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Medicine Lakex

Final baseline

Forum Syd, a Swedish Non Governmental Organization (NGO) working together with The Livelihoods Foundation (LEO), a Kenyan NGO to support the Empowerment of Rural Population in Nyatoto Community in Central Division of Homa Bay County in Kenya, Africa. Forum Syd has solicited support from SIDA, Sweden to fulfill this objective. LEO has in the past, undertaken community development activity in the construction of health facility among the Nyatoto community. During this period, and with community participation, identified Household Food Insecurity as a "top-of- the agenda" issue needing
urgent attention. The others were listed as HIV/AIDS, Improvement of the new Nyatoto Health Centre Facility, High school drop-out among the girl child education and lack of title deeds for Land Ownership as a means for accessing financial resources. Previously, LEO has supported, with other partners, the Construction and Operation of a Health Facility, which, now provides the Nyatoto community with Outpatients, Maternal Child Health, Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), Treatment, Care and Support services. It is LEO's intention to take the Nyatoto Community to the next level. During this calendar year (2011), Forum Syd, SVEO and LEO have finalized arrangements to support the Nyatoto Community by improving the conditions of all the people living in Nyatoto through a multifaceted program that encompasses: community awareness on basic human rights,
increasing their self sufficiency in food production, substantially reduce poverty, improve
and make longer the health of those infected and affected by HIV/AIDS, conserve and
positively manage their environment, pay closer attention to gender issues, secure more
peace and security to the community and improve and develop the youth perspective for a
better tomorrow. In order to effectively and efficiently undertake these tasks, (SVEO) has requested LEO to prepare and conduct a baseline survey in Nyatoto in March 2011 before Program Implementation commences. 1.1 Background to the study area
Nyatoto is a sub-location of Ruma Location in Central division of Suba district in Homa Bay county Kenya. Central division comprises of four locations and nine sub-locations. According to 2009 Kenya population and housing census report the population of central division is 37,803 of which male are 18,477 and female are 19,416, all dwelling in some 8065 households. Ruma location has a population of 2,443 males and 2,400 females totaling to 4843 within 922 households, while Nyatoto sub location of Ruma location has a population of 1,164 males and 1, 811 females totaling 3,476 within 676 households. According to Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey of 2007(KAIS,) Suba district is one of the districts in Kenya with the highest HIV prevalence rate estimated at 27%. Deaths due to HIV/AIDS has left several orphans behind resulting in high child dependency of half orphans 5.8 % and 9.6 % total orphans of 0-14 years who needs special care. Child dependency ration is 88.3 % and age dependency ration is 6.93 % making a total of dependency 95.2 %. In addition to this, Suba has one of the highest maternal mortality rates of (MMR) of births 780 women per 10,000; live births under five mortality rate of 247 per 1000; Child Mortality Rate of 100.1 per 1000; and infant mortality rate of or 146.9 per 1000. Rural absolute poverty is 52.2 and around 61,301 (47.2 %.) people are regarded as total food poor. 1.2 Problem statement major issues, summarize
In 2008 the Livelihoods foundation undertook a participatory situation analysis of Nyatoto with community members and the community identified five major problems affecting them most as:- food insecurity, HIV/AIDS, high rates of school drop-out among girls, health facility improvement by provision of drugs by the government, lack of title deeds and alcohol or substance abuse. The community prioritized food insecurity as the problem number one to be 1.3 Research questions
What are the demographic, socio cultural, geographic and administrative factors in Nyatoto? How does the concerned farmer of Nyatoto learn farming skills today? What knowledge and resources, in regards to farming, are lacking amongst farmers in Nyatoto? How does the loss of old/indigenous agricultural knowledge and practices show today? How big is the average harvest today? What strategies can be developed to increase the current knowledge of the farmers and contribute to an increased in crop harvests Gender - Who of the male/female will benefit from the project? Why and in what way? HIV/AIDS - To find out HIV/AIDS prevalence, for children 0-15 years, youth 15-24 years and for adults above 25 years. How may the current HIV/AIDS situation affect the project if at all? Environmental management- How does the project take into consideration positive and negative impacts on the local environment? What are, if any, the positive and/or negative aspects of the project on the environment that needs to be taken in consideration during implementing the project? Peace and conflict resolution - Are there any ongoing conflicts that may affect the project? Have any community members been trained in conflict management/resolution? Human Rights - How does the situation today relate to, for example, the rights to food, right to work etc.? How may the implementation of this project improve access to these rights? Youth perspective and development - In what way do the youth in Nyatoto community relate to the current situation of farming/farmers? In what way may their situation be improved through the project? How does the proposed project relate do sustainable development? 1.4 Broad Objective
This household baseline survey was intended to capture demographic, social cultural, health of women of reproductive health and children under five years, health seeking behavior of the community, environment and water, conflict gender and youth involvement in agriculture. 1.4.1 Specific Objectives
To describe the demographic , socio cultural, geographic and administrative factors in Nyatoto To find out how the concerned farmers of Nyatoto learn farming skills today To find out if knowledge and resources, in regards to farming, are lacking amongst farmers in Nyatoto To investigate how the loss of old agricultural knowledge manifests itself today To establish the average harvest today. To determine the strategies that can be developed to increase the knowledge of the farmers and contribute to an increase in crop yields. To find out which Gender - male/female will benefit more from the project? Why and in what way To find out HIV/AIDS prevalence, for children 0-15 years, youth 15-24 years and for adults above 25 years. How may the current HIV/AIDS situation impacts on the project if at all. To describe how the project would take in consideration the positive, and negative impacts on the local environment. To describe the positive and/or negative aspects of the project on the environment that needs to be taken in consideration for the implementation of the project. To find out Peace and conflict resolution mechanisms in Nyatoto sub-location Are there any ongoing conflicts that may affect the project? Have any community members been trained in conflict management/resolution? To determine Human Rights situation today in relation to the rights to food, and right to work? To determine how may the implementation of the project improve the community access to these rights To determine in what way(s), do the youth in community relate to the current situation of the farmer To find out how the youth situation may improve through the proposed project implementation To describe how the proposed project relate do the overall sustainable development. 1.5 Scope and Limitations
The baseline study was conducted only in Nyatoto sub-location of Suba district Western Kenya. The questions were limited to issues and events as follows: - within 6 months (for mortality), within 3 months (for household membership), and, within 1year (to cover the last harvesting period). Time and resources was not adequate to undertake a more in depth and wider geographical coverage. 1.6 Justification
The study was undertaken because Nyatoto community identified food insecurity as a major problem in 2009 during the situation analysis conducted by the Livelihoods foundation. In 2009 two representatives of Swedish UN association visited Nyatoto community and the community, once more, identified food insecurity as their main problem. Previously, food aid supplied by the Government has been far much inadequate. This baseline survey therefore will provide a solid foundation upon which future interventions would be easily undertaken by the Government and other stakeholders. CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Baseline Survey
Is a Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data. It can also be defined as a survey designed to establish initial conditions against which the effects of a finished project can be compared. The purpose of the study is to provide an information base against which to monitor and assess an activity's progress and effectiveness during implementation and after the activity is completed. 2.2 Health and medical issues in sub-Saharan Africa
People in Sub-Saharan were facing nothing less than health emergency at the beginning of 21st century. The most serious health challenges were the rampant HIV/AIDS Epidemics malaria and severe malnutrition in certain populations, putting children under five at increased risk of succumbing to largely preventable children illnesses Much of the burden of disease in sub-Sahara Africa is preventable, however, many of the health improvement achieved during the 1960s and 1970s begun to lose in 1980s, as poverty, bad governance and internal conflicts took their toll. During the 1990s, the emergence of HIV/AIDS epidemic, fueled by poverty, malnutrition, and high rates of tuberculosis (TB) infection began to reverse many basic health indicators, the downward spiral of ill health and poverty has since left the region with unprecedented health problems, nearly all of which have attracted global responses in recognition of their It is widely accepted that public services in most sub-Saharan Africa countries have failed to deliver even the most basic services required for improving health. To compound this failure, the basic standards of living has fallen for many people living on less than $1 per day in other regions as that of the world having declined, the numbers in sub-Saharan Africa have remained static or become worse. According to the word Bank, an estimate of 345million people in the region (more than one half of the population) were living in poverty in 2000s an increase of 300million, during the 1990s. Researchers are now beginning to understand that ill health hits the poorest hardest. Compared from those of wealthier households, poor children in sub-Saharan Africa are more likely to die before their fifth birthday, 10 times more likely to die before their 15th birthday and nine times to die from infectious disease, according to the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF). Many of the developing efforts directed at the region since the early 1990s have focused on poverty reduction strategies. However, some organizations believe that ill health should be tackled in conjunction with poverty, as it directly contributes to poverty itself, simply relying on economic development to raise standard of living and improve health is not enough. Considering the impact of malaria alone, on the economic development of the region, a report in 2000 by a researcher from the Centre for International Development at Harvard University and the London school of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, estimated that economic growth in African counties with intense malaria was slowed by 1.3% per head for a year. If the disease had been eradicated, 35 years earlier the gross domestic product (GDP) of Sub-Sahara Africa would have been some $100,000m, more. In other words the short-term benefit from controlling malaria in the region would amount to an extra 412,00m per year. 2.3 HIV/AIDS and TB
The HIV/AID epidemic is halving a similar adverse effect on economic development, particularly in the agricultural sector. FAO has estimated that in 1989-2000, 7milliom agricultural workers died of HIV/AIDS in the 25 worst affected Africa countries, and that a further 16m would die before 2020, resulting in the loss of up to one quarter of agricultural work-force and consequently result into reduced in food production. According to economic analyst of the Word Bank in 2000, growth in GDP per head is up to an estimated 2.6% less among countries with HIV prevalence rate reaching 20% compared with countries with a lower prevalence rate of infection. Given the completely interdependence of relationship between poverty and ill health in sub-Sahara Africa, many experts now argue that the improvement of health should be placed back at the centre of the development agenda, as a way of lifting people out of poverty. TB infection rates are also rising in sub-Saharan Africa, fuelled by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and widespread poverty. WHO announced in early 2003 that World growth in TB infection had slowed down to just 0.45 per year. However, this marked a wide rise in TB rates in sub- Sahara Africa, which had among the highest incidence rates anywhere in the world. Incidence data from 2001 showed that 28 countries in sub-Sahara Africa had TB incidence exceeding 300 cases per 100,000 head, while the remaining countries had incidence rate of 100 and 299 cases per 100,000 head. 2.4 Water and Sanitation
About one in three of the 1.7 m. world-wide deaths is estimated to be a direct result of unsafe water and sanitation occur in sub-Sahara Africa, according to Word Health Organization 2.5 Global Food Situation
According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the number of undernourished people remains unacceptably high, close to one billion in 2010 despite expected decline –the first in 15 years. FAO estimates that a total of 925 million people are under nourished in 2010 compared with 1,023 billion in 2009. Most of the decrease was in Asia, with 80 million fewer hungry, but progress was also made in Sub Sahara Africa, where 12 million fewer people are going hungry. However, the number of hungry people is higher in 2010 than the food and economic crisis of 2008, 2009. Countries in protracted crisis require special attention. They are characterized by long-lasting or recurring crises and limited capacity to respond exacerbating food insecurity problems. Supporting institutions is key to addressing protracted crises, local institutions, in particular, can help address food insecurity problems in protracted crises, but they are often ignored by external actors. Agriculture and rural economy are key sectors for supporting livelihoods in protracted crises, but they are not properly reflected in aid flows. While agriculture accounts for a third of national income in countries in protracted crisis, the sector receives only 4% of humanitarian aid and 3% of development aid. The current aid architecture needs to be modified to better address both immediate needs and the structural causes of protracted crises. Important areas of intervention (including social protection and risk reduction) are often underfunded. 2.6 Central & Eastern Africa Food security Situation
The onset of the current March-May rains has been delayed and poorly distributed in the region thereby exacerbating the dry conditions. Households in the pastoral and marginal cropping areas face food insecurity also due to the increasing staple food prices, high fuel prices and declining purchasing power. Notable food insecurity situation persists throughout central Somalia. The January/February 2011 crop harvests in southern Somalia were only 20 percent of the average, while water and pasture availability are extremely poor. A rainfall deficit is currently being experienced in most parts of the country as the Gu rainy season is yet to start. In Ethiopia, the February-May rains have begun late and have been erratically distributed. The southern and south-eastern pastoral and agro-pastoral parts of the country face critical shortages of water and pasture. Food insecurity among the poor and very poor households in these areas is becoming increasingly alarming. Prices of staple foods remain high in the abovementioned areas, despite an average to above-average 2010 main season harvest. The agro-pastoral areas of north-eastern Kenya are experiencing erratic rainfall distribution both in time and space. A majority of the very poor and poor households are unlikely to meet their required food needs until the next harvest in September 2011. Currently about 1.4 million pastoralists face moderate to acute food insecurity in these parts of the country. Most of the March to May rains in the eastern Horn is usually expected in April, but the reduced precipitation so far received in April will most likely intensify food insecurity in these areas. The increasing fuel prices and tightening of markets are predicted to lead to further staple food price increases thereby increasing food insecurity among the poor and very poor across the region until June/July 2011. 2.7 Food situation in Kenya
According to the World Bank, the price of maize flour, a staple food for many Kenyans, has increased by 27 percent in the past three months (February – April 2011). 2.8 Agriculture in Kenya
Agriculture is the mainstay of Kenya economy and currently represents 24% of GDP. More than one third of Kenya agricultural produce is exported, and this accounts for 65% of Kenya's total exports. The agricultural sector accounts for 18% of total formal employment in the country. There are more than 15 million small holders engaged in agricultural activities in Kenya estate, and plantation farms of various sizes and are fewer in number and make up a small part of sector. The agricultural sector is made up of sub-sectors, namely; industrial crops, food crops, horticulture and livestock and fisheries. Despite the central role that agriculture plays in the Kenya economy, the sector continues to face four major challenges that have to do with productivity, land use, markets and value addition. Agricultural productivity is constrained by a number of factors, including; high cost of inputs (especially the price of fertilizer and seeds), poor livestock husbandry, limited extension services, overdependence on rain fed agriculture, lack of markets and limited application of agricultural technology and innovation. However, for some crops, the productivity of Kenyan farmers is close to international standards. 2.9 Suba district demographic, socio cultural, geographic and administrative factors
Suba is one of the twenty one (21) districts forming Nyanza province. It is located on the South western shores of Lake Victoria between longitudes 34o E and 34 0 20 E and latitudes 0º º20''S and 0o52''S. It borders Rarieda and Bondo districts to the north across the lake, Homabay and Rachuonyo districts to the East and Migori districts to the South and Lake Victoria to the West where it borders the Republic of Tanzania to the South West and Uganda to the West. The district also comprises of sixteen islands the major ones being Mfangano, Rusinga Kibwogi and Takawiri Islands. The district's mainland and 16 islands cover an area of 1,055.4 km2, with the water surface accounting for 11.3% of the total district area. 2.10 Administrative and Political Units
The district consists of five divisions; Mbita, Lambwe, Central, Gwasi and Mfangano (see figure 1.1). Within these divisions are found twenty locations and 51 sub locations as is summarised in table 1.0 below. Table 1-1
Suba district administrative units
Area (km2)
Source: CBS Population and Housing Census, 1999 2.11 Political Units
The district has two parliamentary constituencies namely Mbita and Gwasi constituencies. Mbita constituency comprises Mbita, Lambwe and Mfangano divisions while Gwasi constituency comprises Central and Gwasi divisions. There are two local authorities namely Mbita Point Town Council and the Suba Country Council, which have 5 and 7 civic wards The district does not have any permanent river flowing through it. The once permanent rivers such as the Sulu and Gera have since become seasonal streams owing mainly to continuous destruction of their catchment areas over the years. Consequently, the main sources of water are underground sources and the Lake Victoria. 2.12 Major Development Challenges and Cross Cutting Issues
Major development challenges
2.12.1 Food Insecurity
Food crops grown in the district include sorghum, millet, cassava, maize and sweet potatoes. Due to limited exposure, lack of role models and unfavorable climatic conditions, a large proportion of the district's productive population, especially the young have a negative attitude towards farming as a source of livelihood. The situation is exacerbated by an increasingly morbid population occasioned by the HIV and Aids scourge as well as other competing alternatives like fishing and small off-farm business enterprises with quick returns. The perception of the people living around the Lake Victoria is that fishing is less taxing compared to farming. Other factors contributing to the poor agricultural productivity include retrogressive cultural practices for example golo kothi which can affect farm operations such
as land preparation. Other factors include low rainfall, poor soils, high post harvest losses, low crop diversity and quick sales after harvest to meet immediate household demands. The coping mechanism adopted by most rural households: ‐ Charcoal burning and sale of firewood ‐ Sale of small stock and chicken ‐ Exchange of farm produce for other preferred cereals and commodities/items ‐ Small business – vegetables, fish trade, and, water vending ‐ Reduction in the number of meals taken per day. In order to achieve a stable food security in the district, several measures shall be put in place to address this situation including: 2.12.2 Environmental conservation
• Promotion of labour saving techniques for soil and water conservation such as grass strips, agro forestry and use of draught animal power in the farms. • Promotion of conservation farming techniques such as conservation tillage and • Training on soil fertility enhancement • Water harvesting for improved moisture retention. • Promotion of agro forestry activities such as community nurseries and planting of multi-purposes trees for domestic use. • Protection of degraded areas. 2.12.3 Agricultural and livestock production improvements
• Promote drought resistant strains of crops such as cassava, sorghum, and millet. • Sensitization about the value horticultural fruits and vegetables such as bananas, passion and mangoes as well as value addition for the same of the common traditional crops. • Training on better crop husbandry practices. • Bulking on specific food security crops • Promotion of small scale irrigation • Promotion of kitchen gardening • Livestock production improvement to include the following.  Upgrading of indigenous cattle breeds  Promotion of poultry production  Training of private animal service providers 2.12.4 Poor Infrastructure
The road network in the district is very poor. Transportation of people and goods is a challenge especially during rainy seasons. The farmers in the district have experienced difficulties when transporting their produce to internal and regional markets. The cost of transportation is usually higher during the rainy season and have often led to huge loses especially where perishable produce like fish and tomatoes. The would-be buyers and investors from outside the district are also discouraged by the state of the roads, with the net result being reduced levels of investment which would be a stimulus to the growth and development of district's weak economy. Household and other essential consumer goods in the retail outlets are also usually priced higher since the traders increase the prices to cover for the transport expenses. This results into a net reduction of the people's purchasing power. 2.12.5 Limited access to Business Development Services
With the exception of micro-finance institutions, there have been no properly organized financial services in the district for a long time. However, two banks; the Equity Bank and the Cooperative Bank have recently set up operational units at the district headquarters. This implies that the much needed services are now closer to the people. However the credit provision functions of the two banks is expected to be limited by the fact that majority of the district population do not have land title deeds, which are the conventional form of collateral against which to secure loans for capital and other business development purposes. The banks however will play a big role in nurturing the saving cultures of the districts population, and subsequently, encouraging investments. 2.12.6 Limited availability of electric energy
The district has been connected to the national electricity grid for about 3 years. However, the supply of power is characterized by frequent outages, which on average occur every day. This scenario seriously affects the small scale industries such as welding units, mechanical works, cooling plants, barber shops, salons and information technology, with the immediate result being the loss of revenue. This is a serious challenge particularly for businesses which are started on borrowed capital without insurance cover. A second problem affecting power is the supply of power at voltage levels below what would be sufficient for the running of business equipment/tools. The most affected consumers are the Mbita Ice plant and the Lake Victoria South Water Services Board, which serve critical
areas of ice production for fish preservation and water supply in the district. These users are often forced to operate under their optimal capacity. The availability of power at appropriate voltage will support the operation of fish processing and cooling plants for preservation of fish and establishment of agro-industries. These and other industries/businesses play a big role in boosting livelihood opportunities in the district as well as tackling poverty directly. Lack of power also negatively affects telecommunication because many of the communication service providers especially those relying on computers and other electricity propelled communication equipment. The general population is also left out because of the inability to operate electronic equipment such as radios and television, which are critical ICT tools for informative purposes. 2.12.7 Cross cutting issues
This plans takes due cognizance of a number of issues which cannot be taken in isolation, because they cut across all sectors. It is also clear that if these issues are not tackled with deliberate efforts, the successes in the other sectors will be constrained. Paying attention to these issues is not only for poverty reduction but also for the sustained successes in the other sectors. This plan has identified the following as the main cross cutting issues in the district. 2.12.8 Gender
Defined for the context of this plan, gender refers to the culturally based or socially assigned expectations of roles and behaviors of males and females. The mention of culture and social assignment means that expectations and behaviors are expected to vary from one place to another. However, of keen interest to this plan are the gender disparities, which manifest themselves in the various aspects of social life. In Suba, it is worth noting that women make up 52% of the district population, which creates rationale for their equal, if not, more access to and participation in the district social and economic development processes. The gender development index (GDI) for Suba is currently at 0.460 compared to 0.470 for Nyanza and Kenya's 0.556. The impacts of gender disparities on development can be best argued appreciating that provinces considered to have better human development indices or lower human poverty indices (HPI) such as Nairobi and Central have higher gender development indices. This is not coincidental. On the contrary, it can be argued that lower gender disparities as an aggregate contribute to better development indices. If not for many reasons, a basic fact is that enlisting women's participation in the socio-economic development processes means enlisting the more 50% of human capacity available alongside that of men. The reverse can be argued if the participation of women is excluded or constrained. Comparison of Suba's human poverty index of 41.8 with Kiambu's 21.3 and that of the respective gender related development indices 0.460 and 0.592 is supportive of this assertion. A deeper analysis of the gender disparities reveals that they are more attributable to systemic imbalances such as the education system and social construction rather than deliberate. The priorities given to boys' education over girls and the high school drop-out rates for girls continue to result in a community of young mothers who are largely illiterate. Such women are not able to effectively participate in development initiatives geared towards improving their socio-economic status. The literacy rate for women aged 15 years and above is at 69.4%, a proportion much lower than their male counterparts, which is at 90%. While the transition rate from Primary to secondary school is 88% for boys, only 37% of girls move to secondary schools after primary school. This is partly caused by limited secondary school facilities for girls as well as high drop- out rates attributed to numerous factors including early pregnancies and early marriage. In the last 3 public university intakes by the Joint Admissions Board, the proportion of girls qualifying for entry into state sponsored university courses has been 5.8%, 5.5% and 3.5% respectively, implying not only low proportions but one that is declining further. While addressing the systemic gender inequities that disadvantage the female gender, care should be taken to counter the threat of reversing the tide against the male gender. In Suba, such strategies need to address primary interventions such as healthcare, to ensure that that specific health needs such as reproductive health, which affect women more than men are Due to the unequal gender relations, women have no control over productive resources and as such have no major decision making powers over them. As a result women are not able to effectively participate in development activities and improve their economic position e.g. as women do not own property and assets, should a married woman acquire some property or livestock, it is likely to come under the control of the husband. This discourages the entrepreneurial spirit of women and helps keep in their low economic status. The district therefore needs to address women's access to expanded economic opportunities such as business capital, training, advice and marketing support. Of key highlight here is the "Jaboya" phenomenon where women in some beaches in the district trade sex for fish.
Access to credit would in such cases reduce the women's vulnerability to such exploitative and hazardous business practices. Other aspects of gender development which the plan will seek to address include factors that influence access to education opportunities at all levels, and, equal participation in political and decision making processes in the district. 2.12.9 HIV and Aids
The next cross cutting issue that this plan chose to dwell on is HIV and Aids. This is of great significance given that the district has one of the highest HIV and Aids prevalence rates in the country (currently at 27%). The disease poses a great challenge to sustained socio-economic development. However, as a disease, Aids is unique because its determinants transcend beyond the personal or individual risk taking factors into socio-economic domain; including factors such as poverty, deprivation, as well as social and economic alienation. The brunt of the HIV and Aids problem is felt most at the household level, where a combination of inadequate social services, limited access to balanced diets, limited livelihood opportunities continue to propagate a disabling environment of poverty and eventually translates to reduced coping capacities and development of vulnerable groups. This is aggravated by the fact that the disease affects the most productive segments of households (men and women aged 18-49 years), thereby increasing the burden on the young and old. Indeed the disease is major contributor to the reduced life expectancy in the district (42 years for women and 36.5 years The disease has placed not only an additional but also constant and expanding strain on the resources available for health investments. However, the district has registered reduction in disease prevalence to 27%. This can be attributed to various interventions by both government and development partners working in the district. These include widespread distribution of condoms, the ART programme, VCT and PMCT as well as robust behavior change campaigns. New strategies such as male circumcision are also expected alongside the other convectional interventions under the four thematic areas of the Kenya National HIV and Aids Strategic Plan (KNASP), a process which is spearheaded by NACC. Besides the general discussion on HIV and Aids, this district plan recognizes the special relationship between gender and HIV and Aids as manifested in Suba district. The physical and emotional burdens of caring for sick family members and ensuring their food security under such economic conditions often takes a huge toll on women's health and wellbeing. Socio-cultural norms that define female and male roles and responsibilities affect women's access to and use of health services including HIV and Aids services. As the first line of health care providers for their family, women often put the health needs of their families above their own and do not seek medical attention until they are seriously ill. 2.12.10 Poverty
Poverty is a multi dimensional phenomenon with several definitions. The local community in Suba associates poverty with inability by the individual or households to access basic needs. According to the Kenya Integrated Household and Budget Survey released by the Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 in 2007, 52.2% of the population is estimated to be living below the poverty line. Much as this is lower than the figures of 66% in 2005, the poverty levels in the district remain above the national average. Beyond the material wealth aspect of poverty, the vulnerability and multidimensional deprivation of basic necessities such as food, health, and education is indeed key aspects of poverty as can be found in the district. The factors advanced as being responsible for the sustained high levels of poverty are - Retrogressive cultural practices - Socio-economic issues, especially those surrounding HIV and Aids. - Poor physical infrastructure - Socio-political issues both of present and historical nature - Behavioural practices influenced by negative attitudes The socio-cultural practices include such practices as early marriages, polygamy, wife inheritance and discrimination against women and girls. The socio economic factors include low levels of public investment in supportive infrastructure and poor performance of agricultural subsets such as cotton farming, which were precipitated by liberalization have also diminished the range of economic activities available for the people in the district. Geophysical aspects such as frequent drought and soils with low productivity have also contributed to overall reduction in wealth creation in the district. Attitude related factors include a high preference for formal employment over those of entrepreneurial nature such as farming, fish trading. The high prices of agricultural input prices and poor policies in the agricultural sector has only aided in increasing the impacts of this negative attitudes towards farming. It is therefore common to find large tracts of land lying fallow in the district. Available statistics suggest that higher levels of illiteracy are consistent with higher levels of household poverty among household heads. The statistics also point to a strong gender dimension. In a district where fewer women are economically empowered and where 47% of households are headed by women, the levels of household poverty are expected to be correspondingly high. 2.12.11 Governance
The link between governance and development has never been more apparent than lately at both the national and sub national contexts. "To reaffirm that good governance is essential for sustainable development; that sound economic policies, solid democratic institutions responsive to the needs of the people and improved infrastructure are the basis for sustained economic growth, poverty eradication and employment creation; and that freedom, peace and security, domestic stability, respect for human rights, including the right to development, the rule of law, gender equality and market-oriented policies and an overall commitment to just and democratic societies are also essential and mutually reinforcing." – UN General Assembly 2005 World Summit Governance issues relevant to the district include such issues as service delivery, setting of targets and public participation in the development processes. This concerns both public departments as well as Civil Society Organizations (CSO) in the context of rights based approaches of development planning and programming. Another dimension of good governance, which is particularly important to the district, relates to the relationship between the Government and CSO s. Suba district features a prominent presence of CSOs in many forms; NGOs, FBOs and CBOs as well as Self Help Groups (SHG s). These organizations play an important role in the articulation of different views, the monitoring and evaluation of government policies, programmes & projects, and mobilization of local resources and expertise to meet local and community-based needs. A vibrant civil society with adequate capacity is of pivotal relevance in poverty reduction and on the broader scale, the achievement of both the MDGs and the Vision 2030. The civil society in Suba has contributed through advocacy and creating awareness, social mobilization of specific groups, empowerment of communities through enabling their participation in policy making, livelihood programmes, training, relief and rehabilitation as well as in mobilization of financial and human resources. Non government organizations in Suba have partnered with the Government in the delivery of development services notably in water and sanitation, primary health care, education, and mitigation of the impacts of HIV and Aids, thereby improving service quality and coverage. However, the levels of cooperation between the civil society and the Government departments in the district remain at levels lower than desired. Similarly, the transparency and levels of accountability to the public of these organizations remains a key challenge. The participation of the district's population in development planning, monitoring and evaluation is a key consideration where governance is concerned. The increase in the range of devolved funds such as Community Development Trust Fund (CDTF), Constituency Development Fund (CDF), Constituency Bursary Fund (CBF) and Local Authority Transfer Fund (LATF) has served to increase the availability of resources to people at the local level. The effective and efficient use of these funds and participation in the selection of projects and budgeting are equally important if the realization of effective use of funds and implementation of successful project are to be realized. 2.12.12 Information and Communication Technology
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that refers to all technologies for communication of information. In simple terms, it will encompass the medium for recording information and also the technologies for broadcasting or communicating the information. ICTs hold a revolutionary potential, in the development of the district, especially with reference to computer based systems enhanced through connection to the World Wide Web. Mobile Telephony also comes in as keys for the ICT to Access to ICTs is a key to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) because they expand the range of opportunities available for economic engagement. Access to critical ICT resources in the district will be necessary contribution to the poverty eradication through creation of knowledge based society. The district development plan ICT makes a case for the provision of an opportunity for the large majority of the district population to make their day to day decision backed by knowledge and information. This is the DDP linkage with the Vision 2030, which sets to transform Kenya into a middle income country within the next 22 years. The district's performance in the ICT sector is still very poor with more than 90% of the population being without access to internet and also basic IT skills. The district has less than five active internet sites and the existing ones have limited capacity. The district information and documentation is one such which was established mainly to support the e-government To achieve the information and IT aspirations of the district, the strategies required include and are not limited to development of rural ICT centers to promote awareness on the technologies, especially as far as e-government is concerned. However, in conformity with principles of sustainable development, ICT entrepreneurship should be encouraged to counter dependency. This approach also reverberates with the shift of paradigm towards public private partnerships. ICT education in schools is currently limited to only one secondary school in the district and further development of the same is hampered by limited availability 2.12.13 Environmental Management
The district is endowed with a high diversity of natural resources including land, various types of soils, water from Lake Victoria, diversity of fish species, wildlife, various types of vegetation, crops and livestock. The above natural resources form an important resource base which supports the livelihoods of the local community. However, in the process of exploitation of the above resources, some of the human activities have caused significant negative impacts on the environmental. Poverty situation and people's search for livelihoods through poor agricultural/farm practices and other human activities are the key underlying causes of the widespread environmental degradation in the district. A wide range of activities including poor farming practices, encroachment on trust lands, charcoal production, sand harvesting, wetlands, drainage, poor environmental sanitation among other activities have contributed to the high levels of environmental degradation currently in the district. Poor farming practices particularly basal fallow system of cultivation where a farmer clears a parcel of land and cultivates for several years until the soil loses fertility. Thereafter this land is left fallow and another parcel is opened for cultivation. In this form of cultivation there are virtually no farm inputs mainstreamed into the cultivation system. In addition, there are no soil conservation measures including terraces and grass strips incorporated to protect the substrate and natural resources. This type of farming is to a large extent, responsible for environmental degradation including sheet, gulley and soil erosion in areas such as Lambwe, Central and Gwasi divisions. The situation is exacerbated by farming along the steep slopes and bush burning along the Ruri and Gwasi hills. 2.12.14 Overgrazing: Overgrazing is commonly noticed due to significant reduction in
vegetation cover in Rusinga Island, Sindo and Lambwe Valley. 2.12.15 Encroachment of trust lands: There has been significant encroachment of trust
lands in catchments areas especially in Gwasi hills, Lambwe hills, Ruri hills. Many of the hills have not been gazetted as forest reserves and hence the district forest officer does not have a depurate mandate to manage the trust lands. Most of the hills are classified as trust lands under the management of county councils. The county councils do not have adequate technical and financial capacity to manage the forest. Large and deep gullies have now been formed and more gullies are now at different stages of formation. During the rains the gullies carry tremendous amounts of run-off that are now undermining bridges and other road installations down streams of the Gwasi and Lambwe hills. 2.12.16 Pollution:
Areas with high levels of pollution in the district include the fishing beaches and urban centers of Sindo, Mbita and Nyandiwa. These levels of pollution are mainly due to surface run-off during rains, and washing of human waste into the lake attributed to the low coverage of latrines and sanitation facilities in the densely populated areas. In addition there is significant contamination of the Lake Victoria emanating from oil spills from boats, bathing, dishwashing and washing of cars. In the towns of Mbita and Sindo, the problem of waste management emerges as challenges especially with increasing populations in these areas. The solid waste includes flimsy plastics usually used for packaging, paper, clothes, tins, food remains. The poor sanitation especially in major towns of Sindo and Mbita aggravates to problem. Cultural practices that involve direct watering of livestock – in water bodies, washing in the beaches remain largely In addition, latrine coverage is low standing at 34% and high percentage of the community use the bush with resultant introduction of faecal matter into the water bodies when it rains. This accounts for the high prevalence of water borne diseases including typhoid, cholera, diarrhea, and dysentery in the district. 2.12.17 Peace Building and National Diversity
The post election conflict (of 2007/08) that affected the country did not spare the district as a
number of people were displaced from their homes and businesses both from inside and outside the district. The crisis is for purposes of this development plan, viewed in the context of its impact on the development progress of the district. The conflict mainly affected Mbita Point, the district headquarters as well as Gwasi and Lambwe Valley, which account for about 50% of the district's food production. Similarly, a number of people, originally from the district but resident elsewhere were displaced and on returning to the district, they required relief support. The education sector was seriously affected by the exit of many teachers from the district, with a net increase in the teacher; pupil ratio. 2.12.18 Youth perspective
The promotion of sustainable agriculture in developing countries could have important direct and indirect implications for economic development. Growth accelerated by the agricultural sector is not restricted to the agricultural sector only, but is believed to spill over to other sectors in the economy, like processing industries, supply industries, and the transport sector. A smoothly functioning agricultural sector can increase food availability, improve price mechanisms and increase employment opportunities. In this sense, agriculture can be seen as the engine of poverty reduction and of growth of the economy in general (Dorward et al 2003). A prerequisite for positive spill-over effects however is a good institutional quality and a high level of social capital. Social capital is defined by trust relations, reciprocity and exchanges, common rules and norms, and networks and groups (Pretty 2003). Social capital is important for several reasons. In the first place it stimulates economic development, as it tends to lower transaction costs (e.g. costs of information, monitoring, searching, contracting), and makes people more responsive to changing market conditions. A second and related aspect is that social capital reduces risks, and supports innovative behavious. In an environment with a high level of social capital, people are more likely to invest and to join new linkages with others, for example in farmers' cooperatives. Especially, the first three aspects take time to be built up; the fourth aspect is rather an outcome of the latter three characteristics of social capital. In times of crisis however, social capital can easily be broken down. Youth can serve as an important focus group for rural development projects, especially in areas where the level of social capital is low and when institutional quality is poor. For example, the younger generation tends to be more open for innovation than the older generation (IPMS 2007). Various authors however have pointed out that the youth has higher change than other age groups to move to urban areas in order to find a job in the informal sector (see Lucas 2004) or to become active in rebel groups in times of war (see Bellow and Miguel 2006) when institutional quality is low. Focusing on the youth therefore, in programs that stimulate sustainable agricultural development, could improve social capital, reduce risk, and stimulate economic growth. Youth can be defined in many contexts such as transitional, demographic, cultural, biological and social. In this context, the youth is defined within demographic and transitory paradigms. Transitional paradigm issues include marriageablity, responsibility (social and economic), maturity and reproductively. Youth unemployment has become a major challenge in the 21st Century. The Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions highly affected by youth unemployment. It is estimated to be more than 21% (ILO: 2003). According to ILO projection, Sub-Saharan Africa will witness substantial growth in additional labour force of 28 million - 30 million between 2003 and 2015. While contending that the current economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa countries will not cope with the growing number of unemployed youth in the region, alternative strategies need to be developed before situation gets out of control. In Kenya, youth unemployment is a serious development issue. It is estimated that 64% of unemployed persons in Kenya are youth. Interestingly only 1.5% of the unemployed youth have formal education beyond secondary school level and the remaining over 92% have no vocational or professional skills training and the majorities are found in the rural Kenya. Due to inadequate employment and livelihood opportunities in rural areas the tendency is that they migrate to urban centers to look for such opportunities. Kenyan economy heavily depends on Agriculture (24% of GDP), which is basically rural-oriented sector. Surprisingly, Kenyan agriculture is still labour-intensive thus the out-migration of young and productive labour force from rural to urban centers has a direct negative impact on agricultural production hence job creation in other sectors which are directly or indirectly linked to the sector will be reduced. A strategy of rolling back rural –urban migration by creating opportunities for employment and access of livelihoods would have a positive spiral effect on Kenya economy. CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Study design
This study was a cross sectional survey in which quantitative and qualitative tools were use to capture the data. 3.2 Study population
The population of Nyatoto Sub- location is 3,475 representing 676 households This study targeted head of the sampled households. 3.3.1 Sampling Method for the quantitative survey
Each of the 15 household elders representing each of the 15 villages of Nyatoto sub-location provided list of their households which formed the sampling frame (504) households were provided).The final list of all households were serialized and Systematic sampling method was used to select the households for interview. 3.3.2 Sample Size determination
In order to determine the sample size we used Yamane's formula. n= N/ [1+N (e)2] Where n is the required sample size, N (676) is the population of households and e is the level of precision at 95% confidence level set at 0.05. n= 676/ [1+676(0.05)*(0.05)] =676/2.69 = 252 households The sampling interval set at 3 (702/252) and a random start was selected by toss of coin to pick the first start from the first three households on the list. 3.3.3 Sampling procedure for qualitative survey
Purposive sampling method was used to select a convenient sample of 6 key informant were interviewed including the 1 chief, 3 villager elders, 1 opinion leader and one school teacher.
3.3.4 Data collection tools
Household baseline qualitative survey questionnaire developed by The Great Lakes University of Kisumu were adapted with additional of questionnaire on conflict, youth, gender and HIV/AIDS. Qualitative questionnaire were also used as a guide for key informant 3.3.5 Data Collection Procedure
Enumerators were 10 in number and were mostly selected from Sindo and Nyatoto health facility. On the 28th February 2011 & 1st March 15, 2011, the enumerators were trained on tools which were pre tested in Mbita division Nyasara village nearby .We were guided by one of the village elder on consultation with Nyatoto and Niagara chief. After pre- test all the enumerators assembled to review the tool and necessary amendments were undertaken. Detail plans for the survey was mad before the commencement date of 2nd to 5th of March 2011. 3.3.6 Data management and analysis
Quantitative data was checked for completeness and accuracy of information collected. The data was then entered into a user friendly screen designed in EPI INFO software (version 3.4.3 of 2007) and analysis conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, SPSS version 16). Categorical variables were analyzed using frequencies while continuous data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In order to compare variables we used chi-square to assess the associations. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant at 95% confidence level. We used graph and tables to present the results. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis where the information was organized thematically to reflect each of the Objectives. CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Household demographic information for Nyatoto sub-location is intended to cover
social cultural practices including health
A total of 252 households were visited during the survey. From these households, those interviewed were heads of households/spouses (36.4 %), children (43.2%), relatives (14.5%), and Others comprising 2.1%. The sex rations of the respondents were 48.8% and 47.9% for females and males respectively. The overall education levels for these households were Primary schooling (63.0 %,), Secondary (15.6%) with none being 7.8%, and, Not applicable reported at 5.6%. The type of dwellings comprise of mud thatched houses (43.4%), semi- permanent housing (33.5%), and permanent housing being 4.1%. Latrine use in these homesteads in this order: - latrines in use as observed to be in the homestead (0.2%), latrines present but not in use (16.9%) and, no latrines sighted at all recording 43.8%. Domestic water for drinking was found to have been treated (48.8%), and no water used without any treatment 13.6%. There were further investigations into the health status for children below the age of five. Up to 63.2% of the children had clinic cards, with 14.3% not having, and another 22.5% recorded as not applicable. 64.5% and 65.1% of the children had had Penta I and Penta III vaccinations respectively, another 12.6% and 11.6% had not had the Penta I and Penta II vaccines respectively, with only 22.1% and 22.3% returning not applicable for Penta I and Penta III. This is an impressive record indeed for such a rural setting. On the other hand, Measles vaccination coverage was 64.7% having been vaccinated, with only 11.4% not having had the vaccination. Hospital delivery was recorded at 9.1%, with 10.5 non-hospital deliveries and 13.6% not indicating where and how the delivery was managed. 11.6% of the mothers attended Ant natal clinic with 10.1% not attending and 11.0% not recording this service as having been undertaken at all. Records on the Last Months Period for the last three months for mother with children under five years were: - for December 2010 (0.8%), January 2011 (0.8%), February 2011 (6.4%), Not applicable (11.0%) and don't know, recording 0.6%. Investigations on the households food security (stocks) revealed the existing stocks for Millet/Sorghum (Yes - 23.6%, No. 21.9%), Maize (Yes - 33.9%, No.14.9%), and, Beans (Yes – 5.45, No. 27.3%). And finally, there was low mortality recorded with Deaths for under 5 (Yes – 1.0%, No. 22.3% and N/A 5.8%), and, death of females between 14-49 years (Yes - 1.2%, No. 25.6% and N/A - 2.3%), and, for males (Yes - 1.3%, No. 24.7% and N/A – 2.4%).This was only attributed to the last 6 months before the survey 4.2 Material Health (Women with children<5)
Ant tetanus vaccinations for women during pregnancy showed that 45.6% of women took the vaccination, 6.7% did not take, 0.4% did not know if they took, 0.8% did not remember and those reporting not applicable were 26.6%. Out of the women interviewed those who knew about Family Planning methods were 59.1% while those who did not know represented 27.0%, with only 24.2% using one method or another, 33.7% not using any method at all, and those reporting not application accounted for 20.6%. This is further illustrated in table Two below:- Table Two: Use of various Family Methods
Inject able e.g. Depo ligation/sterilization It was evident that the majority of respondents were either reluctant to disclose the methods that they use or were not using any of the listed methods at all. Further investigations as to whether the women discussed family planning options with their spouses reveal that 2.6.1% indicated they discussed always, mostly, sometimes or rarely. And, 15.9% did not discuss at all with their spouses though they used some form of Family Planning secretly, and 24.6% registered not applicable. 4.3 Child health <5
Many mothers could not remember what they fed their children on "yesterday". Children below five years (<5) on breast milk were 23.8% while 44.0% were no longer being breastfed. The period from which the mothers stared feeding their young ones on solid food were as follows: However, when the children are sick their feeding on fluids and solid foods respectively is stated in the order below:- Feeding on fluids
Feeding on solid foods
And when the children are under diarrheal attack, protective measures undertaken by the mothers were as follows: - given nothing (6.0%), put under ORT (26. %), fed on porridge (19.0%), served with rice, water or soup (0.4%), fed on breast milk (0.8%), and, on water only registering 9.1%. 4.4 Environmental health and situation
In the homesteads, there were few leaky tins observed (12.7%) while the rest (84.5%) did not have any. Hands are mainly washed before and after meals. The main source of water in the household is distributed in this order – Roof Catchment (6.0%), Protected Spring (1.2%), Protected Shallow Well/ borehole fitted with hand pump (77.4%),Piped water (8.3%), Earth Dam (1.2%) and from unprotected sources (0.4%). This distribution is represented in table three below:- Table Three: Water Sources in Community
Protected Spring Protected Well/Borehole Unprotected Water Sources Piped Water Systems However, time taken to walk to the main water source is as tabulated as in Table Four Table Four: Proximity to water sources in relations to time
Estimated Distance
Under 3 0 Minutes 30 Minutes - 1 Hour Do not know (DK) There were few dish rack observed in the household. The findings revealed the situation in this order – those present and in use (29.0%), present but not in use (3.6%), and total absence recording 60.7%. The disposal of children's waste took many forms – those who buried (10.7%), those who threw away anyhow (16.7%) and those who threw into pit latrines accounted for 32.1% with another 22.6% returning a not applicable answer. The solid waste in the homestead was disposed too in this order – waste burnt (30.6%), put in rubbish pit (9.5%), put in composed pit (16.7%) and those who scattered in the compound recording Further investigations into the hand washing situations and methods revealed the order
tabulated in table Five below:- Table five: Occasions and methods deployed
Before preparing There has been drastic reduction of forest cover in Nyatoto Sub-Location. This decline was recorded at 88.9% for yes, and 6.3% for no. The major causes for the loss of forest cover are, soil erosion (18.3%), charcoal burning (67.5%) with other causes recording 6.7%. Through visual observations, the presence and absence of soil erosion was recorded at 56.3% and 37.3% respectively. 4.5 Food Security information for Nyatoto Sub-location.
Main factors that determine food security issues include: i) land ownership, total land size, land under actual cultivations, ii) crop harvested (output) through the main harvesting season and post main season harvests, types of seeds planted and their sourcing, iii) animal husbandry including animal types, problems encountered in rearing the animals, type of support provided to the community, providers of these support if any, iv) trainings provided in agriculture to include, length of the trainings, providers of the training, and fields trained in, and, what needs to be done to improve crop yields for improved food security in Nyatoto Sub-location. Table six: Types of Land used by community.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent The Nyatoto Sub-location community own 85.3% of the land with another 8.7% hires land for agricultural purposes. 92.5% of land ownership is with men whereas women ownership is accounting for a paltry 3.6%. The land parcels owned by families range between 1-3 acres (42.8%) and those parcels of over three (>3) acres at 49.6%. Table seven: size Currently Under Cultivation
Frequency Percent Valid Percent 2- Less than one acre 4- More than 3 acres However, land that is put under cultivation for the same size ranges are as follows: - 47.6% of the land owners of 1-3 acres, 32.0 for those with land more than 4 acres and 9.9 for those with land less than 2 acres and 3.6% for those with no land but hire land. Maize is the main subsistence crop (90.9%), followed by beans (1.6%), groundnut (1.6%), finger millet (0.4%), sorghum 0.4%) and others (0.4%). However, during the post planting season, no more than two crops are planted accounting for 15.9% and 3-4 crops accounting for 4%. The Nyatoto sub-location community buys planting seeds at the local market (71.0% with another 23.0% having had to conserved/stored seeds from the previous harvest. This means that the community does not plant certified seeds and this adds to the perpetual poor harvests and hence meager yields, partly explaining why there is perpetual hunger in the sub-location virtually throughout the year. The overall food shortage registered through this study reveal that food shortage runs as high as 93.7% with only 2.4 % indicating food sufficiency. The Nyatoto sub-location community keeps a variety of animals and birds. These are represented in table six below: Table Eight: Animals and Birds kept by community
Cows (64.7%) are the most popular in the community followed by Goats (56.3%) and Sheep (46.4%) with chicken being the most popular bird kept by the Nyatoto households. However, animal husbandry is faced with a myriad of problems. The most common problem is animal diseases accounting for 64.7% followed by drought (7.1%), and, shortage of animal feeds (5.2%), while other problems include external parasites (5.6%0, and internal parasites (4.8%). Due to theft of animals there is an increasing tendency of household members having to share the same house with the animals (4%) with the rest (84.5%) still having to keep their animals in a secure shed outside the house but in the Community members make a lot of efforts to vaccinate their animals (66.3%) with a marginal 20.6% not undertaking this important precaution. None Government Organization (GO) at 5.2% and Non-Government Organization (NGO) at 6.0% assist the community with any meaningful support for animals and birds keeping. The community keep livestock for food (34.5%), domestic incomes (30.6%), and for paying school fees The survey revealed inadequate agricultural training support to the Nyatoto sub-location community with 70.2% having received no trainings at all with only 16.3% having has some form of training in the past. These trainings had been acquired as follows: - within the last three months (3.6%), within 4-6 months ago (2.0%, within the last 6 months ago (4.4% and with those who cannot remember registering 2.4 %. The bulk of the training was conducted through seminars (7.9%), through visits (4.4% and in-house training accounting for 1.6%. The few trainings recorded have been conducted by Government of Kenya (GoK – 4.4%), Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs -6.3%) with Community Based Organizations (CBOs – 1.2%) and others accounting for 0.4%. The trainings have covered organic farming, inorganic farming, mixed cropping, greenhouse farming, and labour saving technologies. The durations for these trainings have been short ranging from less than one day (3.2%), 1-3 days (3.2%), 3-5 days (3.2%) and over 5 days accounting for 2.0%. It is evident that food security situation in Nyatoto sub-location is weak due to persistent poor harvests and limited household incomes. The average harvest of 6-10 bags of maize per household from each main farming season is far much inadequate. This situation has been occasioned by a myriad of factors, and these include, among others:- - Clinging to traditional methods of farming instead of adopting modern farming - Lack of capital inputs and knowledge in modern farming techniques, including lack of access to loaning facilities and use of certified seeds. - Inadequate policies and strategies that inspire and promote effective and efficient community participation in agriculture. - The impact of HIV/AIDS that has reduced manpower required for farming and loss of resources that go into endless treatments for HIV/AIDs affected persons from the meager community resources. - The environment is rapidly degrading as confirmed by ruthless cutting down of trees for charcoal, soil erosion and galleys, long droughts, and overstocking in the community, when there is no commensurate efforts in tree planting for example!. - There is still persistence of tse-tse fly menace in the area (next to Ruma Game Reserve) jeopardizing livestock keeping, - Lack of trainings of modern farming methods and livestock keeping as there in limited GoK intervention and support as well as from NGOs and other This now calls for concerted efforts by GoK, NGOs and other stake holders to provide tangible support in terms of trainings, access to resources to facilitate and sustain active community engagement in sustainable agriculture. Community sanitization and mobilization activities will be essential in preparing the community to embrace and make good use of support provided by stakeholders to realize food security and sustainable development in Nyatoto sub-location. 4.6 Social Groupings and Gender
Table Nine: Community Social groups
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Table Ten: Social Grouping composition
The overall participation of the Nyatoto sub-location community is encouraging. The overall social groupings engagement is encouraging. Those recorded as belonging to a social group was 77.4% with those not belonging to any social groupings being only 19.0%. The participation breakdown is presented in Table seven above:- The main source of incomes from the social groups to run their affairs are: - Farming (78.2%), Self Help Employment (6.0%), Salaried (3.2%), Remittances (0.4%), none (4.4%) and others recording 3.6%. Some of the Social groupings are registered (56.7%) with 13.7% not registered but loosely knit by virtue of interests, with yet another 13.9% indicated that they do not know about their registration status. Some 54.4% confirmed owning certificates of registration, 7.9% did not have any, and those who did not know whether they have registration certificates or not was 12.3%. The frequency of group meetings varied from one group to another. Those that undertake weekly meetings comprise 26%; monthly meetings 27.8%; quarterly 0.8%; over once monthly 2.0%; and those with other unspecified meeting schedules comprising of 16.7%. The last elections held also varied greatly. Those who had conducted elections once every six months were 15.1%; those once a year 36.5%, with others constituting 11.9%. Up to 58.3% of the groups had a constitution, 5.6% did not have any with 4.0% did not know if they had nay, and 13.1% said this was not applicable in their group. The mode of elections among the groups also differed from one group to the other. This was reflected as follows: - those who voted through the ballot (11.1%) and those who went through direct nominations (51.6%), with others employing unspecified means being 1.6%. The composition of members within the groups could be presented in Table Table Eleven: Composition in the Social Groups
The group leadership and their levels of education were captured to give insights into the groups management capacities. However, this was confined to the three key officials. The table below reflects the leadership level of education within the social groupings. Table Twelve: Groups Leadership levels
4.7 Conflict and Conflict Resolution
Nyatoto sub-location community reported having had conflicts (56.3) with 38.1% reporting none. The main causes for conflicts include: - grazing land (29.0%), land disputes (15.5%), clanism (5.6%), and tribal/ethnicity (1.6%) and other causes accounting for 3.2%. However, all reported conflicts are managed through clan chiefs (25.0%), at family level (24.6%), provincial administration (18.7%), and local courts (6.0%), with other mechanisms accounting for 4.0%. There are minimum trainings in Management of Conflicts (9.1%) with 70.6% having not attended any training. The limited trainings undertaken have been conducted in this manner: - GoK (2.4%), CBOs (6.3%), Churches (4.8%), NGOs (0.8%) with others recording 1.2%. Population pressure coupled with livestock keeping is a main cause for conflict in Nyatoto sub-location. Tribal/ethnic conflicts has been recorded due to the fact that Lambwe valley is basically a settlement scheme thus bringing many communities together though the majority are Luo ethnic community with a few Abgusii settled here. The recent Post Election Violence (PEV) of 2007/2008 following the General Elections in Kenya accounts for the ethnic conflicts registered in this context. 4.8 Youth Perspective
Youth are a very important segment of the Nyatoto community. The survey revealed that the respondents indicated Youth groups account for 94.4% with only 2.4% returning non existence of Youth groups. It was further revealed that the up to 80.6% of the Youth engage in agricultural activities with some 15.1 % engaged in Non agricultural activities like petty trade "boda boda" of motor bicycles and bicycle transport. Youth also account for 0.8% in other social groupings in Nyatoto community. CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Interpretation of each result conclusion
A total of 252 households out of the 676 households were visited and interviewed during The overall education levels for the households were: • Primary School 63.0%. • Secondary 15.6%. • Latrine use 0.2%. • Latrine presence 16.9% • Hospital delivery 9.1% • Antenatal clinic attendant 11.6% • There has been drastic reduction on forest coverage in Nyatoto-sub-Location; the decline was recorded at 88.9%. • Charcoal burning 67.5% • Soil erosion was recorded at 56.3% • Nyatoto community owns 83.3% of land and 92.5% of land ownership is with • Maize is the main subsistence crop 90.9% while sorghum 0.1% • Majority of people 71.0% buy seeds from local market for planting. • 77.4% of Nyatoto community reported to belonging to Social groups • 15.1% of these groups conducts the election once every 6months • 36.5 of these groups conduct election once every year • 58.3% of the groups had constitution. • 51.6% mode of election is direct nominations while 11.1% voted through secret • Leadership education of 11.5% are below primary education • 20.2% of leadership has primary education • 6.0% of leadership has Secondary education • 7.9% of leadership has tertiary while 19% do not know education level of their chairperson, secretary or treasurer. • 56% of the population of Nyatoto reported having had conflict. • The main cause for conflict include grazing land 29.0% • Land dispute 15.5% • Clan disputes 5.6% • Tribal ethnic 1.6 % • Conflicts are reported to be managed through chief 25.0 % • Family level 24.6% • Provincial administration 18.7% • Local Courts 6.0% The minimum training for the conflict management is 9.1% with • 70.6% having not attended any training. • 94.4% of the youth participates in Youth groups • 80.6% of youths engage in agriculture. 5.1 Health Records Review
• HIV prevalence rates among: • 0-5 years is 0.31% • 6-14 years 2.8% • 15-24 years 3.07% • Above 24 years16.75% Ten top diseases seen at the Nyatoto Health Centre are as follows: 2. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) 3. Diarrhea diseases 4. Disorder of the skin 6. Eye Infection 7. Ear Infection 8. Intestinal worms CHAPTER SIX
Some of the recommendations that arise from this baseline survey, and which need further attention, include the following: 1. Take advantage of the existing social groups in Nyatoto to tackle development issues 2. Improving the housing standards through the increase of incomes by supporting organic farming to improve land fertility 3. Encourage and train community on old methods of preserving seed 4. School feeding programs to be introduced by community and government to encourage children to concentrate on education and get enough nutrition as majority only reach primary school. 5. Improvements in Sanitation through ensuring that there in more water to the community (sink more boreholes), and through concerted sensitization and mobilization of the community. Note: "Water is life and Sanitation is
6. Encourage female land ownership (narrowing the gender gap) as to give women and men equal opportunity to access credits 7. Introduce/avail certified seeds to mitigate against dwindling rainfalls and drought so that yield are increased and fast maturing crops to ensure adequate food supply and thus lead to improved food security 8. Provide a lot of trainings in the fields of agriculture and livestock as the core to sustainable growth and development in study area 9. Soil conservation through tree and tree fruits planting 10. Government to sensitized the community on livestock grazing policy to minimize conflict due to land grazing References
Central and Eastern Africa Food Security Situation April 2011 20draft.pdf, Date accessed 26th April, 2011 Consultation Report for 2001-2004 Suba district Poverty Reduction Strategic PaperDistrict social development Officer Participatory rural appraisal report for Nyatoto sub-Location GOK. Suba District Development Plan 1997-2001 Kenya National Bureau of statistics 2009 Kenya Population and Housing CensusKenya National Bureau of Statistics 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey Kenya national Bureau of Statistics Ministry of Planning and National Development Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey -2005/06 Kenya vision 2030 2007 The government of Kenya Ministry of Planning and the national Economic and social council Margaret Ogembo 2008 Partnership Practice Reports Nyatoto-Sub Location of Central Division of Suba District Submitted to The Great Lake University of Kisumu Olive M. Mugenda& Abel G. Mugenda Research Methodology Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches The State of Food Insecurity in the World, date accessed 26th April, 2011 LWALA VILLAGE
Austine Odhiambo Willifrida Ondiek Cristabel Odongo NGURA VILLAGE
Johana Ogwang – Headman Margaret Nyabungu John M. Nyabungu – Chairman Mary Akinyi Onyango Evans K. Ong'onge – Secretary James Okomo Orwaka Esther Odongo – Treasurer. Charlish O. Ogwang' Reuben O. Ogwang Benard O. Odongo Tobias O. Orwaka John Otieno Orwaka Edwardd Okelo Ogwang Kennedy Okoth Lusi Kennedy Otieno Orwaka Moris Omondi Orwaka WANGNENO VILLAGE
Patricia Ongondo Beatrice Odhiambo Beatrice Odhiambo OPUCH-NYATOTO-SUBL VILLAGE
Sospeter Mbeke Odino Mrs. Ludia Otieno Nyagudi Samwel Otieno Oliewo Harun Oieno Nyagudi Silver Atieno Mbeke Ayub Okumu Otieno Pilista Otieno Oliewo Mrs. Norah Okumu Otieno Rafael Nyakinda Omolo Mrs. Demta Okumu Otieno Jenifa Nyakinda Omolo Mrs. Okumu Otieno Alois Amumi Odino Linet Harun Otieno Rose Adhiambo Odino Sulman Otieno Nyagudi Lukas Otieno Odino Jane Oluoch Otieno Benta Otieno Odino Alex Nyamwala Owili Caroline Otieno Odino Mrs. Mary Nyamwala Owili Walter Kubi Odondo Jackline Maende Owili Musa Ouma Odondo Mrs. Thabita Milando Owili Susana Kubi Odondo Mrs. Susana Akoko Owili Debora Kubi Odondo Ellena Odondo Oyolo Mrs. Janet Moi Owili Peter Odhiambo Agida Mrs. Jackline Maende Owili Mrs. Macline Odhiambo Agida Mrs. Elizabeth Owili Ojwang Mrs. Rose Ouma Odondo Mr. Thumbi Owili Jullia Rapemo Mwai Mrs. Thumbi Owili Harun Rapemo Mwai Erenest Otieno Ongus Mrs. Harun Rapemo Mrs. Erenest Ongus George Rapemo Mwai Johanes Oreko Riaga Mrs. George Rapemo Mrs. Turfosa Oreko Riaga James Otieno Oliewo Mrs. Prikila Adega Apot Mrs. Millicent Ouma Oliewo Joseph Wanga Owili Daudi Ogweno Mbaga Mrs. Evaline Wanga Owili Mrs. Rose Ogweno Mbaga Mrs. Cathorine Atieno Boff John Odhiambo Mbaga Owage Owili Ojwang Mrs. Mornica Odhiambo Mbaga 223 Hellen Owage Owili Mrs. Ellena Riaga Sason Okech Adongo Ismael Onyang Atieno Mrs. Peres Okech Adongo Ismael Otieno Nyagudi MATUNGA - A VILLAGE
Dursila Nyanjong Conslata Nyanjong 248 Maurce Okoya 251 Salmon Odira Okelo 252 Benard Otieno 253 William Okelo 254 Nyathiwa Okelo 255 Joshua Okelo 256 Ramjus Ponde 257 Joshua Obunga 258 Daniel Olewe 260 Joanes Ogalo 261 William Akumu Odhiambo Achacha 263 Ochieng dume MATUNGA - B VILLAGE
Osack Odira – Alice Odira 285 Otieno Odede – Nereah Otieno David Okello – Doris Okello 286 Otieno Auma – Evaline Otieno Larius Owino – Lilian Owino 287 Aloo Orinda – Rose Aloo Enos Owanje – Mary Enos 288 Agutu Pskal – Florence Agutu Onyango Owenje – Claris Onyango 289 Rapemo – Jane Rapemo Mboya Owenje – Victorine Mboya 290 James Juma – Lizi Juma Michael Okuta – Dorca Okuta 291 Samson Otieno – Eunice Otineo Ambrose Anganga – Leah Anganga 292 Akoth Agiso – Gladis Akoth Kornel Okumu – Mary Okumu 293 Okello Agiso – Silper Okello Richard Odongo – Maren Odongo 294 Richard Oliew - Aruo Agiso – Berguda Aruo 295 Mose – Ebsiba Mose Samson Ondiegi – Risper Ondiegi 296 James – Esther James George Ouma – Mary Ouma 297 Nick Opiyo – Velma Odhiambo Alsamus Onduto – Rose Onduto 298 Otieno Moro – Judy Otieno Elisha Odhiambo – Hellen Odhiambo 299 Janabi Oluoch Opiyo Agiso – Dinah Opiyo Richard Owenje – Esther Owenje 301 Agiso – Magarita Agiso Ezron Ngiela – Hellen Ngiela 302 Onyango Odede – Millicent Onyango Oginga Orinda – Mary Oginga 303 Odede – Nyagao Odede DARAJA VILLAGE
Gordon Otieno Ware Teresha A. Mamba Calvin's O. Pongo Elisha Obuyu Agola LELA VILLAGE
Kilment Odhiambo Jane Achieng Otieno Charles Odhiambo NYATOTO TOWN CENTRE
Eunita A. Obongo Millicent Otieno KATARI VILLAGE
Flora Auma Okwaro Consolata Ogowe Grace William Nyakongo Margaret Onyango Evance Lawrence Ratemo NYABERA VILLAGE
Teresa Adhiambo Odhiambo David Ochieng Odhiambo Mrs. Odongo Odhiambo Mrs. Juma Nyambune Jenifer Adhiambo Beatrice Kwambuka Mrs. Jakobo Muga Clisantus Ajwang BONDE VILLAGE
Mrs. Sami Nyauke Mrs. Ochieng Awino Harrisson Olangi
Naphtalsi Asiago Oigara Nyamusuki Silvestus Nyangau Agustinus Ochieng


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Pesticides monitoring report 2006

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 20/11/2008 SEC(2008) 2902 final COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Products of Plant Origin in the European Union, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein TABLE OF CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS & SPECIAL TERMS USED IN THE REPORT 1. INTRODUCTION .

COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL POLICY OF THE JOGORKU KENESH OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC Special report on the results of monitoring and evaluation of implementation of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic «On Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Persons» COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL POLICY OF THE JOGORKU KENESH OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC