETIC AGENTS
PROMETHAZINE
ONDANSETRON
(ZOFRAN®) . 15
ATROPINE SULFATE . 16 
BETA BLOCKING AGENTS .
BLOOD (PACKED RED CELLS, FRESH PLASMA, WHOLE BLOOD) .
CALCIUM PREPARATIONS .
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
DILTIAZEM
HCL (CARDIZEM®) .
DEXAMETHASONE (DECADRON®) .
METHYLPREDNISOLINE (SOLU-MEDROL®) .
PREDNISONE . 28
CROTALIDAE POLYVALENT IMMUNE FAB (OVINE) CROFAB . 29
DEXTROSE (ORAL/IV/IO – 10%, 25% AND 50%) . 30 
DIPHENHYDRAMINE HCL (BENADRYL®) .
DOBUTAMINE (DOBUTREX®) .
DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE (DOPASTAT®, INTROPIN®) .
EPINEPHRINE (ADRENALINE®) (1:1,000 AND 1:10,000 SOLUTIONS) .
EPOPROSTENOL SODUIM (FLOLAN®) .
FUROSEMIDE (LASIX®) .
GLUCAGON .
GLYCOPROTEIN INHIBITORS .
H2 ANTAGONISTS .
HEPARIN .
INSULIN .
IPRATROPRIUM (ATROVENT®) .
LEVALBUTEROL (XOPENEX®). 49
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE (XYLOCAINE®) . 50 
MAGNESIUM SULFATE .
MANNITOL (OSMITROL®) .

NALOXONE (NARCAN®) .
NARCOTIC ANALGESICS
HYDROMORPHONE
(DILAUDID®) .
FENTANYL
(SUBLIMAZE®) . 57
MEPERIDINE
(DEMEROL®) . 58
MORPHINE
SULFATE . 59
NESIRITIDE (NATRECOR®) .
NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS – NON DEPOLARIZING .
NOREPINEPHRINE (LEVOPHED®) .
NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS .
OCTREOTIDE ACETATE (SANDOSTATIN®) .
OXYTOCIN (PITOCIN®) . 73 
PHENYLEPHRINE (NEO-SYNEPHRINE®) . 74 
POTASSIUM . 75 
PRALIDOXIME (2PAM) . 76 
PROCAINAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE (PRONESTYL ®) . 77 
PROPOFOL (DIPRIVAN®) . 79 
PROTAMINE SULFATE . 80 
PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS . 81 
SODIUM BICARBONATE . 82 
SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE (NIPRIDE®) . 84 
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES . 85 
TERBUTALINE (BRETHINE®) . 86 
THIAMINE . 87 
THROMBOLYTICS (FIBRINOLYTICS)
ALTEPLASE{TPA} , STREPTOKINASE, ANISTREPLASE, UROKINASE . 88 
RETEPLASE
(RETAVASE®) . 89
TOPICAL OPHTHALMIC ANESTHETIC (PROPARACAINE - OPHTHAINE®, ALACAINE ®) . 92 
VACCINES . 93 
DPT (Diptheria, Tetanus (Acellular), Pertussis),
TT (Tetanus Toxoid), DT (Diptheria, Tetanus)
DTP/DTaP
Hepatitis B Vaccine (RECOMBIVAX HB®, ENGERIX-B®)
Hepatitis A Vaccine (HAVRIX®, VAQTA®)
Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)
Poliovirus Vaccine - live, Orimune (OPV)
Poliomyelitis Vaccine, Inactivated, IPV, Salk
Pneumococcal Vaccine (PNEUMOVAX®)
Varicella (chicken pox) vaccine
VASOPRESSIN (PITRESSIN®) . 94 
SPECIAL NOTE: ANY MEDICATION THAT CAN BE ADMINISTERED VIA IV CAN ALSO BE
ADMINISTERED VIA IO

New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ACETAMINOPHEN

CLASS OF DRUG

Analgesic, Antipyretic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic
INDICATIONS

1. Fever in pediatric patients during long transports
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Hypersensitivity to the drug 2. Hepatic failure or impairment
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Phenothiazines - may produce hypothermia 2. Phenobarbital - increase hepatic toxicity
ADMINISTRATION

Pediatric: [10-15 mg/kg] orally Not to exceed 50 mg/kg/24 hours
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Acetaminophen use in the scope of practice is intended for fever control in pediatric patients during long transports to prevent febrile seizures. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ACETYLCYSTEINE (MUCOMYST®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Mucolytic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic - Medication for administration during patient transport.

INDICATIONS

1. Antidote to acetaminophen overdose
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1. Follow dosing ordered by sending physician.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Activated charcoal absorbs acetylcysteine if given PO for acetaminophen ingestion. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID (ASA, ASPIRIN)

CLASS OF DRUG

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anticoagulant
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

First Responder, EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Myocardial infarction patients, including suspected AMI patients.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [162-324 mg] orally for AMI (prefer chewable). 2. Pediatric: Should not to be given to pediatric patients.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. All patients with suspected AMI and without contraindications should receive aspirin. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL

CLASS OF DRUG

Gastrointestinal Adsorbent
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Activated charcoal is used in the treatment of certain cases of poisoning and over-doses in the alert patient. Most commonly given in the hospital after gastric lavage, but it is appropriate to give in the pre-hospital setting before lavage if a long transport time is anticipated.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Acids or alkali ingestion unless other drugs have ingested.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Contact MCEP before giving in acetaminophen OD's. Charcoal interferes with the function of N-Acetylcysteine, an antidote for acetaminophen. 2. Milk products-decreases effectiveness.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [1 gm/kg] PO. 2. Pediatric: Same as adult
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Patients must be capable of protecting their airway over time. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ADENOSINE (ADENOCARD®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Endogenous nucleoside; antidysrhythmic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT), including PSVT associated with Wolff- Parkinson-White syndrome.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity 2. High degree A-V block and sick sinus syndrome, unless a pacemaker is in place
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Carbamazepine - increased likelihood of progressive heart blocks. 2. Dipyridamole - potentiates the effect of adenosine (reduce the dosage). 3. Xanthines - reduces effectiveness (a larger dosage may be required). 4. Nicotine - may increase risk of tachycardia.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [6 mg] rapid IV/IO (1-2 seconds) followed with a 20 cc flush. May be repeated in 1-2 minutes, a second dose of [12 mg] rapid IV/IO followed by a 20 cc flush. Single doses of greater than 12 mg should not be given. May be given up to three times and always follow each bolus with a 20 cc flush. 2. Pediatric: Initial: [0.1 mg/kg] rapid IV/IO. Repeat in 2-3 minutes if no change. Second and third dose at [0.2 mg/kg] rapid IV/IO.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Use on patients with asthma, may induce bronchospasms. 2. Safety in pregnancy is unknown. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ADENOSINE (cont.)
3. Transient dysrhythmias, such as periods of asystole, are common and self-limiting, requiring no treatment unless they persist. 4. Side effects may include: facial flushing, headache, chest pain, dyspnea, lightheadedness, 5. Must be given in the IV port most proximal to the patient. 6. Be aware that ADENOSINE may not be effective in WPW with atrial fibrillation/flutter.
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ALBUTEROL (PROVENTIL®, VENTOLIN®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Sympathomimetic, Beta 2 selective adrenergic bronchodilator
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

First Responder, EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Albuterol is used to treat reversible airway obstruction caused by: a. Wheezing associated with asthma
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Beta adrenergic agents - potentiates the effects. 2. MAO inhibitors - may lead to hypertensive crisis. 3. Beta adrenergic blockers - decreases the effectiveness.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [2.5-5.0 mg] (up to 10 mg) in 3 ml of sterile NS given as nebulized inhalation therapy over 5-15 minutes, may be repeated as necessary. 2. Pediatric: [1.25-2.5 mg] (up to 5 mg) in 3 ml of sterile NS given as nebulized inhalation therapy over 5-15 minutes, may be repeated as necessary.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Most side effects are dosage related. 2. May decrease arterial oxygen tension acutely by causing bronchodilation in areas of lung with poor blood perfusion. 3. Care should be taken if patient is already using an inhalant due to possible development of severe paradoxical airway resistance with repeated excessive use. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
AMINOPHYLLINE

CLASS OF DRUG

Xanthine bronchodilator
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in Transport
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion unless otherwise specified.

INDICATIONS

1. Acute bronchospasm due to asthma 2. Anaphylaxis with bronchospasm 3. Wheezing in older persons, when pulmonary edema is a serious consideration 4. COPD with exacerbation
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. None, when indicated.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Smoking, phenytoin, and rifampin - decreases effectiveness. 2. Erythromycin, steroids, and beta-blockers - increases effectiveness - may lead to toxicity.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [5-7 mg/kg] IV infusion in 50 ml D5W or NS over 20 minutes [0.5 to 0.9 mg/kg per hour] maintenance dose. a. The lower dose is used for older patients, patients with liver disease, congestive heart failure, hypovolemia, and non-smokers. b. The higher ranges are used for children and smokers. 2. Pediatric: [5-6 mg/kg] IV infusion in 50 ml D5W or NS over 20 minutes not to exceed 12 mg/kg in a 24 hour period. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
AMINOPHYLLINE (cont.)
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Aminophylline monitoring is used only during inter-facility transports. 2. If infused too rapidly, may cause nausea, vomiting, seizures, ventricular fibrillation, and circulatory collapse. Monitor constantly. Do not exceed 25 mg/min. 3. Aminophylline may cause an initial drop in arterial oxygen concentration. Always have patient on oxygen before administration. 4. Nausea is an early sign of toxicity. Seizures are a late sign of toxicity. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
AMIODARONE (CORDARONE®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Antiarrhythmic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Pulseless VF/VT refractory to initial electrical therapy 2. Unstable VT refractory to lidocaine and/or electrical therapy
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. None, if the patient is in cardiac arrest with VF or VT. 2. High degree AV blocks or sinus node dysfunction with marked bradycardia unless a functional pacemaker is in place. 3. Congestive heart failure.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Enhanced bradycardia and hypotension when given with other beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.
ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. Pulseless VT/VF: 300 mg initial bolus IV/IO after epinephrine. May re-bolus with b. Sustained VT: 150 mg over 10 minutes. May re-bolus every 10 minutes as needed up to a maximum dose of 15 mg/kg/day. c. Maintenance infusion:[1.0 mg/min] over first 6 hours; [0.5 mg/min], 540 mg IV/IO over 18 hours. Maximum dose is 2.2g in 24 hours. (Continued next page) New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
AMIODARONE (cont.)
2.
a. Pulseless VT/VF [5mg/kg] IV/IO. May re-bolus every 3-5 minutes to a maximum of 15 mg/kg/24 hours [5 mg/kg] IV/IO over 20-60 minutes. May repeat twice, up to 15 mg/kg /24 hours; maximum single dose 300mg.
Note: Expert consultation advised prior to administration in pediatrics.

SPECIAL NOTES

1. Must be drawn up slowly to avoid 'bubbles" do not shake the ampule for the same reason. 2. Must be given concurrently with epinephrine in the pulseless patient. 3. Can not be administered via ET tube. 4. Hypotension and bradycardia can occur on patients with a pulse. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ANTIBIOTICS AND OTHER ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS

CLASS OF DRUG

Anti-infective
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
No infusion pump required.

INDICATIONS

(This is not an exhausted list, just a list of the most common antibiotics).
1. Aminoglycosides: Gram negative bacteria, bone and joint, soft tissue, Post-op, UTIs, and intra-abdominal infections. 2. Cephalosporin: Gram positive cocci and limited use against gram negative (E. coli). 3. Chloramphenicol: NOT TO BE USED IN TRIVIAL INFECTIONS. Serious infection caused by Salmonella, Rickettsia, and Chlamydia. Meningitis caused by hemophilus influenza, and Meningococcal meningitis. Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenza (when used with sulfonamides), and many others. Bactericidal against Gram negative bacteria such as Hemophilus influenza, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhea; Gram positive organisms such as Streptococcus. Has potent bactericidal activity against many gram negatives such as Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Hemophilus. Wide bacteriostatic spectrum against gram positives and gram negatives. Wide fungicidal activity against Candida, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum. (Continued next page) New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ANTIBIOTICS and other anti-infective agents (cont.)
9. Fluoroquinolones: Broad spectrum of activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria including pseudomonas (Ciprofloxacin=Cipro®) Rickettsia, Chlamydia, and Mycoplasma. Use to treat syphilis and gonorrhea for patients who are allergic to PCN.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

Contraindicated if any history of hypersensitivity to the particular class of antibiotics. Must use another class. 2. Aminoglycosides: Can cause renal or hearing impairment. 3. Cephalosporin: Use with caution with renal and hepatic impaired patients. 4. Chloramphenicol: Pregnancy and nursing mothers. In patients taking Seldane® and other antihistamine(s) may lead to Torsades de Pointes. Use with caution on patients with hay fever or other allergies. Use in pregnancy if benefits out weigh risks. Third trimester pregnancy, nursing mothers, and infants under two months. None when indicated. 10. Fluoroquinolones: Children and nursing mothers. 11. Antitubercular: In Isoniazid use - Liver disease or a history of alcoholism or injection drug use is an important concern.
ADMINISTRATION

Refer to manufacturer's information.
SPECIAL NOTES

Refer to manufacturer's information. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012

ANTI-EMETIC AGENTS
Promethazine (Phenergan®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Anti-emetic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Intermediate, EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

Treatment and prevention of nausea and vomiting.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines 3. CNS depression due to drugs 4. Children < 2yrs old, or critically ill or dehydrated.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. CNS depressants -may increase, prolong or intensify the sedative action. 2. Anticholinergics - use caution. 3. MAO inhibitors - use caution.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adults: [6.25 - 25 mg] PO, IM, IV/IO, or Rectal every 4 hours as needed. 2. Children > 2yrs [0.25-0.5 mg/kg] PO, IM or Rectal every 4 hours as needed. (Use should be limited to prolonged vomiting of known etiology in children) SPECIAL NOTES

1. Use cautiously in patients with hypertension, epilepsy, sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, impairment of the liver, and pregnancy. 2. May caused marked drowsiness. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ANTI-EMETIC AGENTS (cont)
Ondansetron (Zofran®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Anti-emetic , Selective serotonin blocking agent
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Intermediate, EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

Treatment and prevention of nausea and vomiting.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Known sensitivity to Ondasetron or related agents.
DRUG INTERACTION


ADMINISTRATION

[4mg] IV/IO slow IVP, IM. May repeat in 30 minutes. *[8mg] Oral Dissolving Tablets (ODT). Place ODT in patient's mouth and instruct the patient to allow it to dissolve. The tablet dissolves in seconds and any residue may then be swallowed. 2. Pediatric: [0.1 mg/kg] IV/IO slow IVP, IM. *[4mg] ODT (12-17 years of age) Providers may not administer a second dose of Zofran. ODT, or exceed the adult or pediatric doses listed above. Lower dosing in the elderly is not necessary.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Do not use in patients with known prolonged QT syndrome. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ATROPINE SULFATE

CLASS OF DRUG

Anticholinergic (parasympatholytic)
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Basic¹, EMT-Intermediate¹ and EMT-Paramedic
¹
IM injection for treatment of chemical and/or nerve agent exposure, via auto injector only
INDICATIONS

1. Symptomatic sinus bradycardia or A-V Blocks 2. Anticholinesterase poisonings - organophosphate, mushrooms (certain types), and nerve 3. Adjunct in the treatment of bronchial asthma
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. None, when indicated.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants - additive affect.
ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. Adult: [0.5 mg] IV/IO, every 3-5 minutes: (0.04 mg/kg) for bradycardia. b. Pediatric: [0.02 mg/kg] IV/IO for 1 dose. Minimum of 0.1 mg and maximum of 0.5 mg. [0.03 mg/kg] ET. Anticholinesterase a. Adult: 2.0 mg IV, ET, or IO repeated until symptoms abate. b. Pediatric: [0.05 mg/kg] IV, ET, or IO, repeated until symptoms abate. (Continued next page) New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
ATROPINE SULFATE (cont.)
3. Mushroom Poisoning:
a. Adult: 2 mg IV, repeated to doses sufficient enough to control parasympathomimetic
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Available evidence suggests that the routine use of Atropine during asystole is unlikely to have a therapeutic benefit. Atropine is no longer recommended for use in asystole or PEA. 2. May be not be effective with high degree AV block (2nd degree type II, 3rd degree) - do not delay pacing. 3. Bradycardia in the setting of an acute MI is common and probably beneficial. Don't treat the rate unless there are signs of poor perfusion (i.e. low blood pressure, mental confusion). Chest pain could be due to an AMI or to poor perfusion caused by the bradycardia itself. 4. Atropine increases the workload and myocardial 02 consumption of heart. Beware of patients who have an ischemic myocardium. Administer supplemental oxygen. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
BETA BLOCKING AGENTS

CLASS OF DRUG

Beta-adrenergic blocker
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1. Used alone or in combination with other agents in the management of hypertension. 2. Management of angina pectoris. 3. Prevention of myocardial infarction.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Uncompensated congestive heart failure 4. Bradycardia or heart block
DRUG INTERACTION

1. General anesthesia, IV Phenytoin, and Verapamil may cause additive myocardial 2. May decrease the beta effects of Dopamine or Dobutamine. 3. Additive bradycardia may occur with digitalis glycosides. 4. Additive hypotension may occur with other antihypertensives, alcohol or nitrates. 5. May alter effectiveness of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. 6. May decrease effectiveness of beta-adrenergic bronchodilators.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Selected drug, administration, and drug dosage must be determined by Medical Direction prior to transport.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Use cautiously within 14 days of MAO inhibitor therapy. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
BENZODIAZEPINES
DIAZEPAM - VALIUM®, MIDAZOLAM -VERSED®, - LORAZEPAM - ATIVAN®

CLASS OF DRUG

Anticonvulsant, anti-anxiety, sedative, muscle relaxant
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic
INDICATIONS

1. Control of seizures. 2. Sedation for cardioversion. 3. Used in conjunction with paralytics to facilitate intubation as part of a rapid sequence intubation(RSI) protocol. With special skills approval only.
4. Reduction of anxiety. 5. Skeletal muscle relaxant.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive effect to other CNS depressants such as alcohol, narcotics, etc
ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. Diazepam (Valium®): [2-20 mg] IV/IO, slow with IV running open b. Lorazepam (Ativan®): [2 - 4 mg] (0.05 mg/kg) IV/IO, slow with IV running open c. Midazolam (Versed®): [1-5 mg] IVP, slow (over 2 minutes) with IV running open
Note: HIGHER DOSES MAY BE REQUIRED
(Continued next page) New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
BENZODIAZEPINES (cont.)
2.
a. Diazepam Valium®: [0.05 – 0.1 mg/kg] IV/IO i. Rectal dosage [0.5 mg/kg] may be warranted in seizure patients if no venous access is available. Onset of action by this route may be delayed. ii Apnea in children after diazepam administration may occur. b. Lorazepam: [0.05-0.1 mg/kg to a maximum 4 mg]. Onset 2-3 minutes. Duration 12-24 c. Midazolam (Versed®): [0.05 – 0.1 mg/kg] IV/IO
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Should not be mixed with other agents, or diluted with intravenous solutions. Give through the proximal end of IV tubing, then flush well. 2. Most likely to produce respiratory depression in patients who have taken other depressant drugs, especially alcohol and barbiturates. 3. It can cause local venous irritation. Use relatively large veins. 4. Versed has short half- life. Additional doses may be necessary. 5. Utilization of pharmacological agents for the primary purpose of sedation, induction, or muscle relaxation to facilitate placement of an advanced airway requires Medical Direction Committee Special Skills approval. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
BLOOD (PACKED RED CELLS, FRESH PLASMA, WHOLE BLOOD)

CLASS OF DRUG

Naturally occurring colloid
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
No pump required.

INDICATIONS

1. To maintain blood volume or replenish blood loss.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Non-compatible blood
ADMINISTRATION

1. [10 ml/kg] or based on H/H
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Double check blood ID # and patient ID. 2. Save bags after administration. 3. Save all bags and tubing if there is a reaction, after stopping transfusion. 4. Close monitoring of body temperature is mandatory during infusion. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
Diltiazem HCL (Cardizem ®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Calcium Channel Blocker; Coronary Vasodilator, Antidysrhythmic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.

INDICATIONS

1. Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter 2. Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia 3. Angina due to coronary artery spasm
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Sick sinus syndrome except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker. 2. Patients with second- or third degree AV block except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker. 3. Patients with severe hypotension or cardiogenic shock. 4. Patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug. 5. Intravenous diltiazem and intravenous beta-blockers should not be administered together or in close proximity (within a few hours). 6. Patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter associated with an accessory bypass tract such as in WPW syndrome or short PR syndrome. 7. Patients with ventricular tachycardia.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive effects in prolonging AV conduction when using beta-blockers or digitalis concomitantly with diltiazem HCl. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
DILTIAZEM HCL (cont.)
ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. [0.25 mg/kg] as a bolus administered over 2 minutes (20 mg is a reasonable dose for the average patient). If response is inadequate, a second dose may be administered after 15 minutes. The second bolus dose of diltiazem HCl injectable should be [0.35 mg/kg] actual body weight administered over 2 minutes. Note: A reasonable dose for the average patient is 25 mg.
b. For continued reduction of the heart rate (up to 24 hours) in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, an intravenous infusion of diltiazem HCl injectable may be administered. Immediately following bolus administration of [20 mg] (0.25 mg/kg) or [25 mg] (0.35 mg/kg) diltiazem HCl injectable and reduction of heart rate, begin an intravenous infusion of diltiazem HCl injectable. The recommended initial infusion rate of diltiazem HCl injectable is [10 mg/h]. Some patients may maintain response to an initial rate of 5 mg/h. The infusion rate may be increased in 5 mg/h increments up to 15 mg/h as needed, if further reduction in heart rate is required. The infusion may be maintained for up to 24 hours. 2. Pediatric: Not usually used.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. When given to a conscious patient, they will almost always produce nausea, vomiting and New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
CALCIUM PREPARATIONS
CALCIUM GLUCONATE, CALCIUM CHLORIDE

CLASS OF DRUG

Electrolyte
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Used as antidote for calcium channel blocker overdoses 2. Magnesium sulfate overdoses 3. Black Widow spider bite
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
2. Absence of indications
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Increase toxicity of cardiac glycoside. 2. Calcium should be given in a dedicated IV line. 3. DO NOT mix with Sodium Bicarbonate.
ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. Adult: [5 - 10 ml] SLOW IVP (Do Not Exceed 2 ml/minute) repeat if necessary after b. Pediatric: [0.6 ml/kg] SLOW IVP of 10% solution. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
CALCIUM PREPARATION (cont.)
2.
[5-10ml] by SLOW IVP. Repeat every 10 minutes as needed (1 ml of 10% = 100 mg of calcium chloride). b. Pediatric: [0.2 ml/kg] (10% solution) by SLOW IVP. Repeat once in 10 minutes if NOTE: RAPID INJECTION CAN CAUSE HYPOTENSION, BRADYCARDIA AND DEATH.

SPECIAL NOTES

1. It is best to warm the drug to body temperature prior to administration. 2. If heart is beating, rapid administration of calcium salts can produce bradycardia and/or 3. May increase cardiac irritability, i.e., PVC's, particularly in the presence of digitalis. 4. Local infiltration will cause tissue necrosis. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
Dexamethasone (Decadron®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Anti-Inflammatory; immunosuppressant
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Brain injury associated with trauma – CONTACT MEDICAL CONTROL
2. Reactive airway disease with no response to Albuterol and other treatments
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1 Absolute – Hypersensitivity 2. Relative – Hypothyroidism; thromboembolic disorders; active infection
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1. Adults – 4-10 mg PO/IV/IM 2. Pediatrics – 0.6 mg/kg (range 0.15-1.0 mg/kg) PO/IV/IM
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Compatible in D5W/NS New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
Methylprednisolone (Solu-Medrol®)

CLASS OF DRUG
Anti-Inflammatory; immunosuppressant
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Intermediate¹ and EMT-Paramedic
¹ For reactive airway disease/acute asthma exacerbation.

INDICATIONS

1. Reactive airway disease with no response to Albuterol and other treatments
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Absolute – Hypersensitivity 2. Relative – Immunocompromised state; serious infections; psychotic disorders
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1. Adults – 125-250 mg IV q 6 hours 2. Pediatrics – 1-2 mg/kg IV q 6 hours
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Adverse effects – hyperglycemia; psychosis. 2. High dose methylprednisolone is no longer given routinely for spinal cord injury but may occasionally be ordered by a neurosurgeon. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
Prednisone

CLASS OF DRUG

Synthetic corticosteroid
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

2. Systemic fungal infections
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive hypokalemia with thiazides and loop diuretics. 2. May increase requirements for insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetics. 3. Phenytion, phenobarbital and rifampin may decrease effectiveness.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [1 mg/kg to a max dose of 60 mg] PO
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Prednisone suppresses the immune system. 2. Prednisone causes retention of sodium and fluids. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
CROTALIDAE POLYVALENT IMMUNE FAB (OVINE) CROFAB
CLASS OF DRUG
Anti-venin

SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
INDICATIONS

To manage patients with minimal or moderate North American cortalid (eg, rattlesnakes,
copperheads, cottonmouths/water moccasins) envenomation.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

History of papaya or papain allergy
DRUG INTERACTION

There are several drugs with known moderate drug interactions. Medical control should be
consulted for transport concerns.
ADMINISTRATION

CroFab may be monitored during inter-facility transport provided the physician initiated CroFab
infusion has been running for a minimum of 30 minutes prior to the paramedic initiating the
transfer and assuming responsibility for patient care.
SPECIAL NOTES

Risk of anaphylactic reaction (esp. if allergic to sheep protein). Monitor for signs/symptoms of
allergic reaction; discontinue if it occurs. Have epinephrine, antihistamine and/or albuterol
available.
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
DEXTROSE (ORAL/IV/IO – 10%, 25% AND 50%)

CLASS OF DRUG

Carbohydrate, nutrient, short acting osmotic diuretic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
First Responder¹, EMT-Basic¹, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic
¹ Oral Glucose Preparations only

INDICATIONS

1.
2. Unconsciousness of unknown origin (associated with decreased BGL) of: b. New onset of seizures c. Known diabetic actively seizing 4. Refractory medical cardiac arrest (especially in neonates)
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
2. Delirium tremens with dehydration 3. Administration through the same infusion set as blood. 4. Unconscious (for oral dextrose)
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1. Oral: [12-25 gm] of paste, may be spread with a tongue depressor. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
DEXTROSE (cont.)
2.
[12.5 to 25 gm] slow IV/IO push into patent line, if patient is unable to protect airway or tolerate oral fluids. May be repeated as needed. Be prepared to restrain. May be given rectally (paramedic only). b. Pediatric: Dilute 1:1 with sterile saline to make 25% solution (0.25 mg/ml) Give [0.5 - 1.0 g/kg] slow IV push. May be given rectally (paramedic only). c. Neonates: Use a 10% Dextrose solution (dilute 50ml D50 in 500ml bag of D5W) at [0.2
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Attempts at documenting hypoglycemia via automatic glucometry should be made before 2. Must insure patent IV line, and recheck patency during administration. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
DIPHENHYDRAMINE HCL (BENADRYL®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Antihistamine, H1 blocker
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1.
3. Dystonic reaction to phenothiazines 4. Motion sickness (Paramedic only) 5. Anti-emetic (Paramedic only)
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.

DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive CNS depression with alcohol, sedatives, narcotics
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adults: [12.5-50 mg], slow IV/IO at a rate of 1ml/min or deep IM injection 2. Pediatric: [1 mg/kg], slow IV/IO; deep IM injection with a maximum dose of 50 mg
SPECIAL NOTES

1. May have an immediate effect in dystonic reactions. 2. No early benefit in allergic reactions. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
DOBUTAMINE (DOBUTREX®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Sympathomimetic, beta agonist
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.

INDICATIONS

1. Primary indication is cardiogenic shock, with pulmonary edema.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. None when indicated. Use cautiously in AMI and atrial fibrillation.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Synergistic effect with sodium nitroprusside 2. Reduced effects with Beta-adrenergic blocker 3. Hypertensive crisis with tricyclic antidepressants
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [2 - 20 mcg/kg/min] (mix 1 ampule (250 mg) in 250 ml of D5W - resulting in a concentration of 1mg/ml = 1000 mcg/ml) 2. Pediatric: [1.0 mcg/kg per minute] (6 x body weight (kg) equals milligrams to add to D5W to create a total volume of 100ml). Infuse at 1mL/h.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Dobutamine should be titrated to effect. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
DOPAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE (DOPASTAT®, INTROPIN®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Potent sympathomimetic, dopaminergic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Primary indication is cardiogenic shock. 2. May be useful for other forms of shock. 3. May be useful, at low doses, in renal failure. 4. Used for refractory bradycardia unresponsive to atropine, and when pacing is unavailable.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Tachydysrhythmias Pheochromocytoma
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Hypotension and/or bradycardia with phenytoin 2. Reduced effects with Beta-adrenergic blocker
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: IV infusion ONLY – Standard mix 400 mg in 250 ml D5W or NS to produce a concentration of 1600 mcg/ml. Infusion rates [2.0-20.0 mcg/kg/min] titrated to desired effect. (Other concentrations are used, so know what you are using). Use microdrip chamber or an infusion pump. 2. Pediatric: [1.0 mcg/kg per minute] (6 x body weight (kg) equals milligrams to add to D5W to create a total volume of 100ml). Infuse at 1mL/h.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Higher doses can cause central vasoconstriction limiting renal blood flow. 2. Doses less than 5mcg/kg can lower B/P. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
EPINEPHRINE (ADRENALINE®) (1:1,000 AND 1:10,000 SOLUTIONS)

CLASS OF DRUG

Sympathomimetic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
First Responder¹, EMT-Basic¹, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic
¹ 1: 1,000 solution only, by auto injection device, pre-measured syringe or 0.3 ml TB syringe
for anaphylaxis or status asthmaticus refractory to other treatments under on-line medical
control or written medical protocols.


INDICATIONS

1.
2. Bronchospasms unresponsive to albuterol 5. Symptomatic bradycardia after other treatments
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. None when indicated.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Reduced effects with Beta-adrenergic blocker
ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. Adult: [1 mg](1:10,000) every 3 - 5 minutes IV/IO preferred, may be given ET (2 - 2 1/2 times IV dose) b. Pediatric: IV/IO 0.01 mg/kg (1:10,000) every 3-5 minutes. ET 0.1 mg/kg (1:1000) (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
EPINEPHRINE (cont.)
2.
a. Adult: [1 mg/ 1:1,000] in 250 cc NS or D5W administered at 2 - 10 mcg/min b. Pediatric: [0.01 mcg/kg] IV/IO every 3-5 minutes or; [0.1-0.2 mcg/kg/minute] (0.6 x body weight (kg) equals milligrams to add to D5W to create a total volume of 100 m). Infuse at 1mL/h a. Adult: [0.3 mg] (1:1,000) SQ or IM using a 0.3 ml syringe or pre-filled device. [0.1 mg] (1:10,000) IV/IO over 5 minutes. Infusion of [1-4 mcg/min]. b. Pediatric: [0.01 mg/kg (1:1000)], SQ or IM To a maximum dose of 0.3 mg/dose
SPECIAL NOTES

1. When used for allergic reactions, increased cardiac workload can precipitate angina and/or AMI in susceptible individuals. 2. Due to peripheral vasoconstriction, it should be used with caution on patients with peripheral vascular insufficiency. 3. Consider pulmonary edema or pulmonary embolus in wheezing patients with a history of 4. EMT-Intermediates and EMT-Paramedics are not required to use a pre-filled device or 0.3 New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
EPOPROSTENOL SODUIM (FLOLAN®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Prostaglandin (vasodilator)
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic - Administration of the patient's own medication.

INDICATIONS

1. Management of primary pulmonary hypertension in patients currently being treated with continuous Flolan® infusion.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Patients with a known hypersensitivity. 2. Patients with CHF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. 3. Patients who develop pulmonary edema secondary to Flolan® use.
DRUG INTERACTION

1.
Flolan® is incompatible with all other medications and must be administered through a designated IV line. 2. Added hypotension may occur with antihypertensive, diuretics or other vasodilators.
ADMINISTRATION

1.
Flolan® must be reconstituted from powder form with a specific diluent. 2. Specific dosing must be obtained from the patient.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Most patients treated with Flolan® utilize an ambulatory infusion pump. 2. In the event the patient is found unconscious the patient should be assessed for continuous infusion through a central line. If not, a designated peripheral line should be initiated and infusion continued. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
FUROSEMIDE (LASIX®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Potent loop diuretic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1.
2. Hypertensive emergencies (AMI, APE, or encephalopathy)
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.

DRUG INTERACTION

1. Severe hypotension with antihypertensives and nitrates
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: For patients not currently taking furosemide, [20 - 40 mg] slow IVP or [0.5 - 1.0 mg/kg] slow IV/IO. If the patient is currently taking furosemide, double their current dose and administer IV/IO. You may repeat one dose in 2 hours. 2. Pediatric: [1.0 mg/kg] slow IVP. It may be repeated in 6 - 8 hours.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. It can lead to profound diuresis with resultant shock and electrolyte depletion (particularly K+). Therefore, do not use in hypovolemic states and monitor closely, particularly after IV administration. 2. It should be used cautiously in children or pregnant women. 3. If patient unconscious, must have Foley catheter in place and unobstructed urine outflow. Advise the physician if urine is bloody. Trauma to kidneys and urinary system makes the use of furosemide more hazardous. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
GLUCAGON

CLASS OF DRUG

Hormone- hyperglycemic agent
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Intermediate, EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Documented symptomatic hypoglycemia (BGL less than 60 mg/dl) when an IV/IO cannot 2. Beta blocker overdose with serious signs and symptoms. 3. Anaphylaxis refractory to epinephrine, or in patients who have history of serious coronary arterial disease and cannot receive epinephrine.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Patients who will be unable to receive supplemental glucose, orally, IV or rectally after administration of glucagon. 2. Hypersensitivity to pork and/or beef. 3. Use with caution on patients with pheochromocytoma.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Hyperglycemic effects intensified and prolong by epinephrine. 2. Will precipitate when mix with calcium preparation.
ADMINISTRATION

Note: 1 mg = 1 unit

1.
a. Adult: [0.5 - 1 mg] IM, may repeat in 10 - 20 minutes if no response. b. Pediatric: [0.1 mg/kg] IM may repeat in 10 - 20 minutes if no response. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
GLUCAGON (cont.)
2. Beta Blocker Overdose a. Adult: [3 to 10 mg] IV/IO over 1 minute. It. may be followed by an infusion of 2 - 5 b. Pediatric: [0.1 mg/kg] IV/IO over 1 minute, repeat in 5 minutes, if needed. a. Adult: [1 to 2 mg] slow IV/IO, may be repeated every 5 to 10 minutes. b. Pediatric: [0.1 mg/kg up to 1 mg]. IV/IO, may be repeated every 5 to 10 minutes. Rarely indicated.
SPECIAL NOTES

1.
The patient must be given supplemental glucose ASAP; PO, IV, or Rectal. If this is
not possible, the patient may be better off without glucagon. Glucagon will release all of
the patient's available glycogen. If the patient is not provided with glucose, the subsequent
hypoglycemia will be greater than before glucagon.
2. Glucagon is supplied in a powder and must be reconstituted with sterile water or saline, 1 ml of normal saline for each 1 mg of powder and shaken well. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
GLYCOPROTEIN INHIBITORS

AGGRASTAT -TIROFIBAN®, INTEGRILIN - EPIFIBATIDE®

CLASS OF DRUG

Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa Inhibitor

SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1. In combination with heparin, it is indicated for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome, including patients who are to be managed medically and in patients that are undergoing PTCA or atherectomy.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Known hypersensitivity to any component of the product. 2. Active internal bleeding or a history of bleeding diathesis within the previous 30 days. 3. A history of intracranial hemorrhage, intracranial neoplasm, arteriovenous malformation, 4. A history of thrombocytopenia following prior exposure to a Glycoprotein 5. A history of stroke within 30 days or any history of hemorrhagic stroke. 6. Major surgical procedure or severe physical trauma within the previous month. 7. History, symptoms, or findings suggestive of aortic dissection. 8. Severe hypertension (systolic blood pressure >180 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure 9. Concomitant use of another parenteral GP IIb IIIa inhibitor. 10. Acute pericarditis. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
GLYCOPROTEIN INHIBITORS (cont.)

DRUG INTERACTION

1. In combination with heparin and aspirin, it has been associated with an increase in bleeding, compared to heparin and aspirin alone.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Requires an infusion pump. AGGRASTAT should be administered intravenously, at an initial rate of [0.4 mg/kg/min]
for 30 minutes and then continued at [0.1 mg/kg/min]. For patients with severe renal
insufficiency (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min), they should receive half the usual rate of
infusion.

SPECIAL NOTES

1. Percutaneous (coronary intervention care of the femoral artery access site) therapy with Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa Inhibitors is associated with an increase in bleeding rates, particularly at the site of arterial access for femoral sheath placements. 2. Minimize vascular and other trauma. Other arterial and venous punctures, intramuscular injections, and the use of urinary catheters, nasotracheal intubation and nasogastric tubes should be minimized. When obtaining intravenous access, non-compressible sites (e.g., subclavian or jugular veins) should be avoided. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
H2 ANTAGONISTS
Cimetidine® Famotidine® Nizatidine® Ranitidine®
CLASS OF DRUG

H2 Antagonist
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS
1. Treatment of duodenal or gastric ulcers 2. Reduce risk of upper GI bleeding in critically ill patients 3 Uncomplicated GERD
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

300 mg IV q. 6-8 hours 20 mg IV q. 12 hours 75 mg PO q. 12 hours 50 mg IV q. 6-8 hours
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Confusion and dizziness may occur in elderly patients. 2. Use with caution in patients with renal and hepatic impairment. 3. Blood dyscrasias including thrombocytopenia. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
HEPARIN

CLASS OF DRUG

Anticoagulant
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1. Adjunct to treatment for coronary occlusion 2. Thrombosis in deep vein phlebitis 4. Atrial fibrillation to prevent emboli 5. Low dose to maintain IV patency 6. Disseminated Intra-vascular Coagulation (DIC)
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Uncontrolled bleeding, except in DIC thrombocytopenia 3. Hypersensitivity to heparin, and to pork and/or beef 4. Severe hepatic disease with hypoprothrombinemia
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Increased risk of bleeding when used with aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, dipyridamole, dextran, quinidine, cefamandole, cefmetazole, cefoperazone, cefotetan, thrombolytics, and warfarin.
ADMINISTRATION:

1. Infusion pump required. 2. Follow physician's orders for transport. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
HEPARIN (cont.)
SPECIAL NOTES

1. It must be administered by an infusion pump. 2. Monitor all puncture sites (catheter, incision, etc) for bleeding. 3. Avoid new puncture sites, incisions or injections. 4. Have all dosages double-checked by another Paramedic or RN. 5. Protamine Sulfate must be carried on long transports with patients receiving heparin. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
HYDROXOCOBALAMIN

CLASS OF DRUG

Antidote
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic
INDICATIONS

1. Treatment of cyanide poisoning
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Rare anaphylactic reactions
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Used in combination with sodium thiosulfates to treat methemoglobinemia. No more effective than sodium nitrite.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [5 grams] IV/IO over 30 minutes 2. Pediatrics (<70kg): [70 mg/kg] IV/IO
SPECIAL NOTES

1.
2. Reddish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
INSULIN

CLASS OF DRUG

Hormone (natural or synthetic)

SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Beta-adrenergic blocker may block signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. 2. Increase insulin requirements: alcohol, glucocorticoids, and thyroid preparations 3. Decreased insulin requirements: anabolic steroids, tricyclic antidepressants, and MAO
ADMINISTRATION
1. Dosages vary dependent on the type of insulin, BGL, physical demands and food intake of
FOLLOW PHYSICIAN'S ORDERS FOR TRANSPORT.
2. Insulin is sometimes added to TPN, dosage is usually 1- 5 u/liter of Regular insulin, or dosage dependent on blood sugar levels and orders of the transferring physician.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. It must be monitored by infusion pump. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
IPRATROPRIUM (ATROVENT®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Anticholinergic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

First Responder, EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1.
2. Reversible bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Hypersensitivity to the drug, especially with Atropine products, soy and peanuts 2. Acute treatment of bronchospasm where rapid response is required.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Oxivent and Spiriva
ADMINISTRATION

1. Should be administered in conjunction with beta agonist therapy. Adult: [1 – 2 inhalations] via metered dose inhaler [250 – 500mcg (.25 - .5 mg)] via nebulization
SPECIAL NOTES

1. The vital signs must be monitored during therapy. 2. Caution should be used when administering it to elderly patients and those with cardiovascular disease or hypertension. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
LEVALBUTEROL (XOPENEX®)
CLASS OF DRUG

Isomer, Beta 2 Agonist

SCOPE OF PRACTICE

First Responder, EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Xopenex is used to treat reversible airway obstruction caused by: Wheezing associated with asthma
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Hypersensitivity to the drug class. 2. MAO inhibitor use w/in 14 days. 3. Hypersensitivity to peanuts.
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. Adult: [1.25 mg] in 3 ml of sterile NS given as inhalation therapy over 5-15 minutes, may be repeated as necessary. b. Pediatric: [0.63-1.25 mg] in 3 ml of sterile NS given as inhalation therapy over 5-15 minutes, may be repeated as necessary.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Drug of choice for patients that you are concerned with having an increased myocardial oxygen demand. However this drug can still cause an increase in heart rate and BP. 2. It is not recommended that this drug be mixed with Atrovent. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE (XYLOCAINE®)

CLASS OF DRUG:

Antidysrhythmic, local anesthetic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Intermediate¹, EMT-Paramedic
¹Lidocaine 2% for administration into the intraosseous space on pain responsive patients prior to receiving intraosseous fluids or medications.
INDICATIONS

1. Symptomatic ventricular dysrhythmias 2. Sustained ventricular tachycardia 3. Ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia 4. Local anesthetic for nasal intubation
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity 2. High AV Blocks
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive cardiac depression with phenytoin, quinidine, procainamide, and propranolol
ADMINISTRATION

1. IV/IO Bolus technique i. Ventricular tachycardia: [1 -1.5 mg/kg] IV/IO. If VT persists, [0.5-0.75 mg/kg] every 3 to 5 minutes, up to 3.0 mg/kg total. Start lidocaine infusion if VT converts (see below). (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE (cont.)
ii Ventricular fibrillation and pulseless VT: [1-1.5 mg/kg] IV/IO (2-2 1/2 times normal dose, ET) followed by defibrillation. If VF or VT persists - repeat [0.5-0.75mg/kg] (up to 3.0 mg/kg total) followed by defibrillation. Start lidocaine infusion if VF converts (see below). b. Pediatric: [1 mg/kg] IV/IO 2. IV Drip technique i. Mix 1gm of lidocaine in 250 ml D5W or NS for a concentration of 4 mg/ml. a). If up to 2 mg/kg has been administered Set drip at 2 mg/min b). If 2 mg/kg has been administered Set drip at 3 mg/min c). If 3 mg/kg has been administered Set drip at 4 mg/min ii A second bolus after 10 minutes may be given per physician order. i. Mix 120 mg of lidocaine in 100 ml D5W a). Set drip at 20-50 µg/kg per min. (1-2.5 cc/kg/hr at above dilution)
3. ET 2 - 2 /12 times the bolus dose
SPECIAL NOTES

1. For patients over 70 years of age, or with hepatic or renal failure, the loading dose remains the same, but maintenance infusion is run at half the normal rate. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
MAGNESIUM SULFATE

CLASS OF DRUG

CNS depressant; antidysrhythmic; electrolyte; smooth muscle relaxant
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Initial treatment of seizures associated with eclampsia, and seizures, refractory to benzodiazepines. 2. Second-line antidysrhythmic in the treatment of ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia, refractory to lidocaine. 3. First-line antidysrhythmic in the treatment of Torsades de Pointes. 4. To control contractions in pre-term labor. 5. Acute asthma refractory to other more conventional treatment, or when the effects of beta- adrenergic medications contraindicate their use.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.

DRUG INTERACTION

1. Potentiates neuromuscular blocking agents
ADMINISTRATION

1. Ventricular ectopy refractory to lidocaine: [2 gm] slow IVP. 2. Pulseless ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia refractory to lidocaine and bretylium: [2 gm] IVP followed by defibrillation at 360 to 400 joules. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
MAGNESIUM SULFATE (cont.)
3. Ventricular tachycardia, or wide complex tachycardia, unresponsive to lidocaine: [2 gm] 4. To control contractions in pre-term labor: [2 gm] slow IVP or IO, followed by maintenance infusion of 1 - 2 gm per hour. 5. Treatment of pre-eclampsia and/or seizures associated with eclampsia: [2 - 4 gm] slow IVP or IO followed by maintenance infusion of 1- 2 gm per hour. 6. Acute asthma: [1 - 2 gm] slow IVP or IO, or IV/IO infusion over 10 minutes. 7. Torsades de Pointes: [1 - 2 gm] diluted in 10ml of D5W IV/IO push.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Monitor deep tendon reflexes often, especially those patients receiving a maintenance 2. Calcium gluconate will reverse the toxic effects of magnesium sulfate. 3. Monitor for hypotension. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
MANNITOL (OSMITROL®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Osmotic diuretic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1.
2. Increased intra-cranial pressure
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity Hypovolemia/dehydration 4. Active intra-cranial bleeding
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1. Follow Physician's orders
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Must have Foley in place. 2. Should be run through an in-line filter. 3. Incompatible with most other drugs. 4. May crystallize at low temperature. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NALOXONE (NARCAN®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Narcotic antagonist
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Reversal of narcotic effects, particularly respiratory depression, due to narcotic drugs, whether ingested, injected, or administered in the course of treatment. Narcotic drugs include agents such as morphine, Demerol®, heroin, Dilaudid®, Percodan®, codeine, Lomotil®, propoxyphene (Darvon®), pentazocine (Talwin®). 2. For unconsciousness of unknown etiology to rule out (or reverse) narcotic depression of
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity 2. Absences of indication
DRUG INTERACTION

1. May induce narcotic withdrawal
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [0.4 mg – 2.0 mg] IV/IO (2.0 mg total dose) - [0.4 – 2.0 mg] if IM, SQ, ET Titrate to respiratory effort/rate. May be repeated at 2 - 3 minutes, if needed. [2mg (1mg per naris)] IN. 2. Pediatric: [0.1 mg/kg]< 5 yrs or ≤ 20 kg, [2 mg] ≥5 yr or > 20kg IV, ET, IM, SQ, IO, May be repeated at 0.1 mg/kg if no response. 3. Neonate: [0.1 mg/kg] slow IVP, ET, IM, SQ, IO; repeat in 2-3 minutes, if needed (mix 1 ml of naloxone, 0.4 mg in 9 ml of D5W, which gives 0.04 mg/ml).
Note: Much higher doses should be given to patients with suspected propoxyphene
(Darvon®), pentazocine (Talwin®), and fentanyl overdoses.

SPECIAL NOTES

1. The patient may quickly become conscious and combative. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NARCOTIC ANALGESICS
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)

CLASS OF DRUG

Opiate analgesic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Intermediate¹ and EMT-Paramedic
¹ With approval of online medical control
INDICATIONS

1. Analgesia for patients with moderate to severe pain 2. Treatment of acute pulmonary edema (Paramedic only) 3. Sedation for procedures (Paramedic only)
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity. 2. Hypotension is a relative contraindication to use. Remember that some people will be hypotensive in response to pain itself. Be cautious. 3. Head or abdominal injuries also contraindicated, since the analgesic effect removes the clinical signs that need to be watched. 4. Do not use in persons with respiratory difficulties because their respiratory drive might be depressed, except in pulmonary edema. 5. In the presence of major blood loss, the body's compensatory mechanisms may be suppressed by the use of morphine, and the hypotensive effect will become very prominent. Do not use it in these circumstances.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive effects with other CNS depressants. 2. MAO inhibitors can cause unpredictable and severe reactions reduce dose to 25% of a
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [0.5-1.0 mg] slow IV/IO push until desired effect achieved. 2. Pediatrics: not recommended. SPECIAL NOTES

1. Take vital signs before and 2 minutes after administration. 2. IV/IO only (unless you cannot start an IV/IO and/or are directly ordered to administer IM). 3. Often causes vomiting; administer slowly. 4. On-line medical control should be contacted before administering to the non-cardiac New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NARCOTIC ANALGESICS (cont.)
Fentanyl (Sublimaze®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Opiate

SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Intermediate¹ and EMT-Paramedic
¹ With approval of online medical control
INDICATIONS

1. Analgesia for patients with moderate to severe pain 2. Short term sedation (Paramedic only) 3. Anesthesia (Paramedic only)
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity/known 2. Patients particularly sensitive to respiratory depression
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Benzodiazepines Diazepam - increased risk of CV depression. 2. Sedatives/Hypnotics, other opioids, CNS depressants and alcohol - increased risk of 3. Avoid use in patients who have received MAO inhibitors within the previous 14 days - may produce unpredictable, potentially fatal reactions.
ADMINISTRATION

[25-50 mcg] IV/IO 2. Pediatric: 2-12 yrs of age – [0.5 - 1 mcg/kg] IV/IO
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Use cautiously in geriatric or debilitated patient (use lower doses), diabetics, patients with pulmonary or hepatic disease, head trauma, increased ICP, undiagnosed abdominal pain and cardiac disease. 2. Abdominal distension, muscle rigidity, and/or urinary retention may be seen at high doses. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NARCOTIC ANALGESICS (cont.)
Meperidine (Demerol®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Opiate analgesic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Moderate to severe pain 2. Sedation for procedures
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity 2. Recent MAO inhibitor use 3. Use cautiously in: b. Severe hepatic, renal, and pulmonary disease d. Elderly or debilitated patients
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Fatal reactions with MAO inhibitors and procarbazine (seizures) 2. Additive effects with other CNS depressants
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [25-50 mg] IV/IO, [50-100 mg] IM 2. Pediatric: Not recommended New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NARCOTIC ANALGESICS (cont.)
Note: For IV/IO use diluted in NS to 10 mg/ml, give very slow IV/IO to reduce nausea and
vomiting

SPECIAL NOTES

1. Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effect; however hypotension and respiratory depression may occur. 2. On-line medical control should be contacted before administering to the non-cardiac New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NARCOTIC ANALGESICS (cont.)
Morphine Sulfate

CLASS OF DRUG

Opiate analgesic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Intermediate¹ and EMT-Paramedic
¹ With approval of online medical control
INDICATIONS

1. Analgesia for patients with moderate to severe pain 2. Treatment of acute pulmonary edema (Paramedic only) 3. Sedation for procedures (Paramedic only)
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity. 2. Hypotension is a relative contraindication to use. Remember that some people will be hypotensive in response to pain itself. Be cautious. 3. Head or abdominal injuries also contraindicated, since the analgesic effect removes the clinical signs that need to be watched. 4. Do not use in persons with respiratory difficulties because their respiratory drive might be depressed, except in pulmonary edema. 5. In the presence of major blood loss, the body's compensatory mechanisms may be suppressed by the use of morphine, and the hypotensive effect will become very prominent. Do not use it in these circumstances.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive effects with other CNS depressants 2. MAO inhibitors can cause unpredictable and severe reactions, reduce dose to 25% of a (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NARCOTIC ANALGESICS (cont.)
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [2 - 10 mg] slow IV/IO push until desired effect achieved (Use lowest effective dose to avoid complications). 2. Pediatric: [0.05 - 0.1 mg/kg] slow IV/IO titrated to effect.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Take vital signs before and 2 minutes after administration. 2. IV/IO only (unless you cannot start an IV/IO and/or are directly ordered to administer IM). 3. Often causes vomiting; administer slowly. 4. On-line medical control should be contacted before administering to the non-cardiac New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NESIRITIDE (NATRECOR®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Vasodilator
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS (For administration by IV/IO infusion during patient transfer only)

1. For intravenous treatment of patients with acutely decompensated congestive heart failure.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Should not be used as primary therapy for patient with cardiogenic shock or in patients with a systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm hg.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Increase in symptom
ADMINISTRATION

1. Follow dosing orders of sending physician.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. The dose-limiting side effect of Nesiritide is hypotension. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS – NON DEPOLARIZING

CLASS OF DRUG

Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic¹ - Medication for administration during patient transport.
¹ In patients that are intubated prior to transport

INDICATIONS

1. Facilitation of compliance during mechanical ventilation.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Hypersensitivity to the drug.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Intensity and duration of paralysis may be prolonged by pre-treatment with succinylcholine, lidocaine, quinidine, procainamide, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, potassium-losing diuretics or magnesium.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Selected drug, administration, and drug dosage must be determined by transferring MD prior to transport.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Patient must be intubated prior to transport. 2. Paralytics do not provide sedation or analgesia. (See chart next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NON-DEPOLARIZING NEURO MUSCULAR BLOCKING
ONSET OF ACTION
DURATION OF ACTION
Short Acting
Mivacurium
(Mivacron) Rapacuronium 35 - 219 sec. (mean 90 sec.) 6 – 30 min. (mean 15 min.) (Raplon) Rocuronium (Zemeron)
Intermediate Acting
Atracurium
(Tracrium) Cisatracurium (Nimbex) Pancuronium (Pavulon) Vecuronium (Norcuron)
Long Acting
Doxacurium
2.5 – 13 min. (mean 6 min.) 39 – 232 min. (mean 100 min.) (Nuromax) Pipecuronium 35 – 175 min. (mean 75 min.) (Arduan) Tubocurarine New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NITROGLYCERIN

CLASS OF DRUG

Anti-anginal agent/vascular dilating agent
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Basic¹, EMT-Intermediate² and EMT-Paramedic
¹Patients own medication with on line medical control only.
² Must have intravenous access established prior to administration or approval of online
medical control if IV/IO access is unavailable.


INDICATIONS

1. Chest pain, anginal pain 2. Congestive heart failure with severe pulmonary edema
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity 4. Increased intra-cranial pressure Hypovolemia/severe
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive hypotension with beta-adrenergic blockers, antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, and phenothiazines. 2. Tricyclic antidepressants and antihistamines may interfere with buccal absorption. 3. Can cause a lethal drop in blood pressure in patients taking Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) within 48 hours of ingestion. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NITROGLYCERIN (cont.)
ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. Sublingual: [0.3 - 0.4 mg] tablet. Repeat at 3 - 5 minutes as needed to a total of three tabs (or more by MCEP order). b. Lingual Spray: [0.4 mg] metered dose, sprayed directly under the tongue; additional one or two sprays every 3 - 5 minutes for a total of three sprays (or more by MCEP order). c. Infusion: [5 - 20 mcg/min] the infusion may be increased by 5 mcg/min every 3 - 5 minutes to 50 - 200 mcg/min. The infusion dose is leveled off when desired effect is reached or a decrease in blood pressure of more than 10 mm Hg over baseline or less than 90 mm Hg systolic is observed. (Infusions may be initiated or monitored by Paramedics Only)
Note: The most common method for mixing Nitroglycerin is 50 mg Nitroglycerin in 250 ml
of normal saline. This yields a concentration of 200 mcg/ml (0.2 mg/ml) in glass or
non-absorbable container and non-PVC tubing.

2. Pediatric: Not recommended for pre-hospital use.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Common side effects may include: throbbing headache, flushing, dizziness, and burning under the tongue (if these side effects are noted, the pills may be assumed potent, not outdated). 2. Less common effect: marked hypotension, particularly orthostatic. 3. Paramedics should use their supply of nitroglycerin, not the patient's. 4. Use with caution with patient not previously receiving nitroglycerin. 5. Generalized vasodilation may cause profound hypotension and reflex tachycardia. 6. NTG tablets loose potency easily, should be stored in a dark glass container with a tight lid, and not exposed to heat. NTG spray does not have this problem. 7. Use only with Medical Control on patients with systolic BP below 100 mm Hg. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NOREPINEPHRINE (LEVOPHED®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Sympathomimetic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1. Second - line vasopressor for cardiogenic shock during inter-facility transports. 2. Forms of shock with low or normal peripheral vascular resistance (e.g., spinal shock,
CONTRAINDICATIONS:

1.
2. Vascular thrombosis, unless no alternative 3. Hypoxia or hypercapnia
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Cyclopropane or halothane anesthesia, cardiac glycosides, doxapram and cocaine may increase myocardial irritability. 2. MAO inhibitors, methyldopa, doxapram, and tricyclic antidepressant may produce severe 3. Alpha-adrenergic blockers may negate effects. 4. Beta-adrenergic blockers may exaggerate hypertension, and block cardiac simulation. 5. Ergot alkaloids or oxytocin may result in enhanced vasoconstriction. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NOREPINEPHRINE (cont.)
ADMINISTRATION

1 Follow Physician's Order.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Use with an infusion pump only. 2. Incompatible with alkaline solutions, aminophylline, barbiturates, phenytoin. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS

CLASS OF DRUG

Nutritional Supplement
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1. Undernourished patients who cannot ingest large volumes of oral feedings. 2. Patients being prepared for surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. 3. Patients with disorders requiring complete bowel rest.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Dependant on the solution being administered.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Most solutions are prepared using sterile techniques. Solutions may be modified based on laboratory results, underlying disorders, hypermetabolism, or other factors. 2. Administration should be based on manufacturer's recommendations and medical control. 3. Route of administration will be dependent on patient condition and needs. 4. Progress should be carefully monitored and documented on a flowchart.
COMPLICATIONS

1. If given IV/IO, complications may be related to the venous catheter (occlusion, infiltration, 2. Bacterial infection is usually due to the increased infection risk from indwelling central venous catheters. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
OCTREOTIDE ACETATE (SANDOSTATIN®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Hormone (gastrointestinal)
Antidiarrheal
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1. Treatment of active GI bleeds during transport.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1. May alter insulin and oral hypoglycemic agent requirements. 2. May interfere with beta-adrenergic blocking agents, calcium channel blockers, and agents to control fluid and electrolyte balance.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Follow physician's order.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Use with caution in diabetics, patients with gallbladder disease, severe renal failure requiring dialysis and during lactation. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
OXYGEN

CLASS OF DRUG

Class III Gas, Oxidizer
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

First Responder, EMT-Basic, EMT-Intermediate and EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Suspected hypoxia or respiratory distress from any cause 2. Acute chest pain in which myocardial infarction is suspected 3. Shock (decreased oxygenation of tissue) from any cause 5. Carbon monoxide poisoning
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.

DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult & Pediatric: Dosage Indications
Patients with chronic lung disease with unusual dyspnea or Low Flow (NC 1 -2 L/Min Moderate Flow (NC 4 6 L/Min) Precautionary use for trauma, chest pain, etc. Severe respiratory distress, either medical or traumatic, shock, High Flow (NRB 10 – 15 L/Min) or a t providers discretion. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
OXYGEN (cont.)
SPECIAL NOTES

1. If the patient is not breathing adequately on his/her own, the treatment of choice is assisted ventilation, not just supplemental 02. 2. A very small percentage of patients with chronic lung disease lack sensitivity to carbon dioxide levels and breathe only because of their hypoxic drive. Administration of 02 MAY
depress their respiratory drive. DO NOT WITHHOLD OXYGEN IN CRITICALLY
ILL PATIENTS BECAUSE OF THIS POSSIBILITY. BE PREPARED TO ASSIST
VENTILATION, IF NEEDED
.
3. Oxygen toxicity (overdose) is not a hazard from acute administration. 4. Nasal prongs work equally well on nose and mouth breathers. 5. Giving 100 % oxygen to all patients is unnecessary. If the patient has 96% O2 saturation and is in no acute distress, a NRB is not necessary. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
OXYTOCIN (PITOCIN®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Pituitary hormone - uterine vasoconstrictor
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Control of post-partum hemorrhage, when other methods fail
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Potential of a remaining fetus
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Hypertension with vasopressors
ADMINISTRATION

Note: Injectable oxytocin (PITOCIN®) contains 10 USP units (20 mg) per ml

1.
a. Intravenous dose: [10 - 20 USP units] in 500 ml volume expander (NS or LR). Flow rate of [10 - 15 drops/min] titrated to severity of hemorrhage and uterine response. b. Intramuscular dose: [10 USP units] (1 ml) IM only if unable to start IV/IO
SPECIAL NOTES

1.
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
PHENYLEPHRINE (NEO-SYNEPHRINE®) NASAL SPRAY

CLASS OF DRUG

Alpha-adrenergic agent
Vasoconstrictor (nasal)
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

Used as an agent to reduce bleeding during nasal intubation.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Known hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1. May decrease effectiveness of insulin, and oral hypoglycemic agents. 2. Use with beta blockers may result in initial hypertension followed by bradycardia. 3. MAO inhibitors – hypertension.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adults: [2 "squirts"] intranasal, in the selected nostril, prior to insertion of nasal tube.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Use with extreme caution in geriatric patients, severe arteriosclerosis, bradycardia, partial heart block, pregnancy and lactation. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
POTASSIUM

CLASS OF DRUG

Electrolyte
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Intermediate¹, EMT-Paramedic² - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
¹IV solutions that contain potassium during transport (not to exceed 20 mEq/1000cc or more than 10 mEq/hour). ²No infusion pump needed if concentration not greater than 20mEq/1000cc.
INDICATIONS

1. IV preparations are used for treatment or prophylaxis of hypokalemia.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Severe renal impairment 3. Untreated Addison's disease 4. Severe tissue trauma
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [10 to 20 mEq/hour] IV/IO drip is standard dose dependent upon patient presentation. Paramedics only can transport a patient receiving concentration of greater
than 20 mEq/1000 ml with an infusion pump.
2. Pediatric: [2 - 3 mEq/kg/day] IV
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Cardiac Monitoring required. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
PRALIDOXIME (2PAM®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Cholinesterase re-activator
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
First Responder¹, EMT-Basic¹, EMT-Intermediate¹ and EMT-Paramedic¹
¹ IM injection for treatment of chemical and/or nerve agent exposure, via auto injector only.

INDICATIONS

1. Organophosphate pesticide or nerve agent poisoning after Atropine has been administered. 2. Unknown cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning.
CONTRAINDICATIONS
1.
a. Inability to perform endotracheal intubation, if neuromuscular blockade were to occur (a rare, dose and rate related complication).
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. [600mg] IM by auto injector such as the "Mark I" antidote kit. May be repeated in 3 to 5 minutes after the first dose, if weakness or fasciculations have not been resolved.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Neuromuscular blockade, laryngospasm, muscular rigidity, and tachycardia have occurred with rapid IV administration, or with doses much higher than those usually administered. 2. Will not work for pesticides of the carbamate class. 3. Morphine, aminophylline, succinylcholine and phenothiazine-type tranquilizers should be avoided in patients with organophosphate poisoning. 4. Must be given concurrent with Atropine. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
PROCAINAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE (PRONESTYL®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Antidysrhythmic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS
(Authorized for monitoring during inter-facility transport)
1. Sustained ventricular tachycardia (with pulse) refractory to lidocaine 2. Premature ventricular contractions refractory to lidocaine 3. Management of ventricular dysrhythmias when lidocaine contraindicated
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Pre-existing QT prolongation or torsades de pointes 2. High AV blocks unless a pacemaker is in place. Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive effect with other antidysrhythmics. 2. Antihypertensives may produce hypotension. 3. Additive anticholinergic effects with other anticholinergics. 4. Neurological toxicity with lidocaine. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
PROCAINAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE (cont.)

ADMINISTRATION

1. Follow physician's orders. 2. Stop administration if: a. The arrhythmia disappears. c. The QRS is widened by 50% of its original width. d. A total of 17 mg/kg of the medication has been administered. 3. Adult: Infusion [1 gm] in 250 ml D5W or NS at 1 to 4 mg per minute. 4. Pediatric: Not currently recommended or given in pre-hospital settings.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. May cause severe hypotension, bradycardia and heart blocks. 2. Nausea and vomiting are common. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
PROPOFOL (DIPRIVAN®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Anesthetic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic¹ - Medication for administration during patient transport.
¹ In patients that are intubated prior to transport

INDICATIONS
(For administration by IV/IO infusion during patient transfer only)
1. Maintenance of sedation in intubated, mechanically ventilated patients.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Not recommended in children ≤ 3 years old. 2. Avoid in patients with severe systemic disease.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive CNS and respiratory with alcohol, antihistamines, opiates and sedative/hypnotics.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Follow physician's orders.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Avoid rapid IV/IO bolus in the elderly, debilitated or ASA III/IV patients. 2. May cause hypotension. 3. Patient should be continuously monitored for early signs of hypotension, apnea, airway obstruction, and/or oxygen desaturation. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
PROTAMINE SULFATE

CLASS OF DRUG

Antagonist to heparin
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic - Medication for administration during patient transport.
INDICATIONS

1. Excessive heparin treatment
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Hypersensitivity to protamine or fish
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1. Contact Medical Control. 2. [1 mg] of protamine for every 100 units of heparin remaining in body Given by IV/IO route only; slowly, not more than 20 mg/min or up to 50 mg
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Should be available when transporting any patient on heparin drip. 2. There is a high incidence of anaphylaxis to this drug. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS

Esomeprazole (Nexium®) Lansoprazole (Prevacid®) Omeprazole (Prilosec®)
CLASS OF DRUG

Proton pump inhibitor – diminishes daily production of acid
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1. Acid related gastrointestinal disorders 2. Reduce risk of upper GI bleeding in critically ill patients
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Reduced clearance of diazepam 2. Reduced bioavailability of drugs dependant on gastric pH 3. Interacts with warfarin and cyclosporin
ADMINISTRATION

1. Follow physician's orders.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Use with caution in severe liver disease. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
SODIUM BICARBONATE

CLASS OF DRUG

Alkalinizing agent
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. To correct metabolic acidosis found during prolonged cardiac arrest, after initial 2. May be used as an adjunct in other causes of metabolic acidosis. 3. Overdoses of tricyclic antidepressants or phenobarbital.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Suspected metabolic or respiratory alkalosis
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Inactivates most drugs, and must not be given in the same IV at the same time. 2. Causes calcium preparations to precipitate.
ADMINISTRATION

1.
a. Adult & Pediatric: [1 mEq/kg] IV/IO initially, then [0.5 mEq/kg] no more than 50 mEq every 10 minutes until a pulse is restored or as indicated by ABGs. 2. Other special circumstances, such as tricyclic antidepressant overdose a. Adult & Pediatric [1 mEq/kg] IV/IO single dose per physician order.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. This agent is no longer a first-line drug for cardiac arrest as per ACLS algorithms. 2. Each amp of bicarbonate contains 44 or 50 mEq of Na++. In persons with cardiac disease this will increase intra-vascular volume and further stress the heart. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
SODIUM BICARBONATE (cont.)
3. Hyperosmolarity of the blood can occur because the NaHCO3 is concentrated. This results in cerebral impairment. 4. These dosages are a very rough guide. Blood gasses should be obtained as soon as possible to direct further therapy. 5. Correct CPR, hyperventilation, defibrillation and drug therapy are more important than New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE (NIPRIDE®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Potent antihypertensive agent; vasodilator
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1.
2. Reduction of cardiac pre-load and after-load 3. It is often used with vasopressor agents to maintain a blood pressure while decreasing the pre-load and after-load.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity 2. Decreased cerebral perfusion
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive effect with other antihypertensives
ADMINISTRATION
1. Follow physician's orders.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Solution bag line must be covered in opaque material. 2. Solution is stable for only 24 hours. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Situations may arise involving patients with uncommon conditions requiring specific out of hospital administered medications or procedures; family members or the designated caregiver trained and knowledgeable of the special needs of the patient should be recognized as the expert regarding the care of the patient; EMS can offer assistance in airway management appropriate to their level of licensure, and administer the patient's prescribed medications where appropriate only if the medication is in the EMS provider's scope of practice; EMS services are not expected to provide the prescribed medications for these special needs patient. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
TERBUTALINE (BRETHINE®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Bronchodilator, uterine smooth muscle relaxant
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion.
INDICATIONS

1.
2. Control of pre-term labor
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1 Hypersensitivity
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive effect with other adrenergic drugs. 2. Beta-adrenergic blockers may negate effects.
ADMINISTRATION
1. Follow physician's orders.
SPECIAL NOTES

1.
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
THIAMINE

CLASS OF DRUG

Vitamin (B1)
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Coma of unknown origin, delirium tremens, chronic alcoholism, signs of malnourishment.
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. None in the emergency setting.
DRUG INTERACTION

1. There are no significant drug interactions with other emergency medications.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: [100 mg] slow IV/IO or IM. 2. Pediatric: [10-25 mg] slow IV/IO or IM.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Large IV doses may cause respiratory difficulties. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
THROMBOLYTICS (FIBRINOLYTICS)
Alteplase - {tPA}®, Streptokinase, Anistreplase, Urokinase

CLASS OF DRUG

Thrombolytics/fibrinolytics
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic - Drug allowed for monitoring in patient transport.
Requires an infusion pump when given by continuous infusion
INDICATIONS

1.
2. CVA – non-hemorrhagic
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity 2. Recent surgery (within 10 days) 4. Uncontrolled hypertension (systolic BP >180, or diastolic BP > 110) 5. Active internal bleeding 6. History of CVA (within 2 months) 7. Recent brain, or spinal surgery (within 2 months)
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive effect on bleeding with other anticoagulants, ASA, NSAID. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
THROMBOLYTICS (FIBRINOLYTICS) (cont.)
ADMINISTRATION

NOTE: Doses vary per physician direction
1. Follow physician's orders.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Monitor all puncture sites (e.g., catheters, incisions, etc.) during therapy, and subsequent heparin administration. 2. Avoid new puncture sites or injections. 3. When administering to the patient with AMI, (the most likely to receive this medication), watch the ECG closely for re-perfusion dysrhythmias. 4. Allergic reactions and anaphylaxis can occur when administering this medication. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
THROMBOLYTICS (FIBRINOLYTICS) (cont.)
Reteplase - Retavase®

CLASS OF DRUG

Thrombolytic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
EMT-Paramedic - Medication for administration during patient transport. Second dose only.
INDICATIONS

1.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity 2. Recent surgery (within 10 days) 4. Uncontrolled hypertension (SBP > 180, or DBP > 110) 5. Active internal bleeding 6. History of CVA (within 2 months) 7. Recent brain, or spinal surgery (within 2 months)
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Additive effect on bleeding with other anticoagulants, ASA, NSAID.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Follow physician's orders. (Continued next page)
New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
THROMBOLYTICS (FIBRINOLYTICS) (cont.)
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Monitor all puncture sites (e.g., catheters, incisions, etc.) during therapy, and subsequent heparin administration. 2. Avoid new puncture sites or injections. 3. When administering to the patient with AMI, (the most likely to receive this medication), watch the ECG closely for reperfusion dysrhythmias. 4. Allergic reactions and anaphylaxis can occur when administering this medication. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
TOPICAL OPHTHALMIC ANESTHETIC (PROPARACAINE® - OPHTHAINE®,
ALACAINE ®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Topical/local ophthalmic anesthetic
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. Ocular pain relief prior to irrigation of the eyes
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1.
Hypersensitivity 2. Known or suspected trauma that may have produced intraocular injury.
DRUG INTERACTION

1.

ADMINISTRATION

1. [1 - 2 drops] of 0.5% solution in each eye. May repeat one time at 15 minutes.
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Assess visual acuity as soon as possible. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
VACCINES
DPT (Diptheria, Tetanus (Acellular), Pertussis),
TT (Tetanus Toxoid), DT (Diptheria, Tetanus)
Hepatitis B Vaccine (RECOMBIVAX HB®, ENGERIX-B®)
Hepatitis A Vaccine (HAVRIX®, VAQTA®)
Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)
Poliovirus Vaccine - live, Orimune (OPV)
Poliomyelitis Vaccine, Inactivated, IPV, Salk
Pneumococcal Vaccine (PNEUMOVAX®)
Varicella (chicken pox) vaccine

SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Basic¹, EMT-Intermediate² and EMT-Paramedic²
¹Administration of Immunizations, Vaccines, Biologicals,
and TB skin testing is authorized under the following circumstances
:
a. In the event of a disaster or emergency, the State EMS Medical Director or Chief Medical Officer of the Department of Health may temporarily authorize the administration of pharmaceuticals or tests. ²Administration of Immunizations, Vaccines, Biologicals, and TB skin testing is authorized under the following circumstances: a. To the general public as part of a Department of Health initiative or emergency response, utilizing Department of Health protocols. The administration of immunizations is to be under the supervision of a physician, nurse, or other authorized health provider. b. Administer vaccines to EMS and public safety personnel. c. TB skin tests may be applied and interpreted if the licensed provider has successfully completed required Department of Health training. d. In the event of a disaster or emergency, the State EMS Medical Director or Chief Medical Officer of the Department of Health may temporarily authorize the administration of pharmaceuticals or tests not listed above.
ADMINISTRATION

1. Follow physician's orders. New Mexico Drug Guidelines Updated 09/2012
VASOPRESSIN (PITRESSIN®)

CLASS OF DRUG

Hormone (antidiuretic)
SCOPE OF PRACTICE

EMT-Paramedic

INDICATIONS

1. May be used as an alternative pressor to epinephrine in the treatment of adult shock- resistant Ventricular Fibrillation. 2. Useful in hemodynamic support in vasodilatory shock (e.g. septic shock).
CONTRAINDICATIONS

1. Chronic renal failure 2. Known hypersensitivity to beef or pork proteins
DRUG INTERACTION

1. Vasopressor effect may be increased by concurrent administration of ganglionic blocking
ADMINISTRATION

1. Adult: One time only dose: [40 units] IV/IO; may replace either 1st or 2nd dose of
SPECIAL NOTES

1. Potent vasoconstrictor. Increased peripheral vascular resistance may provoke cardiac ischemia and angina. 2. Do not use in responsive patients with coronary artery disease.

Source: http://www.ecems.org/pdf/NM%20EMSB%20Drug%20Guidelines%202012.pdf

vetoquinol.ca

QUESTIONS ET RÉPONSES Conférence web — 9 février 2011 Web conference— February 8th, 2011 Doc, does my pet really need all the medications to treat his liver disease?Answers provided by speaker Dr. Lisa Carioto, DVM, DVSc, Diplomate ACVIM I was told that liver enzymes in dogs should be 2-3x elevated for the value to be significant.

giftoflifefamilyhouse.org

Caregiver Lifeline Program Resources for Transplant Families This document is a good starting point for identifying potential transplant-related resources for patients, their caregivers and families. We've included a variety of information about transplant, transplant fundraising resources, grant assistance providers, travel assistance, prescription coverage, and living donor support.