Reference: Biol. Bull. 204: 68 – 80. (February 2003)© 2003 Marine Biological Laboratory Collection and Culture Techniques for Gelatinous KEVIN A. RASKOFF1,*, FREYA A. SOMMER2, WILLIAM M. HAMNER3, AND KATRINA M. CROSS4 1 Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California 95039-9644; 2 Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California 93950-3094; 3 University of California, Los Angeles, California
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The Newsletter of People Living with HIV/AIDS Note from the Vice President HIV & Ageing: What can we do about it? 6 A New Beginning - James May Education, Information Preventing Muscle Deterioration 2 PNG Leadership Development Group 4 Issue 52 August 200ISSN 448-7764 page
Annual General Meeting Sunday 0 October 200 at 2pm President Paul Kidd Positive Living Centre 5 Commercial Road, Prahran VIC 38 Join us for an annual review of the activities of PLWHA Victoria, Positive Women Rep election of board members, acceptance of reports and financial Straight Arrows Rep All members and supporters of the organisation Russell Varney, Leighton Browne, are encouraged to attend.
Suzanne Lau-Gooey, Jeffrey Robertson Executive Officer Call for Board Members Speakers Bureau Co-ordinator PLWHA Victoria is seeking HIV-positive people who are Health Promotion Manager enthusiastic and visionary team players to nominate for election to its Board of Directors.
Health Promotion Officer As a Board member, you will have the opportunity to influence Health Promotion Officer the strategic direction of the organisation and contribute to the Phoneline Coordinator organisation's work representing positive people in Victoria. Board members are supported through mentoring and provided with training as needed. We are seeking people from all sectors of the HIV community who can bring their own experience and passion to the work of the organisation and effectively represent the diversity of our membership.
6 Claremont Street South Yarra VIC 3141 Tel: 03 9865 6772 Fax: 03 9804 7978 Nominations must be received by 5pm on Friday October 200. An election will take place at our Annual General Meeting, Sunday 0 October 200.
Poslink is sponsored by unrestricted educational grants from: Boehringer-Ingelheim Nomination forms are available from PLWHA Victoria office Bristol-Myers Squibb located at 6 Claremont Street, South Yarra or call 03 9865 6772.
Merck Sharp & Dohme COVER PHOTOGRAPH: stock.xchng The Positive Speakers Bureau is sponsored by unrestricted educational grants from: Poslink is published by PLWHA Victoria. All views expressed are the opinion of the authors and are not necessarily those of PLWHA Victoria, its management or members. Copyright for all material in Poslink Merck Sharp & Dohme resides with the contributor.
poslink August 200 issue 52 Note from the Vice President Sam Venning Paul Kidd (President, PLWHA Victoria) are keen for the activities to align with is currently on leave so I will take the strategic plan and to have realistic this opportunity to introduce myself. objectives and measurable outcomes.
Although I've been on the PLWHA Victoria board nearly 12 months this is my first contribution to Poslink. On Saturday 3 July Sircuit bar hosted My personal passion is building the "GIVE Dance Party" as part of their confidence and resilience amongst Christmas in July series of events. PLHIV. I'm encouraged by a network Admission to this event was by gift. of friends and family with strong In the weeks leading up to the event support and interest in the work of Sircuit patrons were invited to collect the organisation. a gift tag from a Christmas tree in the bar detailing a suitable gift. Gifts will go to the PLWHA Victoria Christmas It is very satisfying to hear hampers, which are distributed government, agencies, colleagues on Christmas day to both PLHIV and friends increasingly focusing on in hospital and at home. It is an health promotion, participation and opportunity for the community to inclusion and less so on illness, stigma share good will, support and cheer at and discrimination. It is ongoing Christmas time. We are grateful for the work. The various programs of support provided by the Sircuit bar PLWHA Victoria further this work with consistent and passionate application.
number of new infections in the US by 25% over five years. Current infections By the time you read this the 18th stand at about 56,000 people PLWHA Victoria recently concluded International AIDS Conference annually. The US administration a review of the Strategic Plan for (18-23 July) will have concluded. affirmed that those that are infected, 2010-13. I would like to thank those The conference is an international regardless of age, gender, race/ individuals and organisations that gathering for those working in the ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender provided feedback and helped shape field of HIV, as well as policy makers identity or economic level, will get this document. In particular I'd like and other individuals committed "unfettered access to high-quality, to thank Greg Iverson and David to ending the pandemic. It will be life-extending care, free from stigma interesting to watch for developments following the 2010 deadline for universal access set by world leaders. The new Strategic Plan will be Finally, I'd like to thank David available on the PLWHA Victoria Stephens for his contribution to website shortly. The board and Leading up to this conference US PLWHA Victoria. David is leaving Executive Officer moved quickly to President Barack Obama affirmed Australia to take up an appointment draw up a plan of activities for both an ambitious and significant abroad. We wish David every success. the board and staff to focus on. We commitment to cut the annual Save the Environment! If you wish to do your bit for the environment and receive Poslink via email, please send your name and email address to email@example.com Poslink is also available online to download at www.plwhavictoria.org.au page 3
poslink August 200 issue 52 countries where only 20 per cent of Significant progress for "populations who would benefit" actually have access to them, he After decades of trying to develop a Along with improving access to vaccine against AIDS, global health the preventive methods, Fauci authorities are finally beginning to urged global health authorities and make "significant advances" towards governments to continue to work to their goal, Anthony Fauci, head of the develop other forms of prevention, US institute of infectious diseases, such as microbicides.
And he recommended "treating as "Up to a few years ago, even though many people as we possibly can we have been trying for a couple because we know that when you of decades to develop a vaccine, treat more people, you lessen the unsuccessfully, we have not even had probability that they would infect a small clue that we were going in the other people.
right direction," Fauci told AFP.
"You could almost have what we call But two key events that have taken treatment as a form of prevention," place in the past few years have until a vaccine is finally developed, changed that and led to "significant antibodies bind to that portion, it advances in the development of a knocks down the virus," he said.
Jul 15 2010 - Jean-Louis Santini vaccine", said Fauci, who is head of the National Institute for Allergy and The next step will be to try to Infectious Disease (NIAID).
inject that part of the virus into an individual to produce a protective The first of those key turning-point response against HIV infection, events was a clinical trial of an HIV/ said Fauci in an interview with AFP Raltegravir/Kaletra AIDS vaccine, which was conducted in days before the 18th international combination does well 2009 in Thailand on 16,000 people.
conference on AIDS, to be held in "The results showed a small to Vienna, Austria.
modest positive effect on the The Thai study and the report in A "nuke-sparing" combination of acquisition of HIV - not good enough Science have left scientists feeling the integrase inhibitor raltegravir to be able to distribute a vaccine, but "much more confident that ultimately (Isentress) and the protease inhibitor good enough to tell us that it was we will have a vaccine" against HIV/ drug lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) a conceptual advance that at least AIDS, although it was still impossible looks highly promising, according to makes us feel now that a vaccine is to say exactly when that would be, research presented to the conference.
possible," Fauci said.
Drugs from the NRTI (nucleoside Then, last week, scientists at An AIDS vaccine was probably several reverse transcriptase inhibitor) class NIAID published a paper in the years away, which means that in are usually the backbone of an HIV journal Science about research the meantime, the fight against treatment combination. that had helped them to identify HIV/AIDS must continue to focus on However, there is concern about the two antibodies in an HIV-positive prevention and use tried and true long-term side-effects of many NRTI individual, which, when put together tactics such as condom distribution, "block 90 per cent" of HIV strains, male circumcision, blocking mother- to-baby transmission and offering Investigators therefore conducted a head-to-head analysis of a traditional "What that is telling us is that you can syringe exchange programs, he said.
combination (Kaletra and Truvada) identify the portion of the virus that Ways have to be found, too, to against a two-drug combination you would like to use as a vaccine, improve access to these preventive consisting of Kaletra and raltegravir.
because we know that when the measures, especially in developing
poslink August 200 issue 52 The study involved 206 patients The researchers suggested nevirapine The researchers concluded that who had never taken anti-HIV drugs may lower HCV viral load and thereby HIV/HCV co-infected people who use before. After 48 weeks, almost improve treatment response, but an nevirapine for ART respond better to identical proportions of patients alternative explanation is that people pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in the two study arms had an who are prescribed this drug are less than those who use lopinavir/ undetectable viral load (85 vs 83%). sick at the outset, and therefore more ritonavir. Mira proposed that the This showed that the raltegravir- likely to respond to HCV treatment in lower HCV viral load levels seen in containing combination was "non- nevirapine users might account for inferior" to the traditional, three-drug this difference in response rates. Jose Mira, from Valme University Hospital in Seville, and colleagues Session moderator Jürgen Rockstroh The most common side-effects were evaluated the effectiveness of chronic called this interpretation into diarrhoea (13 vs 8%) and increased hepatitis C treatment using pegylated question, however. Whilst Mira cholesterol (8 vs 5%). interferon plus ribavirin in HIV/HCV credited nevirapine with lowering HCV viral load, another possible Similar proportions of patients in the co-infected patients using different explanation is that participants taking two arms of the study stopped taking lopinavir/ritonavir may be sicker on their treatment before its completion. Prior research suggested that certain average, because traditional ART The researchers are now proposing nucleoside/nucleotide reverse sequencing starts with a NNRTI- to extend the period of analysis to 96 transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) used based regimen and moves on to to treat HIV are associated with poorer protease-based therapy as HIV disease response to interferon, perhaps due to drug interactions or intensified People at later stages of HIV disease may have reduced immune response The role of non-nucleoside reverse to hepatitis C and higher levels of transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and inflammation or other factors that HIV protease inhibitors is less well Does nevirapine improve contribute to increased HCV viral studied, and what research there is hepatitis C treatment load and accelerated liver fibrosis has produced conflicting findings. progression – both of which predict outcomes in HIV/HCV co- A study called RIBAVIC, for example, poorer response to interferon.
infected individuals? found that use of HIV protease inhibitors was associated with less But Mira disagreed that the study successful hepatitis C treatment, but was biased in this way, noting that HIV/hepatitis C (HCV) co-infected others have not seen a similar link. differences in interferon response people who included nevirapine between nevirapine and lopinavir/ (Viramune) in their antiretroviral Some reports suggest that co- ritonavir recipients was still apparent therapy (ART) regimen were more infected patients on nevirapine- after adjusting for HCV viral load and likely to achieve sustained response based ART have lower plasma HCV extent of liver fibrosis.
to interferon-based therapy for RNA levels than those treating their chronic hepatitis C, according to a HIV with a protease inhibitor or an Spanish study presented on Tuesday alternative NNRTI, efavirenz (Sustiva, at the Eighteenth International AIDS Stocrin). Lower HCV viral load, in turn, Conference in Vienna. is a predictor of better hepatitis C treatment outcomes.
Vale Gabe McCarthy NAPWA staff and board note with sadness the sudden passing of Gabe Click or Dial
McCarthy, aged 44 years, on 30th June 2010.
We acknowledge the significant Remember to update your address details contribution she made over the years to ensure that positive voices with PLWHA Victoria when you move.
are not just heard, but are listened to as effective leaders in Australia's Click: firstname.lastname@example.org partneship response to the epidemic.
Dial: 03 9865 6722 We extend our support to her husband James, parents Lee and Brian and brothers Stuart and Simon and their families.
poslink August 200 issue 52 What can we do about it? In the last issue of Poslink and also in caring for older HIV-positive people So when I first got diabetes, it was the national magazine Positive Living, are being discussed.
attributed to a side-effect of my HIV I wrote an article on HIV and Ageing. treatments which is at least partly the Afterwards I received a few comments case. The same was true of my raised from HIV-positive friends who said As someone who is experiencing a triglycerides and cholesterol levels things like, "Thanks for cheering me range of HIV-related co-morbidities and increased risk of heart attack. up!" and "What are you doing trying (illnesses or conditions) myself, I have Then when I came down with gout, to scare the pants of positive people actually been consoled to know that the Rheumatologist couldn't tell me there is an explanation for some of if HIV was a factor or not, particularly the things that have been happening as I have no family history of the to me. I have always been careful to problem. Now if I am reading the Well, to respond, I was certainly not take my HIV treatments on time and research right, HIV itself may have trying to do the latter and am sorry to when I experience yet another co- a role in contributing to all these be the bearer of not-so-good news. morbidity, I have been wondering problems for me - albeit that less- Like many other people involved what I'm doing wrong.
than-perfect treatments have played a with AIDS Councils and PLHIV part as well. It's difficult to know what organisations around the country, I causes what but when I see some was responding to increasing research positive friends in their fifties with bad about earlier ageing seen in HIV- arthritis, increased fractures and using "The truth positive people overseas and being a walking sticks, I know that HIV-related part of the discussion about what to ageing is happening for others as well.
is that HIV do about it.
treatments People who have been relatively Australia has responded well to HIV recently diagnosed – even maybe in the past: in the early days of the people in their sixties – are much epidemic the gay community rallied less likely to experience these co- completely to look after people with HIV who morbidities (in the short term) as were initially shunned by health they are usually associated with stop the virus agencies and managed thankfully length of time spent living with HIV. to convince governments to provide If you have had a long time living in its tracks". funds to establish AIDS Councils, with HIV but without any treatments provide care and support for people (like me, as there were none when I as well as funds to try to prevent the was diagnosed in the eighties) then spread of the virus. It makes sense They have greatly reduced our the effect is likely to be worse, too. that we need to be similarly prepared chances of getting the awful, often And then there will always be those to meet the needs of an ageing HIV- fatal opportunistic AIDS illnesses fortunate people for whom living with positive population, particularly if that many of us experienced in the HIV will be a relative breeze, without some people may require care earlier eighties and nineties to such an complications for most of their lives.
than the rest of the community.
extent that many of us have lived far beyond medical expectations when we were diagnosed all those years So rather than get distressed by So I think it is important that people ago. But researchers now realise that this, what can we about it? Like who are dealing with a number of the HIV remains at low levels in the body, someone who is diagnosed with symptoms of early ageing are aware regardless of whether you have an a chronic illness like diabetes, for that the issue is on the HIV sector's undetectable viral load and are doing instance, there are good ways to live agenda – and that hopefully some pretty well on treatments. There are with the condition – with diabetes solutions will be found. There are constant inflammatory responses it is about making changes to your currently forums on ageing taking happening in the body caused by the diet, regular monitoring of your place on a national level where issues virus that place a burden on body blood glucose levels and taking your such as preparing GPs, the aged care organs over time.
medication properly. Or bad ways sector and HIV sector agencies for – like continuing to eat fatty or sugary
poslink August 200 issue 52 foods, not keeping in touch with your consumption, eating a balanced diet 5. See your dentist every six to twelve diabetes doctor and forgetting to take (less saturated fats, salts and sugars months. Dental complications can and increased fibre and calcium from be more common for HIV-positive dairy foods, for instance), exercising people, partly due to treatment side- So it should be with HIV. Like the rest daily and drinking at least 6-8 glasses of the population, positive people of water a day.
often scoff at health promotion messages – like give up smoking, Alright, so when is there any time left decrease your weight, eat more 3. Develop a good trusting to have fun? Enjoying your life has healthy foods and take up regular relationship with your doctor and to be a top priority regardless of the (preferably daily) exercise. They are regularly monitor your health with extra effort that living with HIV may things we will get around to one day him/her. Apart from your regular CD4 involve. Spending a bit of time on when I really have to - rather than and viral load tests, ask for regular maintaining your friendships or the monitoring of your blood pressure, important relationships in your life Here a few of the reasons why we blood lipids, blood glucose and (like a partner or your family) will help need to take these health promotion maybe a yearly bone density check you through any of life's hurdles more messages even more seriously: (through a DEXA scan) if your doctor considers you at risk of osteoporosis.
1. The evidence is there that the You could think of some innovative Number 1 positive thing an HIV- 4. Stay on your treatments, take them ways of doing this, if your contacts positive person can do to reduce their on time or monitor the need to start and friendships have diminished over chance of getting a co-morbidity them with your doctor if you have the years—doing things like joining that could seriously affect their not begun antiviral treatments. Learn HIV-positive peer or social groups (or health or risk their life – is to give up about possible interactions with setting up your own) or reaching out smoking. Not only is there the added other drugs (such as antihistamines on the Internet to find other positive risk factors we have for heart attacks and commonly prescribed drugs) or people or positive-friendly people to – from long term effects of living with even natural therapies and ask your connect with.
HIV as well as from some treatments doctor/chemist to check there is any – but smoking has been strongly problem with taking other drugs with linked to an increased prevalence of your antivirals. If you take recreational A useful book on Ageing has been cancers in HIV-positive people (not drugs, you need to know about produced by AFAO and NAPWA. It is just lung cancers, either - there are potentially serious interactions with called "Ahead of Time" and provides links to anal cancer, bowel cancer and some antivirals and how to reduce useful tips on growing older with HIV. throat cancers, for instance).
It even includes a list of good social networking sites used by HIV-positive 2. You can reduce your risk of people. It is available to download diabetes, bone density loss, liver and from the PLWHA Victoria website or kidney disease by reducing alcohol call 03 9865 6772 for your free copy.
poslink August 200 issue 52 My world was turned upside down he was from, his life before ‘us'. We he swore out loud – but he wasn't when I was diagnosed HIV positive. were young, we moved in together surprised. He'd had a few accidents Life had changed in a split second so quickly – I knew something was with the needle, he said – plenty of – it'd never be the same. There rampant sex too. That didn't surprise was nothing positive about it. I felt me but his anger did. contaminated, ruined, destined to a bleak, lonely future. A million I went for a blood test and it came thoughts raced through my mind. back inconclusive. The GP ran more ‘Why did you do it,' he said? ‘We didn't Isolation, illness, death – those fears tests and I waited anxiously in the have to know.' He called me stupid, surgery with a friend, knocking naïve. He said he'd move out, leave knees like two nervous school kids. Sydney, go back to England. He wasn't Moments later we were called into her taking the test, that's for sure.
It was Sleazeball in Sydney just office and our fears were confirmed. weeks earlier. Everyone in our house The test was positive. The female GP was ready for a night on the town – was so cool, calm and collected – I I was blown away by his attitude. I dressing up, feeling fabulous, strutting wanted to shake her. She handed me walked in there, ready to face this into clubs and taking over the dance a leaflet about HIV medication and thing together. I could manage, with floor. I had a relatively new partner that was it; she sent us on our way. his support. I wouldn't let it come at the time – we were living together between us, we'd find a way through after just a few months. We took some this. His reaction was a huge slap in meth – it was mind-blowing gear. the face – worse than the diagnosis. The night started with a bang and we "I'd never headed off with the gang to run wild on Oxford Street. known anyone The coming weeks were bitter. He with HIV; I spent days away, wiping himself out on meth. He barely acknowledged It was one hell of a night; club- me, didn't want to talk about it. I hopping, dancing, feeling on top never thought spoke with other GPs. Most were of the world, invincible. That's what pessimistic, insensitive. They were we lived for back then – we were in it'd happen tired of young guys on the party our twenties, nothing else mattered. circuit turning up positive – tired of Sometime the next day the party was the ‘message' not getting through. over and we were coming down hard, feeling raw, emotional. My partner and I retired to our room to get a bit Word spread quickly among friends. closer. It was the first time we'd had I walked down Oxford Street They were scared, outraged. They anal sex and we didn't use a condom. petrified, wanting the ground to wanted to blame, point the finger. cave in and swallow me up. I felt so ‘Why did I trust him?' ‘Why didn't I take small, ashamed, lost. My friend and I precautions, they said?' Never mind I came down with a severe flu-like stopped for coffee, then a beer, then their own slip-ups – they thought they illness a few weeks later. Cold chills another beer. It felt like I was going had a right to judge. Their remarks seared through my blood, burning mad, I could break down any second. only added insult to injury.
fevers wiped me out. My partner I wanted to run, hide. I didn't want to held me in his arms and rocked me tell anyone, that's for sure.
to sleep. I woke up during the night, The party was over and everyone was sweating like crazy. Every time I spinning out. A sad, solemn mood closed my eyes I started dripping That's what I had to do. My partner crept into the house and dug its again. The glands in my neck were was at home in bed, recovering from heels in. Meanwhile, I felt sicker than sore and swollen. I stared out the another big night. I had to break the ever – too tired, nauseous, anxious window into the darkness, then down news. So I walked upstairs, tapped and depressed to function. It was at him sleeping like a baby. I realised him on the shoulder and told him. as though I fell sick when I heard I knew very little about him – where His head dropped into his hands and the diagnosis and couldn't shake poslink August 200 issue 52 it. I couldn't sleep, I lost weight, I and didn't feel capable of achieving there if I wanted to party but that was had thrush in my throat. HIV was all what I wanted anyhow. I was shut all. There was nothing more to say.
I thought about – I couldn't get a down, depressed and self destructive. I thought I'd be dead by the age of thirty and I probably would be if HIV So I made changes – big changes. I didn't come along. moved on; for the sake of my health, I had never felt more alone my sanity, my quality of life. I said – abandoned, judged, let down by goodbye to my partner – I couldn't everyone. Unfortunately, most of the Life transformed after the diagnosis. play it his way. I left town and wiped people in my life back then were only My partner did take the test. It came the slate clean. It was a sad end but a in it for the good times. It was a rude back positive and he said he wanted shock but a wake-up call I needed. to make a go of things. He couldn't HIV put an end to the delusion, it was follow through in the end; denial time to get real. My life had revolved was always his way. Within days he Ten years later, my health is stronger around drugs and booze for years and was back on the gear, gone for days than ever and I'm in a better place something had to give. – hoping it was all a bad dream.
than ever. I thought I couldn't live with HIV unless I had my partner and the friends I'd always known. I had to go I wasn't growing or making any Some of our friends moved out, some it alone in the end – I had no choice. progress. I was treading water, going kept doing the same thing. The party I created a new life in a new city. It round in cicles.I had come from a had to go on. They treated me like was the best thing I ever did. It was a background of domestic violence I was a victim of the worst possible change that was way overdue and HIV and homophobia in Qld and had very fate – they didn't know how I'd cope. gave me the courage to do it. little self-esteem. I had no direction I didn't either back then. They were Camp Seaside is a camp run by Straight Arrows for families infected or affected with HIV/ AIDS. The camp will be held at Wombat Gully Camp, Emerald Lake Rd, EMERALD, which is approximately one hour east of Melbourne. It is located in the magnificent Dandenong Ranges and the grounds are superb with excellent children's facilities.
The aim of the Camp is to provide respite to parents living with HIV/AIDS in a safe environment where issues affecting people living with HIV can be discussed amongst peers. The camp provides the opportunity for parents to network, support each other and rest, whilst the children are supervised by volunteers and have organised activities all weekend.
All meals are provided.
Each year we have new families/members applying for the camp, so places will be given to families who have not attended a camp before OR did not go on last years camp.
The camp runs from: Friday 12 November to Sunday 14 November 2010 Phone or email us now to register your interest. page 9
poslink August 200 issue 52 As populations are living longer, the deficiency can produce symptoms of incidence of progressive memory loss, tiredness, irritability, and diminished dementia and problems associated mental alertness. with ‘brain health' are increasing rapidly. The good news is that studies are finding that some foods can help Choline is a precursor to make the you concentrate, stay motivated, and nerve transmitter chemical called improve your memory. So what is the acetylcholine that many of our nerves best ‘food for thought'? in our brain and our muscles use to send messages. Choline rich foods such as eggs, milk, liver and soy may Breakfast means just that: ‘break the be useful for enhancing memory and fast'. Eating breakfast refuels the brain promoting clear thinking. by providing an immediate source of glucose energy after an overnight fast. Skipping breakfast can impair Protein foods are important for memory and mental performance. brain performance because they provide amino acids, from which neurotransmitters are made. Glucose in the bloodstream is the Neurotransmitters carry signals from brains sole source of energy. Since one brain cell to another. Tryptophan glucose cannot be stored in the is an essential amino acid needed brain, it relies on a continuous supply to form serotonin, a chemical that from the bloodstream. If your brain modifies sleep and moods. Food cells are deprived of glucose, mental sources include nuts, seeds and power will suffer and you might feel (glycaemic index) helps to tired, unable to concentrate and maintain concentration by making light-headed. Eating carbohydrates glucose available over a longer at regular intervals will help prevent period of time. Low GI foods include Tyrosine is the building block for your blood glucose (sugar) levels from wholegrain breads and cereals, pasta, nerve chemicals such as adrenaline. dropping too low. some long grain rice, legumes, corn, Studies show that tyrosine may sweet potato, many fruits and other improve memory or mood in healthy people when under stress. Food sources include lean meat, eggs, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), make up a large proportion of the human Fruit and vegetables contain brain. These essential fats cannot antioxidants which help neutralise be made by the body, and must be or inactivate free radicals, molecules supplied by the diet. Studies have that can damage cells, including brain shown that the omega-3 fatty acids cells. Vitamin C, beta-carotene and found in fish oils can play a part in vitamin E are a few antioxidants found maintaining good brain function and in fruit and vegetables. may influence a number of mental conditions ranging from depression Always consult your HIV doctor when changing your diet.
Iron is needed to carry oxygen around the body and for building Source: Simplot Australia - http://www.
red blood cells. The brain has a big demand for oxygen, and iron
poslink August 200 issue 52 Garry's Pear and Chicken Salad 500g chicken tenderloins, trimmed of excess fat 1 tsp olive oil Salt & freshly ground pepper Katherine's Sausage Rolls 1 butter lettuce leaves separated, washed, dried 4 celery sticks, diagonally sliced thinly 400g sausage mince 3 pears, core removed, cut into thin 300g chicken mince 1 onion, finely chopped 1 avocado, halved, stone removed, Suzy's Chicken Hot Pot 1 clove garlic, crushed 1/2 cup (125g) Praise creamy 1 medium carrot, grated 1 medium zucchini, grated 1 red onion, sliced 1 cup fresh breadcrumbs 1 tbsp crushed garlic 3 tbs chopped parsley 1 tsp crushed ginger Heat a char grill pan on medium-high heat. Brush the chicken with the oil 1/2 tsp ground nutmeg 4 baby corn, sliced and season well with salt and pepper. Salt & freshly ground pepper ¼ cup red capsicum, sliced Cook for two minutes each side or 4 button mushrooms, cut into until cooked through. Set aside to 3 sheets frozen puff pastry, semi ½ cup green beans, diced Diagonally slice each tenderloin in half. Divide the chicken, lettuce, 1 tbs sesame seeds 4 chicken drumsticks, skin off celery, pears and avocado among serving bowls. Whisk the dijonnaise, honey and one tbs boiling water Preheat oven to 200°C. Line two 1 tbsp fresh coriander, chopped together. Drizzle the dressing over the baking trays with baking paper. Mix both minces, onion, garlic, carrot, 1 tbsp oyster sauce salad and serve.
zucchini, breadcrumbs, parsley, 1 tbsp corn flour nutmeg and seasoning together. ½ cup chicken stock Beat one egg and add to mince Heat a saucepan on moderate heat mixture. Divide into six equal and add oil. Coat each drumstick with portions. Cut pastry sheets in half. the corn flour and then brown each Roll a mince portion until 25cm long. drumstick on all sides for about 30 Place down the centre of pastry. Beat seconds. Remove from the pan and remaining egg and brush edges. place in an oven-proof dish with a lid. Roll up to enclose filling, and cut into Add onion and garlic in the same six pieces. Place on trays, seam side saucepan and cook until transparent. down. Brush with egg and sprinkle Add the remaining vegetables along with sesame seeds. Bake for 20 mins, with the oyster sauce and chicken reduce heat to 180°C, and cook for 10 stock and cook for two minutes. Place minutes until golden.
all the ingredients into the oven-proof dish covering the chicken drumsticks. Then put in a 180ºC preheated oven and cook for 60 minutes. Top with If you have a favourite healthy and delicious recipe chopped coriander and serve with rice or cous cous.
that you would like to share and have published in Poslink, please email poslink August 200 issue 52 Preventing Muscle PLHIV often experience loss of muscle of exercises that mimic the active of tension which can mount on the mass. One reason for this loss is the motions you would apply during cervical disc.
energy demands of PLHIV is higher normal daily activities.
than average, especially during I encourage my clients who are periods of illness.
This is a functional exercise for HIV-positive to train using a runners. It retains the bending habits combination of functional and and gives free leg and back exercises The body naturally sources proteins as strength training. The results have at the same time. Doing this exercise a means of harvesting energy quickly. been very encouraging to date, properly helps in preventing back and Even with modern anti-retroviral with improvements found to body medication, muscle deterioration strength, lumbar movement and occurs in as many as 25% of PLHIV. overall flexibility. Loss of muscle mass has been widely A functional exercise that is very documented to have a harmful powerful in strengthening the core. Another benefit of ‘functional training' effect on bone density and immune The replacement to the old fashioned is the increase of strength and function, which is of particular sit-up, this exercise helps protect the flexibility to our core. It's our core that back while improving on back and keeps our upper body from staying abdomen strength.
upright. Ever had a foot slip out from Resistance or strength exercise, either under you? A strong core will help at a gym or with a personal trainer is keep you balanced and on your feet. The above sample of exercises are one of the most natural and effective The following functional exercises very effective yet simple, however ways in counteracting the effects of cover a wide range of muscles and are always consult with your doctor and muscle deterioration associated with very effective (when performed with fitness expert before commencing correct technique) for overall body any new form of exercise, as correct technique and form is essential if The best forms of strength and looking to regain muscle strength. rehabilitation exercise is simply with the use of your own body weight Always remember it is never too late For your chest, arms, abs, shoulders and of course free weights (dumb to start exercising and regular exercise and back. You can start off with bells) rather than machine-based has great health benefits to both the wall push ups and then after some equipment. Strength is developed mind and body.
practice, you can make use of the and muscles grow by progressively kitchen counter for added intensity, increasing resistance (i.e. weight) moving onto the floor as you build up whilst maintaining a controlled and For further information visit strength over time.
SquatsReflect common actions that we do Quality of life, such as helping reduce throughout the day like reaching, Chris Gregoriou is the founder of depression, improvements to energy lifting, bending involves an element Metrobody Health & Fitness and an and assisting sleeping patterns are of squatting. The functional exercises accredited personal trainer based in just some of the positive benefits of for legs are the squats. They help in exercising. Further, weights training strengthening the quadriceps and the can prevent osteoporosis, (softening gluteal muscles.
of the bones) by virtue of increased bone density.
Back extensionsAs we age, we find our posture changes and flexibility of the spine If you are looking to regain strength deteriorates. This functional exercise or improve your flexibility and overall is used not just for the ageing balance, a very effective form of population but also for the young. exercise is a technique known as This will help strengthening the back ‘functional training'. This is the use muscles as well as aid in the release poslink August 200 issue 52 poslink August 200 issue 52 Development Group Working in Papua New Guinea as a a male person with himself or with I first went to PNG in 2004 with white, gay, HIV positive man brings another male person, is guilty of a Andrew Timmins researching the many challenges but nowhere near capacity for rural day care centres to as many challenges as those faced by roll out ARV treatments and to assess PNG Nationals who are Men who have Penalty: Imprisonment for a term not the significant changes that PLHIV Sex with Men (MSM), Transgender and exceeding three years.
and HIV sector workers had been able sex workers - both in cities and rural to implement after they attended the 2003 NAPWA Conference in Cairns. "Welcome to Papua Meeting the PNG delegates in Cairns was a very humbling experience. New Guinea – our Imagine if your country's laws ignored your human rights of equality nearest neighbour because of your sexuality or that To think that just over the Torres Strait you became a sex worker because where HIV and people were dying of AIDS in the most you have no employment and no awful discriminatory circumstances AIDS are pandemics, government welfare support. and where HIV treatment was a pilot project for 50 people! where HIV treatment Imagine if you lived in a country is limited and where where the law states the following: And yet here I was getting healthier basic heath care by the year and accessing the PNG Criminal Code 1974, as amended best medical services available in is very difficult to the world. Distressing would be Section 210. UNNATURAL OFFENCES. an apt description of how I felt, powerless to make change and yet (1) A person who– an overwhelming desire to work with (a) sexually penetrates any person A very peculiar anomaly exists in the PNG people to help them find against the order of nature; or (b) PNG where female to female sex in solutions to HIV that respected their sexually penetrates an animal; or (c) legal! Go figure what the legislators culture and way of life. permits a male person to sexually were thinking when they tabled penetrate him or her against the order the criminal code – obviously they of nature, is guilty of a crime. thought lesbians didn't exist in PNG.
Challenging was another word when I had to reconcile my atheism Penalty: Imprisonment for a term not against the faith of the Nuns I met exceeding 14 years. Violence against women, children, and worked with. They have become (2) A person who attempts to commit MSM, transgenders and sex workers the most outstanding advocates for an offence against Subsection (1) is is a daily occurrence. And yet I have HIV treatment and safer sex when guilty of a crime. met some of the most amazingly their Government was doing so little and their parishioners were Penalty: imprisonment for a term not courageous pioneers committed to being devastated by HIV. As such my exceeding seven years.
overturning these laws and being accepted in their own communities admiration for their community work Section 212. INDECENT PRACTICES for who they are. BETWEEN MALES. (1) A male person who, whether in I returned to PNG on 2008 with Susan public or private– The people of PNG make you feel like a celebrity when they welcome you Paxton PhD to train PLHIV speakers (a) commits an act of gross indecency – the way they have welcome and in public speaking and I realised that with another male person; or (b) farewell ceremonies – you become empowerment through being able procures another male person to part of their community as a result to articulate their stories would start commit an act of gross indecency and the mutual respect is amazing. I to alleviate the incredible HIV & AIDS with him; or (c) attempts to procure have learnt as much if not more than stigma that still exists there.
the commission of any such act by they have learnt from me.
poslink August 200 issue 52 This year I was asked by Dave Traynor, • Recommendations for HIV-related that harks back to the Colonial era Manager of the AFAO International work that can be designed and that criminalises homosexuality program if I would go back to PNG undertaken by MSM in PNG for MSM thereby making it unsafe for people and train MSM and Transgender in PNG, have been developed.
to be open about their sexuality. in public speaking and advanced Additionally it makes it harder to communication. Needless to say I The project is being conducted over roll out HIV awareness campaigns didn't have to think about it too long approximately 18 months between to some of the most marginalised and before I knew it I was back there July 2009 and January 2011and it in Lae working with an amazing group includes two related components.
1. Fostering the development of MSM and Transgender leadership Until recent human rights campaigns capacity -10 MSM and Transgender to educate Police it was common for The participants are part of a with leadership potential will be MSM, transgender and sex workers Leadership Development Group selected to participate in a Leadership to be harassed, beaten, raped or funded by AusAID. The collaborating Development Group (LDG). killed and unfortunately they are partners are AFAO, QAHC (Queensland always in fear of what may happen Association of Healthy Communities), 2. Participants in the LDG will be next. However the group I trained Save the Children in PNG and their provided with opportunities and seemed to be extraordinarily resilient program "Poro Sapot Project" (Friends support to strengthen their capacity and prepared to be outspoken Support Project) in a range of skill areas. advocates for equality. Selection criteria for appointment to The project's main aim is to It is the homosexuality "strengthen the capacity of MSM • A strong commitment to the MSM criminalisation law that Dame Carol and Transgender in PNG to respond community in PNG and to addressing Kidu MP is trying to have overturned to the threat of HIV; enabling them in the PNG Parliament and the to decide upon and develop their • The capacity to work with others and Leadership group are part of the own plans for limiting HIV infections push to support her as advocates amongst MSM and transgender and leaders for legislative change. communities and for providing • Mutual respect and tolerance The aim is that they will work at increased care and support to HIV+ • Communication and listening skills many levels of the campaign – from MSM and transgender" • Knowledge of issues affecting MSM the grass roots community finding out what the MSM and Transgender communities would like to see To progress towards this goal the happen, to the highest level of project aims to achieve a number of contact with Mayors, Provincial key objectives as follows: This project's aim and goals remind me of how the Australian gay Governors and Government • Strengthened Community community mobilsed in the early 80's Leadership capacity amongst the to challenge the hysteria surrounding MSM and Transgender communities My small part in this huge • An increase in the number of MSM These similarities extend to when project was to do the following: and transgenders benefiting from homosexuality was decriminalised in deliver a Communication Skills peer support, networking and training Victoria in December 1980 – yes only Training workshop over two days opportunities relevant to HIV 30 years ago! And that brings me back and to observe the Lau MSM • An increased understanding of to why the Leadership Development and Transgender Community the HIV-related needs of MSM and Group will have a role to play in Transgenders in PNG amongst donor decriminalising homosexuality in organisations, relevant Government agencies, and the MSM and Trangender communities themselves Dame Carol Kidu was the only white • Strengthened capacity amongst female (four more joined her in late CONTINUE on page 16.
MSM and Transgender in PNG to 2009) member of the PNG Parliament articulate and advocate for their HIV- and is the Community Development • Strengthened linkages between She is passionate about social MSM in PNG and MSM across the justice and while PNG has one of the most advanced constitutions in the world, they also have legislation poslink August 200 issue 52 Caring dentistry you can trust
Development Group Daytime – Evening – Weekend
appointments now available
General & Family DentistsWe practice Gentle DentistryImplants, Crowns, Bridges, DenturesCosmetic & Whitening available CONTINUED from page 15.
about their lives and love modern Medicare EPC Scheme Accepted communication technology. Of the 11 Preferred with HBA, MBF, Medibank, HCF people I trained, two of them made it other Funds claim on the spot with HICAPS The workshop objectives of this very clear they wished to be known consultancy were: by their female names and they made Our friendly team
Dr Adam Mattsson,
Dr Manuel Bautista
1. LDG members to develop an incredible impact on me.
and Dental Therapist
strengthened skills in public speaking and increased confidence in They had also decided to bring the Appointments 9318 55 99 drag costumes and wigs to put on a Suite 2/44 Hampstead Rd, Maidstone 3012 2. LDG members to develop show at the Lae Hotel. Unfortunately strengthened skills in active listening I was not able to go to the show as it was regarded as a security risk to my 3. LDG members to develop a safety. Reports about the show were team centred approach in working that they had a great time.
together constructively – both individually and collectively as speakers and a greater capacity to Where to from here for PNG MSM transfer their speaking skills to other and Transgender? The Leadership MSM and transgender.
Development Project will be finished by January 2011. Funding submissions to AusAID will determine Evaluation of the workshop was if there will be a continuation of the exceptional and they all took the key project to train another group of communication messages with them. emerging leaders. It is envisaged that During the workshops they were like the current group will continue their sponges soaking up the training and work, mentor and train others in what they rose to the challenges I set for they have learnt. They will continue to them in quite amazing ways. challenge the legal restrictions they face and will hopefully be part of a renewed focus on HIV amongst MSM They used their strong oral and Transgender in PNG.
communication skills to adapt to a western style presentation format - preparing properly, knowing your audience, keeping it simple and N.B. State sponsored homophobia interested in
delivering key messages effectively. exists in 76 countries mostly as a It is a fantastic feeling to see how result of colonial era laws.
people develop so fast and I know participating in a
they will continue to learn. In a very For the full survey go to State- brief four days I have made some Sponsored Homophobia - A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex new friends who have awesome activity between consenting adults (May 2010) (pdf).
Few of the people I trained are VOLUNTEERS REQUIRED…
in paid positions; many are volunteers for programs such as beats outreach, peer education, community education and campaign The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome,
development. All are extremely savvy Lipodystrophy and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.
On Anti-Retroviral Medications With no pre-existing cardiovascular disease Your participation would involve:
ʕ 1-2 hospital visits ʕ Study Interview ʕ Fasting blood test o Ful cholesterol profile o Blood sugar level ʕ Blood pressure ʕ Waist measurements ʕ DEXA scan: assessment of bone, muscle and The study wil reveal:
ʕ Your risk of developing Cardiovascular disease If you have Metabolic Syndrome If you are interested in finding out more about the study, please contact: Julia Price: Dietitian, The Alfred Hospital, (03) 9076 3063
or email; email@example.com poslink August 200 issue 52 Guide to Australian HIV Laws and Policies Australian health care providers and regulatory responses affecting care workers' capacity to assure deliver medical and other care under clinical practice, including laws and confidentiality; increased fear of a complex umbrella of ethical and police investigations of sexual activity: legal duties regulated by professional confusion concerning real risks of codes of ethics as well as diverse HIV transmission, and a return to fields of law (including criminal, • notification and recording of HIV test the ethos of HIV-positive people as public health, administrative and results and AIDS - related deaths ‘the problem'. Unfortunately, those anti-discrimination). In almost all possibilities arise against a backdrop clinical settings the primary focus of • confidentiality of HIV related of continuing discrimination against the health care professional is the HIV-positive people. care of one individual to whom the • anti-discrimination requirements practitioner has responsibility. • duties to disclose HIV status, practise safe sex or refrain from sex The Australasian Society for HIV Medicine (ASHM) has produced a When providing care for individuals (particularly commercial sex) if living new resource, Guide to Australian with HIV infection, other people HIV Laws and Policies for Healthcare including sexual partners, children • the management of those persons and those potentially or actually who put others at risk of HIV infection. at risk of contact with blood and This resource aims to respond to some body fluids are also indirectly of the concerns recently outlined the responsibility of health care All these laws and guidelines, and by health care providers in relation providers and their patients. Health numerous others besides, affect to HIV, and also by those wishing to care providers' reactions to these health care workers' capacity and access health services. It provides responsibilities must be based on responsibility in relation to HIV- health care providers with a basic science (evidence-based care), a positive patients, those seeking outline of their legal and ethical caring supportive approach (the art of HIV testing and those engaging in responsibilities under various laws health care), and the non-judgmental activities that put them at risk of HIV and regulations in relation to HIV.
ceding of decision making to the well informed patient (patient primacy in decision making).
Please note, information contained Recently, there has been a number in this resource is not specific. of high profile criminal prosecutions Those seeking advice on individual The underpinning laws guiding of individuals alleged to have put cases should contact their health health care workers are state-based others at risk of HIV infection. Those department, solicitor or their medical so that frequently different provisions cases have challenged some of the defence organisation as appropriate.
apply in different jurisdictions. There fundamental understandings of is sometimes a lack of clarity about Australia's long-term commitment to what particular laws and guidelines public health management principles The resource is available on PLWHA really mean in practice - notably as in relation to HIV and the renowned Victoria's website: applied against each instance of each record of effective responses to HIV unique patient (in his or her particular infection, care of people with HIV/ Source: Australasian Society of HIV circumstances) attending for care. AIDS, scientific research and cohesive Medicine - http://www.ashm.org.au/ Furthermore there is often a tension societal responses. between provisions, with legal requirements not always supporting They have also generated substantial good public health practice and vice (often sensationalist) media coverage, communicating a distorted version of events and contributing HIV has had a profound impact to various constructions of what on Australian law, triggering the those prosecutions mean. This development of numerous legal situation has the potential to result in: a loss of confidence in health poslink August 200 issue 52 Positive Women Kel ie Madge For HIV-positive women, sex and Our "Fun safe sex" dinner workshop In August, Positive Women Victoria relationships can be difficult in the will educate HIV-positive women will hold our annual Health and face of HIV. The Straightpoz Study2 about safe sex and encourage Wellbeing weekend for members. found that for heterosexual HIV- discussion about how to make The purpose of the weekend is for positive individuals HIV can "have safe sex fun in a confidential and members to be able to provide each a profound impact on peoples supportive environment. Positive other with peer support, in a safe sense of themselves as sexual Women Victoria will also be stocking and comfortable environment, while beings and on their confidence and the second generation female learning by participating in activities capacity to negotiate new intimate condom for our members, which will that will promote improved health relationships"2. empower HIV-positive women in and wellbeing. Activities will include looking after their sexual health. a focus on physical and mental health and trained counsellors will be The HIV Futures 6 survey report available to groups and individuals. released this year indicates that The strong voice of HIV-positive Opportunities for members to express one third of female respondents women in the community continues themselves via the arts will also be (81 women) were "not having sex with two HIV-positive women explored. Positive Women Victoria's at the present time". Of the female speaking about living with HIV to member weekends are always very respondents currently having sex, around 150 young people at two popular, with member feedback nearly all had told their partner that universities. Our latest member demonstrating that the blend of peer they were HIV-positive and over newsletter also included a member support and educational activities half of these individuals expressed story about working with mainstream around living with HIV make the fear of rejection during disclosure1. services for healthcare support weekends a great success. Difficulties in disclosing and and working with an HIV agency to negotiating safe sex, together with participate in art therapy projects. fear of rejection and transmission Positive Women Victoria encourages Finally Positive Women Victoria constitute some of the barriers to sex and provides support to members is thrilled to announce we have for HIV-positive women.
wishing to share their story, whether it relocated to the Queen Victoria is for the benefit of other members or Women's Centre (QVWC) in Lonsdale the education of the community. Street, Melbourne. Moving to the Positive Women Victoria will be QWVC will allow us to better meet the looking at safe sex, relationships future needs of our members and our and disclosure for HIV-positive Positive Women Victoria's July needs as a growing organisation.
women over the next 12 months. In member get-together was very September, we are pleased to have well attended, with members, Maureen Matthews, B.A. (Hons), Dip board and staff coming together Positive Women Victoria Ed. Sex Educator join us on a "Fun safe for peer support. Newly diagnosed sex" dinner workshop for members. Level 1 210 Lonsdale Street, women, of which Positive Women Maureen is the Founder/Owner of Victoria has seen a sudden increase Bliss For Women, an online women's in membership in 2010, had the Ph: 03 9921 0860 sensuality shop and as a member opportunity to meet other HIV- Thank you for your ongoing support of the Association of Sex Educators, positive women, some for the first and we look forward to welcoming Researchers and Relationship you in our new space.
Therapists, Maureen regularly speaks with groups, at conferences and training events. She has also Women living more long term with appeared on television, writes regular HIV were able to impart knowledge 1 J Grierson, J Power, M Pitts, S Croy, T Clement, R Thorpe and columns for major newspapers and and experience as women living with K McDonald (2009) HIV Futures 6: Making Positive Lives Count, has been published in a number of HIV to their peers. This connecting monograph series number 74, The Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, Latrobe University, Melbourne, of members and fostering peer support opportunities is a core part in 2 Persson, A., Richards, W., Barton, D., & Reakes, K. (2009). Men providing support to our members. and women living heterosexually with HIV: The Straightpoz study Volume 2 (Mongraph1/2009). Sydney: National Centre in HIV Social Research, The University of New South Wales. poslink August 200 issue 52 PLWHA Victoria offers members a
limited free legal Will service
via De Ayers.
xUnderstand your legal position xEnsure your assets will go to the people you choose xGive yourself peace of mind For further information please call
PLWHA Victoria on 03 9865 6772.
The service covers up to six beneficiaries and has no provision for setting up trusts and fund management.
Issue 5, March 2016 OQNHE 3rd INTERNATIONAL OQNHE conference, Benchmark, Test Blueprint and more. Hello friends.Oman Quality Network in Higher Education is proud to announce the publication of the fifth issue of its e-newsletter. This issue provides a glimpse into the activities conducted by the Network through some articles related to the higher