1.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
Forum Syd, a Swedish Non Governmental Organization (NGO) working together with The
Livelihoods Foundation (LEO), a Kenyan NGO to support the Empowerment of Rural
Population in Nyatoto Community in Central Division of Homa Bay County in Kenya,
Africa. Forum Syd has solicited support from SIDA, Sweden to fulfill this objective. LEO
has in the past, undertaken community development activity in the construction of health
facility among the Nyatoto community. During this period, and with community
participation, identified Household Food Insecurity
as a "top-of- the agenda" issue needing
urgent attention. The others were listed as HIV/AIDS, Improvement of the new Nyatoto
Health Centre Facility, High school drop-out among the girl child education and lack of title
deeds for Land Ownership as a means for accessing financial resources.
Previously, LEO has supported, with other partners, the Construction and Operation of a
Health Facility, which, now provides the Nyatoto community with Outpatients, Maternal
Child Health, Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), Treatment, Care and Support
services. It is LEO's intention to take the Nyatoto Community to the next level. During this
calendar year (2011), Forum Syd, SVEO and LEO have finalized arrangements to support the
Nyatoto Community by improving the conditions of all the people living in Nyatoto through
a multifaceted program that encompasses: community awareness on basic human rights
increasing their self sufficiency in food production
, substantially reduce poverty
and make longer the health of those infected and affected by HIV/AIDS
, conserve and
positively manage their environment
, pay closer attention to gender issues
, secure more
peace and security to the community
and improve and develop the youth perspective
better tomorrow. In order to effectively and efficiently undertake these tasks, (SVEO) has
requested LEO to prepare and conduct a baseline survey in Nyatoto in March 2011 before
Program Implementation commences.
1.1 Background to the study area
Nyatoto is a sub-location of Ruma Location in Central division of Suba district in Homa Bay
county Kenya. Central division comprises of four locations and nine sub-locations. According to
2009 Kenya population and housing census report the population of central division is 37,803 of
which male are 18,477 and female are 19,416, all dwelling in some 8065 households. Ruma
location has a population of 2,443 males and 2,400 females totaling to 4843 within 922
households, while Nyatoto sub location of Ruma location has a population of 1,164 males and 1,
811 females totaling 3,476 within 676 households.
According to Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey of 2007(KAIS,) Suba district is one of the districts
in Kenya with the highest HIV prevalence rate estimated at 27%. Deaths due to HIV/AIDS has
left several orphans behind resulting in high child dependency of half orphans 5.8 % and 9.6 %
total orphans of 0-14 years who needs special care. Child dependency ration is 88.3 % and age
dependency ration is 6.93 % making a total of dependency 95.2 %. In addition to this, Suba has
one of the highest maternal mortality rates of (MMR) of births 780 women per 10,000; live births
under five mortality rate of 247 per 1000; Child Mortality Rate of 100.1 per 1000; and infant
mortality rate of or 146.9 per 1000. Rural absolute poverty is 52.2 and around 61,301 (47.2 %.)
people are regarded as total food poor.
1.2 Problem statement major issues, summarize
In 2008 the Livelihoods foundation undertook a participatory situation analysis of Nyatoto with
community members and the community identified five major problems affecting them most as:-
food insecurity, HIV/AIDS, high rates of school drop-out among girls, health facility
improvement by provision of drugs by the government, lack of title deeds and alcohol or
substance abuse. The community prioritized food insecurity as the problem number one to be
1.3 Research questions
What are the demographic, socio cultural, geographic and administrative factors in Nyatoto?
How does the concerned farmer of Nyatoto learn farming skills today?
What knowledge and resources, in regards to farming, are lacking amongst farmers in Nyatoto?
How does the loss of old/indigenous agricultural knowledge and practices show today?
How big is the average harvest today?
What strategies can be developed to increase the current knowledge of the farmers and contribute to an increased in crop harvests
Gender - Who of the male/female will benefit from the project? Why and in what way?
HIV/AIDS - To find out HIV/AIDS prevalence, for children 0-15 years, youth 15-24 years and for adults above 25 years. How may the current HIV/AIDS situation affect the project if at all?
Environmental management- How does the project take into consideration positive and negative impacts on the local environment? What are, if any, the positive and/or negative
aspects of the project on the environment that needs to be taken in consideration during implementing the project?
Peace and conflict resolution - Are there any ongoing conflicts that may affect the project? Have any community members been trained in conflict management/resolution?
Human Rights - How does the situation today relate to, for example, the rights to food, right to work etc.? How may the implementation of this project improve access to these rights?
Youth perspective and development - In what way do the youth in Nyatoto community relate to the current situation of farming/farmers? In what way may their situation be improved through the project? How does the proposed project relate do sustainable development?
1.4 Broad Objective
This household baseline survey was intended to capture demographic, social cultural, health
of women of reproductive health and children under five years, health seeking behavior of the
community, environment and water, conflict gender and youth involvement in agriculture.
1.4.1 Specific Objectives
To describe the demographic , socio cultural, geographic and administrative factors in Nyatoto
To find out how the concerned farmers of Nyatoto learn farming skills today
To find out if knowledge and resources, in regards to farming, are lacking amongst farmers in Nyatoto
To investigate how the loss of old agricultural knowledge manifests itself today
To establish the average harvest today.
To determine the strategies that can be developed to increase the knowledge of the farmers and contribute to an increase in crop yields.
To find out which Gender - male/female will benefit more from the project? Why and in what way
To find out HIV/AIDS prevalence, for children 0-15 years, youth 15-24 years and for adults above 25 years. How may the current HIV/AIDS situation impacts on the project if at all.
To describe how the project would take in consideration the positive, and negative impacts on the local environment.
To describe the positive and/or negative aspects of the project on the environment that needs to be taken in consideration for the implementation of the project.
To find out Peace and conflict resolution mechanisms in Nyatoto sub-location
Are there any ongoing conflicts that may affect the project? Have any community members been trained in conflict management/resolution?
To determine Human Rights situation today in relation to the rights to food, and right to work?
To determine how may the implementation of the project improve the community access to these rights
To determine in what way(s), do the youth in community relate to the current situation of the farmer
To find out how the youth situation may improve through the proposed project implementation
To describe how the proposed project relate do the overall sustainable development.
1.5 Scope and Limitations
The baseline study was conducted only in Nyatoto sub-location of Suba district Western
Kenya. The questions were limited to issues and events as follows: - within 6 months (for
mortality), within 3 months (for household membership), and, within 1year (to cover the last
harvesting period). Time and resources was not adequate to undertake a more in depth and
wider geographical coverage.
The study was undertaken because Nyatoto community identified food insecurity as a major
problem in 2009 during the situation analysis conducted by the Livelihoods foundation. In
2009 two representatives of Swedish UN association visited Nyatoto community and the
community, once more, identified food insecurity as their main problem. Previously, food aid
supplied by the Government has been far much inadequate. This baseline survey therefore
will provide a solid foundation upon which future interventions would be easily undertaken
by the Government and other stakeholders.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Baseline Survey
Is a Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including
questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process
is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data. It can also be defined as a survey
designed to establish initial conditions against which the effects of a finished project can be
compared. The purpose of the study is to provide an information base against which to
monitor and assess an activity's progress and effectiveness during implementation and after
the activity is completed.
2.2 Health and medical issues in sub-Saharan Africa
People in Sub-Saharan were facing nothing less than health emergency at the beginning of
21st century. The most serious health challenges were the rampant HIV/AIDS Epidemics
malaria and severe malnutrition in certain populations, putting children under five at
increased risk of succumbing to largely preventable children illnesses
Much of the burden of disease in sub-Sahara Africa is preventable, however, many of the
health improvement achieved during the 1960s and 1970s begun to lose in 1980s, as poverty,
bad governance and internal conflicts took their toll.
During the 1990s, the emergence of HIV/AIDS epidemic, fueled by poverty, malnutrition,
and high rates of tuberculosis (TB) infection began to reverse many basic health indicators,
the downward spiral of ill health and poverty has since left the region with unprecedented
health problems, nearly all of which have attracted global responses in recognition of their
It is widely accepted that public services in most sub-Saharan Africa countries have failed to
deliver even the most basic services required for improving health. To compound this failure,
the basic standards of living has fallen for many people living on less than $1 per day in other
regions as that of the world having declined, the numbers in sub-Saharan Africa have
remained static or become worse.
According to the word Bank, an estimate of 345million people in the region (more than one
half of the population) were living in poverty in 2000s an increase of 300million, during the
1990s. Researchers are now beginning to understand that ill health hits the poorest hardest.
Compared from those of wealthier households, poor children in sub-Saharan Africa are more
likely to die before their fifth birthday, 10 times more likely to die before their 15th birthday
and nine times to die from infectious disease, according to the African Medical Research
Many of the developing efforts directed at the region since the early 1990s have focused on
poverty reduction strategies. However, some organizations believe that ill health should be
tackled in conjunction with poverty, as it directly contributes to poverty itself, simply relying
on economic development to raise standard of living and improve health is not enough.
Considering the impact of malaria alone, on the economic development of the region, a report
in 2000 by a researcher from the Centre for International Development at Harvard University
and the London school of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, estimated that economic growth in
African counties with intense malaria was slowed by 1.3% per head for a year. If the disease
had been eradicated, 35 years earlier the gross domestic product (GDP) of Sub-Sahara Africa
would have been some $100,000m, more. In other words the short-term benefit from
controlling malaria in the region would amount to an extra 412,00m per year.
2.3 HIV/AIDS and TB
The HIV/AID epidemic is halving a similar adverse effect on economic development,
particularly in the agricultural sector. FAO has estimated that in 1989-2000, 7milliom
agricultural workers died of HIV/AIDS in the 25 worst affected Africa countries, and that a
further 16m would die before 2020, resulting in the loss of up to one quarter of agricultural
work-force and consequently result into reduced in food production. According to economic
analyst of the Word Bank in 2000, growth in GDP per head is up to an estimated 2.6% less
among countries with HIV prevalence rate reaching 20% compared with countries with a
lower prevalence rate of infection. Given the completely interdependence of relationship
between poverty and ill health in sub-Sahara Africa, many experts now argue that the
improvement of health should be placed back at the centre of the development agenda, as a
way of lifting people out of poverty.
TB infection rates are also rising in sub-Saharan Africa, fuelled by the HIV/AIDS epidemic
and widespread poverty. WHO announced in early 2003 that World growth in TB infection
had slowed down to just 0.45 per year. However, this marked a wide rise in TB rates in sub-
Sahara Africa, which had among the highest incidence rates anywhere in the world. Incidence
data from 2001 showed that 28 countries in sub-Sahara Africa had TB incidence exceeding
300 cases per 100,000 head, while the remaining countries had incidence rate of 100 and 299
cases per 100,000 head.
2.4 Water and Sanitation
About one in three of the 1.7 m. world-wide deaths is estimated to be a direct result of unsafe
water and sanitation occur in sub-Sahara Africa, according to Word Health Organization
2.5 Global Food Situation
According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the number of
undernourished people remains unacceptably high, close to one billion in 2010 despite
expected decline –the first in 15 years. FAO estimates that a total of 925 million people are
under nourished in 2010 compared with 1,023 billion in 2009. Most of the decrease was in
Asia, with 80 million fewer hungry, but progress was also made in Sub Sahara Africa, where
12 million fewer people are going hungry. However, the number of hungry people is higher
in 2010 than the food and economic crisis of 2008, 2009.
Countries in protracted crisis require special attention. They are characterized by long-lasting
or recurring crises and limited capacity to respond exacerbating food insecurity problems.
Supporting institutions is key to addressing protracted crises, local institutions, in particular,
can help address food insecurity problems in protracted crises, but they are often ignored by
Agriculture and rural economy are key sectors for supporting livelihoods in protracted crises,
but they are not properly reflected in aid flows. While agriculture accounts for a third of
national income in countries in protracted crisis, the sector receives only 4% of humanitarian
aid and 3% of development aid.
The current aid architecture needs to be modified to better address both immediate needs and
the structural causes of protracted crises. Important areas of intervention (including social
protection and risk reduction) are often underfunded.
2.6 Central & Eastern Africa Food security Situation
The onset of the current March-May rains has been delayed and poorly distributed in the
region thereby exacerbating the dry conditions. Households in the pastoral and marginal
cropping areas face food insecurity also due to the increasing staple food prices, high fuel
prices and declining purchasing power.
Notable food insecurity situation persists throughout central Somalia. The January/February
2011 crop harvests in southern Somalia were only 20 percent of the average, while water and
pasture availability are extremely poor.
A rainfall deficit is currently being experienced in most parts of the country as the Gu rainy
season is yet to start.
In Ethiopia, the February-May rains have begun late and have been erratically distributed.
The southern and south-eastern pastoral and agro-pastoral parts of the country face critical
shortages of water and pasture. Food insecurity among the poor and very poor households in
these areas is becoming increasingly alarming. Prices of staple foods remain high in the
abovementioned areas, despite an average to above-average 2010 main season harvest.
The agro-pastoral areas of north-eastern Kenya are experiencing erratic rainfall distribution
both in time and space. A majority of the very poor and poor households are unlikely to meet
their required food needs until the next harvest in September 2011. Currently about 1.4
million pastoralists face moderate to acute food insecurity in these parts of the country.
Most of the March to May rains in the eastern Horn is usually expected in April, but the
reduced precipitation so far received in April will most likely intensify food insecurity in
these areas. The increasing fuel prices and tightening of markets are predicted to lead to
further staple food price increases thereby increasing food insecurity among the poor and
very poor across the region until June/July 2011.
2.7 Food situation in Kenya
According to the World Bank, the price of maize flour, a staple food for many Kenyans, has increased
by 27 percent in the past three months (February – April 2011).
2.8 Agriculture in Kenya
Agriculture is the mainstay of Kenya economy and currently represents 24% of GDP. More
than one third of Kenya agricultural produce is exported, and this accounts for 65% of
Kenya's total exports. The agricultural sector accounts for 18% of total formal employment
in the country. There are more than 15 million small holders engaged in agricultural activities
in Kenya estate, and plantation farms of various sizes and are fewer in number and make up a
small part of sector.
The agricultural sector is made up of sub-sectors, namely; industrial crops, food crops,
horticulture and livestock and fisheries.
Despite the central role that agriculture plays in the Kenya economy, the sector continues to
face four major challenges that have to do with productivity, land use, markets and value
addition. Agricultural productivity is constrained by a number of factors, including; high cost
of inputs (especially the price of fertilizer and seeds), poor livestock husbandry, limited
extension services, overdependence on rain fed agriculture, lack of markets and limited
application of agricultural technology and innovation. However, for some crops, the
productivity of Kenyan farmers is close to international standards.
2.9 Suba district demographic, socio cultural, geographic and administrative factors
Suba is one of the twenty one (21) districts forming Nyanza province. It is located on the
South western shores of Lake Victoria between longitudes 34o E and 34 0 20 E and latitudes
0º º20''S and 0o52''S. It borders Rarieda and Bondo districts to the north across the lake,
Homabay and Rachuonyo districts to the East and Migori districts to the South and Lake
Victoria to the West where it borders the Republic of Tanzania to the South West and Uganda
to the West. The district also comprises of sixteen islands the major ones being Mfangano,
Rusinga Kibwogi and Takawiri Islands. The district's mainland and 16 islands cover an area
of 1,055.4 km2, with the water surface accounting for 11.3% of the total district area.
2.10 Administrative and Political Units
The district consists of five divisions; Mbita, Lambwe, Central, Gwasi and Mfangano (see
figure 1.1). Within these divisions are found twenty locations and 51 sub locations as is
summarised in table 1.0 below.
Suba district administrative units
Source: CBS Population and Housing Census, 1999
2.11 Political Units
The district has two parliamentary constituencies namely Mbita and Gwasi constituencies.
Mbita constituency comprises Mbita, Lambwe and Mfangano divisions while Gwasi
constituency comprises Central and Gwasi divisions. There are two local authorities namely
Mbita Point Town Council and the Suba Country Council, which have 5 and 7 civic wards
The district does not have any permanent river flowing through it. The once permanent rivers
such as the Sulu and Gera have since become seasonal streams owing mainly to continuous
destruction of their catchment areas over the years. Consequently, the main sources of water
are underground sources and the Lake Victoria.
2.12 Major Development Challenges and Cross Cutting Issues
Major development challenges
2.12.1 Food Insecurity
Food crops grown in the district include sorghum, millet, cassava, maize and sweet potatoes.
Due to limited exposure, lack of role models and unfavorable climatic conditions, a large
proportion of the district's productive population, especially the young have a negative
attitude towards farming as a source of livelihood. The situation is exacerbated by an
increasingly morbid population occasioned by the HIV and Aids scourge as well as other
competing alternatives like fishing and small off-farm business enterprises with quick returns.
The perception of the people living around the Lake Victoria is that fishing is less taxing
compared to farming. Other factors contributing to the poor agricultural productivity include
retrogressive cultural practices for example golo kothi
which can affect farm operations such
as land preparation. Other factors include low rainfall, poor soils, high post harvest losses,
low crop diversity and quick sales after harvest to meet immediate household demands.
The coping mechanism adopted by most rural households:
‐ Charcoal burning and sale of firewood ‐ Sale of small stock and chicken
‐ Exchange of farm produce for other preferred cereals and commodities/items ‐ Small business – vegetables, fish trade, and, water vending ‐ Reduction in the number of meals taken per day. In order to achieve a stable food security in the district, several measures shall be put in place
to address this situation including:
2.12.2 Environmental conservation
• Promotion of labour saving techniques for soil and water conservation such as
grass strips, agro forestry and use of draught animal power in the farms.
• Promotion of conservation farming techniques such as conservation tillage and
• Training on soil fertility enhancement
• Water harvesting for improved moisture retention.
• Promotion of agro forestry activities such as community nurseries and planting of
multi-purposes trees for domestic use.
• Protection of degraded areas.
2.12.3 Agricultural and livestock production improvements
• Promote drought resistant strains of crops such as cassava, sorghum, and millet.
• Sensitization about the value horticultural fruits and vegetables such as bananas,
passion and mangoes as well as value addition for the same of the common
• Training on better crop husbandry practices.
• Bulking on specific food security crops
• Promotion of small scale irrigation
• Promotion of kitchen gardening
• Livestock production improvement to include the following.
Upgrading of indigenous cattle breeds
Promotion of poultry production
Training of private animal service providers
2.12.4 Poor Infrastructure
The road network in the district is very poor. Transportation of people and goods is a
challenge especially during rainy seasons. The farmers in the district have experienced
difficulties when transporting their produce to internal and regional markets. The cost of
transportation is usually higher during the rainy season and have often led to huge loses
especially where perishable produce like fish and tomatoes. The would-be buyers and
investors from outside the district are also discouraged by the state of the roads, with the net
result being reduced levels of investment which would be a stimulus to the growth and
development of district's weak economy. Household and other essential consumer goods in
the retail outlets are also usually priced higher since the traders increase the prices to cover
for the transport expenses. This results into a net reduction of the people's purchasing power.
2.12.5 Limited access to Business Development Services
With the exception of micro-finance institutions, there have been no properly organized
financial services in the district for a long time. However, two banks; the Equity Bank and the
Cooperative Bank have recently set up operational units at the district headquarters. This
implies that the much needed services are now closer to the people. However the credit
provision functions of the two banks is expected to be limited by the fact that majority of the
district population do not have land title deeds, which are the conventional form of collateral
against which to secure loans for capital and other business development purposes. The banks
however will play a big role in nurturing the saving cultures of the districts population, and
subsequently, encouraging investments.
2.12.6 Limited availability of electric energy
The district has been connected to the national electricity grid for about 3 years. However, the
supply of power is characterized by frequent outages, which on average occur every day. This
scenario seriously affects the small scale industries such as welding units, mechanical works,
cooling plants, barber shops, salons and information technology, with the immediate result
being the loss of revenue. This is a serious challenge particularly for businesses which are
started on borrowed capital without insurance cover.
A second problem affecting power is the supply of power at voltage levels below what would
be sufficient for the running of business equipment/tools. The most affected consumers are
the Mbita Ice plant
and the Lake Victoria South Water Services Board
, which serve critical
areas of ice production for fish preservation and water supply in the district. These users are
often forced to operate under their optimal capacity.
The availability of power at appropriate voltage will support the operation of fish processing
and cooling plants for preservation of fish and establishment of agro-industries. These and
other industries/businesses play a big role in boosting livelihood opportunities in the district
as well as tackling poverty directly. Lack of power also negatively affects telecommunication
because many of the communication service providers especially those relying on computers
and other electricity propelled communication equipment. The general population is also left
out because of the inability to operate electronic equipment such as radios and television,
which are critical ICT tools for informative purposes.
2.12.7 Cross cutting issues
This plans takes due cognizance of a number of issues which cannot be taken in isolation,
because they cut across all sectors. It is also clear that if these issues are not tackled with
deliberate efforts, the successes in the other sectors will be constrained. Paying attention to
these issues is not only for poverty reduction but also for the sustained successes in the other
sectors. This plan has identified the following as the main cross cutting issues in the district.
Defined for the context of this plan, gender refers to the culturally based or socially assigned
expectations of roles and behaviors of males and females. The mention of culture and social
assignment means that expectations and behaviors are expected to vary from one place to
another. However, of keen interest to this plan are the gender disparities, which manifest
themselves in the various aspects of social life. In Suba, it is worth noting that women make
up 52% of the district population, which creates rationale for their equal, if not, more access
to and participation in the district social and economic development processes. The gender
development index (GDI) for Suba is currently at 0.460 compared to 0.470 for Nyanza and
Kenya's 0.556. The impacts of gender disparities on development can be best argued
appreciating that provinces considered to have better human development indices or lower
human poverty indices (HPI) such as Nairobi and Central have higher gender development
indices. This is not coincidental. On the contrary, it can be argued that lower gender
disparities as an aggregate contribute to better development indices. If not for many reasons,
a basic fact is that enlisting women's participation in the socio-economic development
processes means enlisting the more 50% of human capacity available alongside that of men.
The reverse can be argued if the participation of women is excluded or constrained.
Comparison of Suba's human poverty index of 41.8 with Kiambu's 21.3 and that of the
respective gender related development indices 0.460 and 0.592 is supportive of this assertion.
A deeper analysis of the gender disparities reveals that they are more attributable to systemic
imbalances such as the education system and social construction rather than deliberate. The
priorities given to boys' education over girls and the high school drop-out rates for girls
continue to result in a community of young mothers who are largely illiterate. Such women
are not able to effectively participate in development initiatives geared towards improving
their socio-economic status. The literacy rate for women aged 15 years and above is at
69.4%, a proportion much lower than their male counterparts, which is at 90%. While the
transition rate from Primary to secondary school is 88% for boys, only 37% of girls move to
secondary schools after primary school. This is partly caused by limited secondary school
facilities for girls as well as high drop- out rates attributed to numerous factors including
early pregnancies and early marriage. In the last 3 public university intakes by the Joint
Admissions Board, the proportion of girls qualifying for entry into state sponsored university
courses has been 5.8%, 5.5% and 3.5% respectively, implying not only low proportions but
one that is declining further.
While addressing the systemic gender inequities that disadvantage the female gender, care
should be taken to counter the threat of reversing the tide against the male gender. In Suba,
such strategies need to address primary interventions such as healthcare, to ensure that that
specific health needs such as reproductive health, which affect women more than men are
Due to the unequal gender relations, women have no control over productive resources and as
such have no major decision making powers over them. As a result women are not able to
effectively participate in development activities and improve their economic position e.g. as
women do not own property and assets, should a married woman acquire some property or
livestock, it is likely to come under the control of the husband. This discourages the
entrepreneurial spirit of women and helps keep in their low economic status.
The district therefore needs to address women's access to expanded economic opportunities
such as business capital, training, advice and marketing support. Of key highlight here is the
" phenomenon where women in some beaches in the district trade sex for fish.
Access to credit would in such cases reduce the women's vulnerability to such exploitative
and hazardous business practices.
Other aspects of gender development which the plan will seek to address include factors that
influence access to education opportunities at all levels, and, equal participation in political
and decision making processes in the district.
2.12.9 HIV and Aids
The next cross cutting issue that this plan chose to dwell on is HIV and Aids. This is of great
significance given that the district has one of the highest HIV and Aids prevalence rates in the
country (currently at 27%). The disease poses a great challenge to sustained socio-economic
development. However, as a disease, Aids is unique because its determinants transcend
beyond the personal or individual risk taking factors into socio-economic domain; including
factors such as poverty, deprivation, as well as social and economic alienation. The brunt of
the HIV and Aids problem is felt most at the household level, where a combination of
inadequate social services, limited access to balanced diets, limited livelihood opportunities
continue to propagate a disabling environment of poverty and eventually translates to reduced
coping capacities and development of vulnerable groups. This is aggravated by the fact that
the disease affects the most productive segments of households (men and women aged 18-49
years), thereby increasing the burden on the young and old. Indeed the disease is major
contributor to the reduced life expectancy in the district (42 years for women and 36.5 years
The disease has placed not only an additional but also constant and expanding strain on the
resources available for health investments.
However, the district has registered reduction in disease prevalence to 27%. This can be
attributed to various interventions by both government and development partners working in
the district. These include widespread distribution of condoms, the ART programme, VCT
and PMCT as well as robust behavior change campaigns. New strategies such as male
circumcision are also expected alongside the other convectional interventions under the four
thematic areas of the Kenya National HIV and Aids Strategic Plan (KNASP), a process
which is spearheaded by NACC.
Besides the general discussion on HIV and Aids, this district plan recognizes the special
relationship between gender and HIV and Aids as manifested in Suba district. The physical
and emotional burdens of caring for sick family members and ensuring their food security
under such economic conditions often takes a huge toll on women's health and wellbeing.
Socio-cultural norms that define female and male roles and responsibilities affect women's
access to and use of health services including HIV and Aids services. As the first line of
health care providers for their family, women often put the health needs of their families
above their own and do not seek medical attention until they are seriously ill.
Poverty is a multi dimensional phenomenon with several definitions. The local community in
Suba associates poverty with inability by the individual or households to access basic needs.
According to the Kenya Integrated Household and Budget Survey released by the Ministry of
State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 in 2007, 52.2% of the population
is estimated to be living below the poverty line. Much as this is lower than the figures of 66%
in 2005, the poverty levels in the district remain above the national average. Beyond the
material wealth aspect of poverty, the vulnerability and multidimensional deprivation of basic
necessities such as food, health, and education is indeed key aspects of poverty as can be
found in the district.
The factors advanced as being responsible for the sustained high levels of poverty are
- Retrogressive cultural practices
- Socio-economic issues, especially those surrounding HIV and Aids.
- Poor physical infrastructure
- Socio-political issues both of present and historical nature
- Behavioural practices influenced by negative attitudes
The socio-cultural practices include such practices as early marriages, polygamy, wife
inheritance and discrimination against women and girls.
The socio economic factors include low levels of public investment in supportive
infrastructure and poor performance of agricultural subsets such as cotton farming, which
were precipitated by liberalization have also diminished the range of economic activities
available for the people in the district.
Geophysical aspects such as frequent drought and soils with low productivity have also
contributed to overall reduction in wealth creation in the district.
Attitude related factors include a high preference for formal employment over those of
entrepreneurial nature such as farming, fish trading. The high prices of agricultural input
prices and poor policies in the agricultural sector has only aided in increasing the impacts of
this negative attitudes towards farming. It is therefore common to find large tracts of land
lying fallow in the district.
Available statistics suggest that higher levels of illiteracy are consistent with higher levels of
household poverty among household heads. The statistics also point to a strong gender
dimension. In a district where fewer women are economically empowered and where 47% of
households are headed by women, the levels of household poverty are expected to be
The link between governance and development has never been more apparent than lately at
both the national and sub national contexts.
"To reaffirm that good governance is essential for sustainable development; that
sound economic policies, solid democratic institutions responsive to the needs of
the people and improved infrastructure are the basis for sustained economic
growth, poverty eradication and employment creation; and that freedom, peace
and security, domestic stability, respect for human rights, including the right to
development, the rule of law, gender equality and market-oriented policies and an
overall commitment to just and democratic societies are also essential and
– UN General Assembly 2005 World Summit
Governance issues relevant to the district include such issues as service delivery, setting of
targets and public participation in the development processes. This concerns both public
departments as well as Civil Society Organizations (CSO) in the context of rights based
approaches of development planning and programming.
Another dimension of good governance, which is particularly important to the district, relates
to the relationship between the Government and CSO s. Suba district features a prominent
presence of CSOs in many forms; NGOs, FBOs and CBOs as well as Self Help Groups (SHG
s). These organizations play an important role in the articulation of different views, the
monitoring and evaluation of government policies, programmes & projects, and mobilization
of local resources and expertise to meet local and community-based needs. A vibrant civil
society with adequate capacity is of pivotal relevance in poverty reduction and on the broader
scale, the achievement of both the MDGs and the Vision 2030. The civil society in Suba has
contributed through advocacy and creating awareness, social mobilization of specific groups,
empowerment of communities through enabling their participation in policy making,
livelihood programmes, training, relief and rehabilitation as well as in mobilization of
financial and human resources.
Non government organizations in Suba have partnered with the Government in the delivery
of development services notably in water and sanitation, primary health care, education, and
mitigation of the impacts of HIV and Aids, thereby improving service quality and coverage.
However, the levels of cooperation between the civil society and the Government
departments in the district remain at levels lower than desired. Similarly, the transparency
and levels of accountability to the public of these organizations remains a key challenge.
The participation of the district's population in development planning, monitoring and
evaluation is a key consideration where governance is concerned. The increase in the range of
devolved funds such as Community Development Trust Fund (CDTF), Constituency
Development Fund (CDF), Constituency Bursary Fund (CBF) and Local Authority Transfer
Fund (LATF) has served to increase the availability of resources to people at the local level.
The effective and efficient use of these funds and participation in the selection of projects and
budgeting are equally important if the realization of effective use of funds and
implementation of successful project are to be realized.
2.12.12 Information and Communication Technology
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that refers to all
technologies for communication of information. In simple terms, it will encompass the
medium for recording information and also the technologies for broadcasting or
communicating the information. ICTs hold a revolutionary potential, in the development of
the district, especially with reference to computer based systems enhanced through
connection to the World Wide Web. Mobile Telephony also comes in as keys for the ICT to
Access to ICTs is a key to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
because they expand the range of opportunities available for economic engagement. Access
to critical ICT resources in the district will be necessary contribution to the poverty
eradication through creation of knowledge based society. The district development plan ICT
makes a case for the provision of an opportunity for the large majority of the district
population to make their day to day decision backed by knowledge and information. This is
the DDP linkage with the Vision 2030, which sets to transform Kenya into a middle income
country within the next 22 years.
The district's performance in the ICT sector is still very poor with more than 90% of the
population being without access to internet and also basic IT skills. The district has less than
five active internet sites and the existing ones have limited capacity. The district information
and documentation is one such which was established mainly to support the e-government
To achieve the information and IT aspirations of the district, the strategies required include
and are not limited to development of rural ICT centers to promote awareness on the
technologies, especially as far as e-government is concerned. However, in conformity with
principles of sustainable development, ICT entrepreneurship should be encouraged to counter
dependency. This approach also reverberates with the shift of paradigm towards public
private partnerships. ICT education in schools is currently limited to only one secondary
school in the district and further development of the same is hampered by limited availability
2.12.13 Environmental Management
The district is endowed with a high diversity of natural resources including land, various
types of soils, water from Lake Victoria, diversity of fish species, wildlife, various types of
vegetation, crops and livestock. The above natural resources form an important resource base
which supports the livelihoods of the local community. However, in the process of
exploitation of the above resources, some of the human activities have caused significant
negative impacts on the environmental.
Poverty situation and people's search for livelihoods through poor agricultural/farm practices
and other human activities are the key underlying causes of the widespread environmental
degradation in the district. A wide range of activities including poor farming practices,
encroachment on trust lands, charcoal production, sand harvesting, wetlands, drainage, poor
environmental sanitation among other activities have contributed to the high levels of
environmental degradation currently in the district.
Poor farming practices particularly basal fallow system of cultivation where a farmer clears a
parcel of land and cultivates for several years until the soil loses fertility. Thereafter this land
is left fallow and another parcel is opened for cultivation. In this form of cultivation there are
virtually no farm inputs mainstreamed into the cultivation system. In addition, there are no
soil conservation measures including terraces and grass strips incorporated to protect the
substrate and natural resources. This type of farming is to a large extent, responsible for
environmental degradation including sheet, gulley and soil erosion in areas such as Lambwe,
Central and Gwasi divisions. The situation is exacerbated by farming along the steep slopes
and bush burning along the Ruri and Gwasi hills.
Overgrazing is commonly noticed due to significant reduction in
vegetation cover in Rusinga Island, Sindo and Lambwe Valley.
2.12.15 Encroachment of trust lands:
There has been significant encroachment of trust
lands in catchments areas especially in Gwasi hills, Lambwe hills, Ruri hills. Many of the
hills have not been gazetted as forest reserves and hence the district forest officer does not
have a depurate mandate to manage the trust lands. Most of the hills are classified as trust
lands under the management of county councils. The county councils do not have adequate
technical and financial capacity to manage the forest. Large and deep gullies have now been
formed and more gullies are now at different stages of formation. During the rains the gullies
carry tremendous amounts of run-off that are now undermining bridges and other road
installations down streams of the Gwasi and Lambwe hills.
Areas with high levels of pollution in the district include the fishing beaches and urban
centers of Sindo, Mbita and Nyandiwa. These levels of pollution are mainly due to surface
run-off during rains, and washing of human waste into the lake attributed to the low coverage
of latrines and sanitation facilities in the densely populated areas. In addition there is
significant contamination of the Lake Victoria emanating from oil spills from boats, bathing,
dishwashing and washing of cars.
In the towns of Mbita and Sindo, the problem of waste management emerges as challenges
especially with increasing populations in these areas. The solid waste includes flimsy plastics
usually used for packaging, paper, clothes, tins, food remains. The poor sanitation especially
in major towns of Sindo and Mbita aggravates to problem. Cultural practices that involve
direct watering of livestock – in water bodies, washing in the beaches remain largely
In addition, latrine coverage is low standing at 34% and high percentage of the community
use the bush with resultant introduction of faecal matter into the water bodies when it rains.
This accounts for the high prevalence of water borne diseases including typhoid, cholera,
diarrhea, and dysentery in the district.
2.12.17 Peace Building and National Diversity
The post election conflict (of 2007/08) that affected the country did not spare the district as a
number of people were displaced from their homes and businesses both from inside and
outside the district. The crisis is for purposes of this development plan, viewed in the context
of its impact on the development progress of the district. The conflict mainly affected Mbita
Point, the district headquarters as well as Gwasi and Lambwe Valley, which account for
about 50% of the district's food production. Similarly, a number of people, originally from
the district but resident elsewhere were displaced and on returning to the district, they
required relief support. The education sector was seriously affected by the exit of many
teachers from the district, with a net increase in the teacher; pupil ratio.
2.12.18 Youth perspective
The promotion of sustainable agriculture in developing countries could have important direct and
indirect implications for economic development. Growth accelerated by the agricultural sector is not
restricted to the agricultural sector only, but is believed to spill over to other sectors in the economy,
like processing industries, supply industries, and the transport sector. A smoothly functioning
agricultural sector can increase food availability, improve price mechanisms and increase employment
opportunities. In this sense, agriculture can be seen as the engine of poverty reduction and of growth
of the economy in general (Dorward et al
2003). A prerequisite for positive spill-over effects however
is a good institutional quality and a high level of social capital.
Social capital is defined by trust relations, reciprocity and exchanges, common rules and
norms, and networks and groups (Pretty 2003). Social capital is important for several reasons.
In the first place it stimulates economic development, as it tends to lower transaction costs
(e.g. costs of information, monitoring, searching, contracting), and makes people more
responsive to changing market conditions. A second and related aspect is that social capital
reduces risks, and supports innovative behavious. In an environment with a high level of
social capital, people are more likely to invest and to join new linkages with others, for
example in farmers' cooperatives. Especially, the first three aspects take time to be built up;
the fourth aspect is rather an outcome of the latter three characteristics of social capital. In
times of crisis however, social capital can easily be broken down.
Youth can serve as an important focus group for rural development projects, especially in
areas where the level of social capital is low and when institutional quality is poor. For
example, the younger generation tends to be more open for innovation than the older
generation (IPMS 2007). Various authors however have pointed out that the youth has higher
change than other age groups to move to urban areas in order to find a job in the informal
sector (see Lucas 2004) or to become active in rebel groups in times of war (see Bellow and
Miguel 2006) when institutional quality is low. Focusing on the youth therefore, in programs
that stimulate sustainable agricultural development, could improve social capital, reduce risk,
and stimulate economic growth.
Youth can be defined in many contexts such as transitional, demographic, cultural, biological and social. In this context, the youth is defined within demographic and transitory paradigms. Transitional paradigm issues include marriageablity, responsibility (social and economic), maturity and reproductively.
Youth unemployment has become a major challenge in the 21st Century. The Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions highly affected by youth unemployment. It is estimated to be more than 21% (ILO: 2003). According to ILO projection, Sub-Saharan Africa will witness substantial growth in additional labour force of 28 million - 30 million between 2003 and 2015.
While contending that the current economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa countries will not cope with the growing number of unemployed youth in the region, alternative strategies need to be developed before situation gets out of control.
In Kenya, youth unemployment is a serious development issue. It is estimated that 64% of unemployed persons in Kenya are youth. Interestingly only 1.5% of the unemployed youth have formal education beyond secondary school level and the remaining over 92% have no vocational or professional skills training and the majorities are found in the rural Kenya. Due to inadequate employment and livelihood opportunities in rural areas the tendency is that they migrate to urban centers to look for such opportunities.
Kenyan economy heavily depends on Agriculture (24% of GDP), which is basically rural-oriented sector. Surprisingly, Kenyan agriculture is still labour-intensive thus the out-migration of young and productive labour force from rural to urban centers has a direct negative impact on agricultural production hence job creation in other sectors which are directly or indirectly linked to the sector will be reduced. A strategy of rolling back rural –urban migration by creating opportunities for employment and access of livelihoods would have a positive spiral effect on Kenya economy.
3.1 Study design
This study was a cross sectional survey in which quantitative and qualitative tools were use to
capture the data.
3.2 Study population
The population of Nyatoto Sub- location is 3,475 representing 676 households
This study targeted head of the sampled households.
3.3.1 Sampling Method for the quantitative survey
Each of the 15 household elders representing each of the 15 villages of Nyatoto sub-location
provided list of their households which formed the sampling frame (504) households were
provided).The final list of all households were serialized and Systematic sampling method
was used to select the households for interview.
3.3.2 Sample Size determination
In order to determine the sample size we used Yamane's formula.
n= N/ [1+N (e)2]
Where n is the required sample size, N (676) is the population of households and e is the
level of precision at 95% confidence level set at 0.05.
n= 676/ [1+676(0.05)*(0.05)] =676/2.69
= 252 households
The sampling interval set at 3 (702/252) and a random start was selected by toss of coin to
pick the first start from the first three households on the list.
3.3.3 Sampling procedure for qualitative survey
Purposive sampling method was used to select a convenient sample of 6 key informant were
interviewed including the 1 chief,
3 villager elders, 1 opinion leader and one school teacher.
3.3.4 Data collection tools
Household baseline qualitative survey questionnaire developed by The Great Lakes
University of Kisumu were adapted with additional of questionnaire on conflict, youth,
gender and HIV/AIDS. Qualitative questionnaire were also used as a guide for key informant
3.3.5 Data Collection Procedure
Enumerators were 10 in number and were mostly selected from Sindo and Nyatoto health facility. On
the 28th February 2011 & 1st March 15, 2011, the enumerators were trained on tools which were pre
tested in Mbita division Nyasara village nearby .We were guided by one of the village elder on
consultation with Nyatoto and Niagara chief. After pre- test all the enumerators assembled to review
the tool and necessary amendments were undertaken. Detail plans for the survey was mad before the
commencement date of 2nd to 5th of March 2011.
3.3.6 Data management and analysis
Quantitative data was checked for completeness and accuracy of information collected. The data
was then entered into a user friendly screen designed in EPI INFO software (version 3.4.3 of
2007) and analysis conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, SPSS version 16).
Categorical variables were analyzed using frequencies while continuous data were analyzed
using descriptive statistics. In order to compare variables we used chi-square to assess the
associations. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant at 95% confidence level.
We used graph and tables to present the results.
Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis where the information was organized
thematically to reflect each of the Objectives.
4.1 Household demographic information for Nyatoto sub-location is intended to cover
social cultural practices including health
A total of 252 households were visited during the survey. From these households, those
interviewed were heads of households/spouses (36.4 %), children (43.2%), relatives (14.5%),
and Others comprising 2.1%. The sex rations of the respondents were 48.8% and 47.9% for
females and males respectively. The overall education levels for these households were
Primary schooling (63.0 %,), Secondary (15.6%) with none being 7.8%, and, Not applicable
reported at 5.6%. The type of dwellings comprise of mud thatched houses (43.4%), semi-
permanent housing (33.5%), and permanent housing being 4.1%. Latrine use in these
homesteads in this order: - latrines in use as observed to be in the homestead (0.2%), latrines
present but not in use (16.9%) and, no latrines sighted at all recording 43.8%. Domestic water
for drinking was found to have been treated (48.8%), and no water used without any
There were further investigations into the health status for children below the age of five. Up
to 63.2% of the children had clinic cards, with 14.3% not having, and another 22.5% recorded
as not applicable. 64.5% and 65.1% of the children had had Penta I and Penta III vaccinations
respectively, another 12.6% and 11.6% had not had the Penta I and Penta II vaccines
respectively, with only 22.1% and 22.3% returning not applicable for Penta I and Penta III.
This is an impressive record indeed for such a rural setting. On the other hand, Measles
vaccination coverage was 64.7% having been vaccinated, with only 11.4% not having had the
vaccination. Hospital delivery was recorded at 9.1%, with 10.5 non-hospital deliveries and
13.6% not indicating where and how the delivery was managed. 11.6% of the mothers
attended Ant natal clinic with 10.1% not attending and 11.0% not recording this service as
having been undertaken at all. Records on the Last Months Period for the last three months
for mother with children under five years were: - for December 2010 (0.8%), January 2011
(0.8%), February 2011 (6.4%), Not applicable (11.0%) and don't know, recording 0.6%.
Investigations on the households food security (stocks) revealed the existing stocks for
Millet/Sorghum (Yes - 23.6%, No. 21.9%), Maize (Yes - 33.9%, No.14.9%), and, Beans (Yes
– 5.45, No. 27.3%). And finally, there was low mortality recorded with Deaths for under 5
(Yes – 1.0%, No. 22.3% and N/A 5.8%), and, death of females between 14-49 years (Yes -
1.2%, No. 25.6% and N/A - 2.3%), and, for males (Yes - 1.3%, No. 24.7% and N/A –
2.4%).This was only attributed to the last 6 months before the survey
4.2 Material Health (Women with children<5)
Ant tetanus vaccinations for women during pregnancy showed that 45.6% of women
took the vaccination, 6.7% did not take, 0.4% did not know if they took, 0.8% did not
remember and those reporting not applicable were 26.6%. Out of the women interviewed
those who knew about Family Planning methods were 59.1% while those who did not
know represented 27.0%, with only 24.2% using one method or another, 33.7% not
using any method at all, and those reporting not application accounted for 20.6%. This is
further illustrated in table Two below:-
Table Two: Use of various Family Methods
Inject able e.g. Depo
It was evident that the majority of respondents were either reluctant to disclose the
methods that they use or were not using any of the listed methods at all. Further
investigations as to whether the women discussed family planning options with their
spouses reveal that 2.6.1% indicated they discussed always, mostly, sometimes or rarely.
And, 15.9% did not discuss at all with their spouses though they used some form of
Family Planning secretly, and 24.6% registered not applicable.
4.3 Child health <5
Many mothers could not remember what they fed their children on "yesterday".
Children below five years (<5) on breast milk were 23.8% while 44.0% were no longer
being breastfed. The period from which the mothers stared feeding their young ones on
solid food were as follows:
However, when the children are sick their feeding on fluids and solid foods respectively
is stated in the order below:-
Feeding on fluids
Feeding on solid foods
And when the children are under diarrheal attack, protective measures undertaken by the
mothers were as follows: - given nothing (6.0%), put under ORT (26. %), fed on
porridge (19.0%), served with rice, water or soup (0.4%), fed on breast milk (0.8%), and,
on water only registering 9.1%.
4.4 Environmental health and situation
In the homesteads, there were few leaky tins observed (12.7%) while the rest (84.5%)
did not have any. Hands are mainly washed before and after meals. The main source of
water in the household is distributed in this order – Roof Catchment (6.0%), Protected
Spring (1.2%), Protected Shallow Well/ borehole fitted with hand pump (77.4%),Piped
water (8.3%), Earth Dam (1.2%) and from unprotected sources (0.4%).
This distribution is represented in table three below:-
Table Three: Water Sources in Community
Unprotected Water Sources
Piped Water Systems
However, time taken to walk to the main water source is as tabulated as in Table Four
: Proximity to water sources in relations to time
Under 3 0 Minutes
30 Minutes - 1 Hour
Do not know (DK)
There were few dish rack observed in the household. The findings revealed the situation
in this order – those present and in use (29.0%), present but not in use (3.6%), and total
absence recording 60.7%.
The disposal of children's waste took many forms – those who buried (10.7%), those
who threw away anyhow (16.7%) and those who threw into pit latrines accounted for
32.1% with another 22.6% returning a not applicable answer. The solid waste in the
homestead was disposed too in this order – waste burnt (30.6%), put in rubbish pit
(9.5%), put in composed pit (16.7%) and those who scattered in the compound recording
Further investigations into the hand washing situations
revealed the order
tabulated in table Five below:-
Table five: Occasions and methods deployed
There has been drastic reduction of forest cover in Nyatoto Sub-Location. This decline
was recorded at 88.9% for yes, and 6.3% for no. The major causes for the loss of forest
cover are, soil erosion (18.3%), charcoal burning (67.5%) with other causes recording
6.7%. Through visual observations, the presence and absence of soil erosion was
recorded at 56.3% and 37.3% respectively.
4.5 Food Security information for Nyatoto Sub-location.
Main factors that determine food security issues include: i) land ownership, total land
size, land under actual cultivations, ii) crop harvested (output) through the main
harvesting season and post main season harvests, types of seeds planted and their
sourcing, iii) animal husbandry including animal types, problems encountered in rearing
the animals, type of support provided to the community, providers of these support if
any, iv) trainings provided in agriculture to include, length of the trainings, providers of
the training, and fields trained in, and, what needs to be done to improve crop yields for
improved food security in Nyatoto Sub-location.
Table six: Types of Land used by community.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
The Nyatoto Sub-location community own 85.3% of the land with another 8.7% hires
land for agricultural purposes. 92.5% of land ownership is with men whereas women
ownership is accounting for a paltry 3.6%. The land parcels owned by families range
between 1-3 acres (42.8%) and those parcels of over three (>3) acres at 49.6%.
Table seven: size Currently Under Cultivation
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
2- Less than one acre
4- More than 3 acres
However, land that is put under cultivation for the same size ranges are as follows: -
47.6% of the land owners of 1-3 acres, 32.0 for those with land more than 4 acres and 9.9
for those with land less than 2 acres and 3.6% for those with no land but hire land.
Maize is the main subsistence crop (90.9%), followed by beans (1.6%), groundnut
(1.6%), finger millet (0.4%), sorghum 0.4%) and others (0.4%). However, during the
post planting season, no more than two crops are planted accounting for 15.9% and 3-4
crops accounting for 4%. The Nyatoto sub-location community buys planting seeds at
the local market (71.0% with another 23.0% having had to conserved/stored seeds from
the previous harvest. This means that the community does not plant certified seeds and
this adds to the perpetual poor harvests and hence meager yields, partly explaining why
there is perpetual hunger in the sub-location virtually throughout the year. The overall
food shortage registered through this study reveal that food shortage runs as high as
93.7% with only 2.4 % indicating food sufficiency.
The Nyatoto sub-location community keeps a variety of animals and birds. These are
represented in table six below:
Table Eight: Animals and Birds kept by community
Cows (64.7%) are the most popular in the community followed by Goats (56.3%) and
Sheep (46.4%) with chicken being the most popular bird kept by the Nyatoto households.
However, animal husbandry is faced with a myriad of problems. The most common
problem is animal diseases accounting for 64.7% followed by drought (7.1%), and,
shortage of animal feeds (5.2%), while other problems include external parasites (5.6%0,
and internal parasites (4.8%). Due to theft of animals there is an increasing tendency of
household members having to share the same house with the animals (4%) with the rest
(84.5%) still having to keep their animals in a secure shed outside the house but in the
Community members make a lot of efforts to vaccinate their animals (66.3%) with a
marginal 20.6% not undertaking this important precaution. None Government
Organization (GO) at 5.2% and Non-Government Organization (NGO) at 6.0% assist the
community with any meaningful support for animals and birds keeping. The community
keep livestock for food (34.5%), domestic incomes (30.6%), and for paying school fees
The survey revealed inadequate agricultural training support to the Nyatoto sub-location
community with 70.2% having received no trainings at all with only 16.3% having has
some form of training in the past. These trainings had been acquired as follows: - within
the last three months (3.6%), within 4-6 months ago (2.0%, within the last 6 months ago
(4.4% and with those who cannot remember registering 2.4 %. The bulk of the training
was conducted through seminars (7.9%), through visits (4.4% and in-house training
accounting for 1.6%. The few trainings recorded have been conducted by Government of
Kenya (GoK – 4.4%), Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs -6.3%) with Community
Based Organizations (CBOs – 1.2%) and others accounting for 0.4%. The trainings have
covered organic farming, inorganic farming, mixed cropping, greenhouse farming, and
labour saving technologies. The durations for these trainings have been short ranging
from less than one day (3.2%), 1-3 days (3.2%), 3-5 days (3.2%) and over 5 days
accounting for 2.0%.
It is evident that food security situation in Nyatoto sub-location is weak due to persistent
poor harvests and limited household incomes. The average harvest of 6-10 bags of maize
per household from each main farming season is far much inadequate. This situation has
been occasioned by a myriad of factors, and these include, among others:-
- Clinging to traditional methods of farming instead of adopting modern farming
- Lack of capital inputs and knowledge in modern farming techniques, including
lack of access to loaning facilities and use of certified seeds.
- Inadequate policies and strategies that inspire and promote effective and efficient
community participation in agriculture.
- The impact of HIV/AIDS that has reduced manpower required for farming and
loss of resources that go into endless treatments for HIV/AIDs affected persons
from the meager community resources.
- The environment is rapidly degrading as confirmed by ruthless cutting down of
trees for charcoal, soil erosion and galleys, long droughts, and overstocking in the
community, when there is no commensurate efforts in tree planting for example!.
- There is still persistence of tse-tse fly menace in the area (next to Ruma Game
Reserve) jeopardizing livestock keeping,
- Lack of trainings of modern farming methods and livestock keeping as there in
limited GoK intervention and support as well as from NGOs and other
This now calls for concerted efforts by GoK, NGOs and other stake holders to provide
tangible support in terms of trainings, access to resources to facilitate and sustain active
community engagement in sustainable agriculture. Community sanitization and
mobilization activities will be essential in preparing the community to embrace and make
good use of support provided by stakeholders to realize food security and sustainable
development in Nyatoto sub-location.
4.6 Social Groupings and Gender
Community Social groups
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Table Ten: Social Grouping composition
The overall participation of the Nyatoto sub-location community is encouraging. The
overall social groupings engagement is encouraging. Those recorded as belonging to a
social group was 77.4% with those not belonging to any social groupings being only
19.0%. The participation breakdown is presented in Table seven above:-
The main source of incomes from the social groups to run their affairs are: - Farming
(78.2%), Self Help Employment (6.0%), Salaried (3.2%), Remittances (0.4%), none
(4.4%) and others recording 3.6%. Some of the Social groupings are registered (56.7%)
with 13.7% not registered but loosely knit by virtue of interests, with yet another 13.9%
indicated that they do not know about their registration status. Some 54.4% confirmed
owning certificates of registration, 7.9% did not have any, and those who did not know
whether they have registration certificates or not was 12.3%. The frequency of group
meetings varied from one group to another. Those that undertake weekly meetings
comprise 26%; monthly meetings 27.8%; quarterly 0.8%; over once monthly 2.0%; and
those with other unspecified meeting schedules comprising of 16.7%. The last elections
held also varied greatly. Those who had conducted elections once every six months were
15.1%; those once a year 36.5%, with others constituting 11.9%. Up to 58.3% of the
groups had a constitution, 5.6% did not have any with 4.0% did not know if they had
nay, and 13.1% said this was not applicable in their group.
The mode of elections among the groups also differed from one group to the other. This
was reflected as follows: - those who voted through the ballot (11.1%) and those who
went through direct nominations (51.6%), with others employing unspecified means
being 1.6%. The composition of members within the groups could be presented in Table
Table Eleven: Composition in the Social Groups
The group leadership and their levels of education were captured to give insights into
the groups management capacities. However, this was confined to the three key officials.
The table below reflects the leadership level of education within the social groupings.
Table Twelve: Groups Leadership levels
4.7 Conflict and Conflict Resolution
Nyatoto sub-location community reported having had conflicts (56.3) with 38.1%
reporting none. The main causes for conflicts include: - grazing land (29.0%), land
disputes (15.5%), clanism (5.6%), and tribal/ethnicity (1.6%) and other causes
accounting for 3.2%. However, all reported conflicts are managed through clan chiefs
(25.0%), at family level (24.6%), provincial administration (18.7%), and local courts
(6.0%), with other mechanisms accounting for 4.0%. There are minimum trainings in
Management of Conflicts (9.1%) with 70.6% having not attended any training. The
limited trainings undertaken have been conducted in this manner: - GoK (2.4%), CBOs
(6.3%), Churches (4.8%), NGOs (0.8%) with others recording 1.2%. Population pressure
coupled with livestock keeping is a main cause for conflict in Nyatoto sub-location.
Tribal/ethnic conflicts has been recorded due to the fact that Lambwe valley is basically
a settlement scheme thus bringing many communities together though the majority are
Luo ethnic community with a few Abgusii settled here. The recent Post Election
Violence (PEV) of 2007/2008 following the General Elections in Kenya accounts for the
ethnic conflicts registered in this context.
4.8 Youth Perspective
Youth are a very important segment of the Nyatoto community. The survey revealed
that the respondents indicated Youth groups account for 94.4% with only 2.4% returning
non existence of Youth groups. It was further revealed that the up to 80.6% of the Youth
engage in agricultural activities with some 15.1 % engaged in Non agricultural activities
like petty trade "boda boda" of motor bicycles and bicycle transport. Youth also account
for 0.8% in other social groupings in Nyatoto community.
5.0 Interpretation of each result conclusion
A total of 252 households out of the 676 households were visited and interviewed during
The overall education levels for the households were:
• Primary School 63.0%.
• Secondary 15.6%.
• Latrine use 0.2%.
• Latrine presence 16.9%
• Hospital delivery 9.1%
• Antenatal clinic attendant 11.6%
• There has been drastic reduction on forest coverage in Nyatoto-sub-Location; the
decline was recorded at 88.9%.
• Charcoal burning 67.5%
• Soil erosion was recorded at 56.3%
• Nyatoto community owns 83.3% of land and 92.5% of land ownership is with
• Maize is the main subsistence crop 90.9% while sorghum 0.1%
• Majority of people 71.0% buy seeds from local market for planting.
• 77.4% of Nyatoto community reported to belonging to Social groups
• 15.1% of these groups conducts the election once every 6months
• 36.5 of these groups conduct election once every year
• 58.3% of the groups had constitution.
• 51.6% mode of election is direct nominations while 11.1% voted through secret
• Leadership education of 11.5% are below primary education
• 20.2% of leadership has primary education
• 6.0% of leadership has Secondary education
• 7.9% of leadership has tertiary while 19% do not know education level of their
chairperson, secretary or treasurer.
• 56% of the population of Nyatoto reported having had conflict.
• The main cause for conflict include grazing land 29.0%
• Land dispute 15.5%
• Clan disputes 5.6%
• Tribal ethnic 1.6 %
• Conflicts are reported to be managed through chief 25.0 %
• Family level 24.6%
• Provincial administration 18.7%
• Local Courts 6.0%
The minimum training for the conflict management is 9.1% with
• 70.6% having not attended any training.
• 94.4% of the youth participates in Youth groups
• 80.6% of youths engage in agriculture.
5.1 Health Records Review
• HIV prevalence rates among:
• 0-5 years is 0.31%
• 6-14 years 2.8%
• 15-24 years 3.07%
• Above 24 years16.75%
Ten top diseases seen at the Nyatoto Health Centre are as follows:
2. Acute respiratory infection (ARI)
3. Diarrhea diseases
4. Disorder of the skin
6. Eye Infection
7. Ear Infection
8. Intestinal worms
Some of the recommendations that arise from this baseline survey, and which need
further attention, include the following:
1. Take advantage of the existing social groups in Nyatoto to tackle
2. Improving the housing standards through the increase of incomes by
supporting organic farming to improve land fertility
3. Encourage and train community on old methods of preserving seed
4. School feeding programs to be introduced by community and government to
encourage children to concentrate on education and get enough nutrition as
majority only reach primary school.
5. Improvements in Sanitation through ensuring that there in more water to the
community (sink more boreholes), and through concerted sensitization and
mobilization of the community. Note: "Water is life and Sanitation is
6. Encourage female land ownership (narrowing the gender gap) as to give
women and men equal opportunity to access credits
7. Introduce/avail certified seeds to mitigate against dwindling rainfalls and
drought so that yield are increased and fast maturing crops to ensure adequate
food supply and thus lead to improved food security
8. Provide a lot of trainings in the fields of agriculture and livestock as the core
to sustainable growth and development in study area
9. Soil conservation through tree and tree fruits planting
10. Government to sensitized the community on livestock grazing policy to
minimize conflict due to land grazing
Central and Eastern Africa Food Security Situation April 2011
20draft.pdf, Date accessed 26th April, 2011
Consultation Report for 2001-2004 Suba district Poverty Reduction Strategic PaperDistrict
social development Officer Participatory rural appraisal report for Nyatoto sub-Location
GOK. Suba District Development Plan 1997-2001
Kenya National Bureau of statistics 2009 Kenya Population and Housing CensusKenya
National Bureau of Statistics 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey
Kenya national Bureau of Statistics Ministry of Planning and National Development Kenya
Integrated Household Budget Survey -2005/06
Kenya vision 2030 2007 The government of Kenya Ministry of Planning and the national
Economic and social council
Margaret Ogembo 2008 Partnership Practice Reports Nyatoto-Sub Location of Central
Division of Suba District Submitted to The Great Lake University of Kisumu
Olive M. Mugenda& Abel G. Mugenda Research Methodology Qualitative and Quantitative
The State of Food Insecurity in the World http://www.fao.org/publication/sofi/en, date
accessed 26th April, 2011
Johana Ogwang – Headman
John M. Nyabungu – Chairman
Mary Akinyi Onyango
Evans K. Ong'onge – Secretary
James Okomo Orwaka
Esther Odongo – Treasurer.
Charlish O. Ogwang'
Reuben O. Ogwang
Benard O. Odongo
Tobias O. Orwaka
John Otieno Orwaka
Edwardd Okelo Ogwang
Kennedy Okoth Lusi
Kennedy Otieno Orwaka
Moris Omondi Orwaka
Sospeter Mbeke Odino
Mrs. Ludia Otieno Nyagudi
Samwel Otieno Oliewo
Harun Oieno Nyagudi
Silver Atieno Mbeke
Ayub Okumu Otieno
Pilista Otieno Oliewo
Mrs. Norah Okumu Otieno
Rafael Nyakinda Omolo
Mrs. Demta Okumu Otieno
Jenifa Nyakinda Omolo
Mrs. Okumu Otieno
Alois Amumi Odino
Linet Harun Otieno
Rose Adhiambo Odino
Sulman Otieno Nyagudi
Lukas Otieno Odino
Jane Oluoch Otieno
Benta Otieno Odino
Alex Nyamwala Owili
Caroline Otieno Odino
Mrs. Mary Nyamwala Owili
Walter Kubi Odondo
Jackline Maende Owili
Musa Ouma Odondo
Mrs. Thabita Milando Owili
Susana Kubi Odondo
Mrs. Susana Akoko Owili
Debora Kubi Odondo
Ellena Odondo Oyolo
Mrs. Janet Moi Owili
Peter Odhiambo Agida
Mrs. Jackline Maende Owili
Mrs. Macline Odhiambo Agida
Mrs. Elizabeth Owili Ojwang
Mrs. Rose Ouma Odondo
Mr. Thumbi Owili
Jullia Rapemo Mwai
Mrs. Thumbi Owili
Harun Rapemo Mwai
Erenest Otieno Ongus
Mrs. Harun Rapemo
Mrs. Erenest Ongus
George Rapemo Mwai
Johanes Oreko Riaga
Mrs. George Rapemo
Mrs. Turfosa Oreko Riaga
James Otieno Oliewo
Mrs. Prikila Adega Apot
Mrs. Millicent Ouma Oliewo
Joseph Wanga Owili
Daudi Ogweno Mbaga
Mrs. Evaline Wanga Owili
Mrs. Rose Ogweno Mbaga
Mrs. Cathorine Atieno Boff
John Odhiambo Mbaga
Owage Owili Ojwang
Mrs. Mornica Odhiambo Mbaga 223
Hellen Owage Owili
Mrs. Ellena Riaga
Sason Okech Adongo
Ismael Onyang Atieno
Mrs. Peres Okech Adongo
Ismael Otieno Nyagudi
MATUNGA - A VILLAGE
248 Maurce Okoya
251 Salmon Odira Okelo
252 Benard Otieno
253 William Okelo
254 Nyathiwa Okelo
255 Joshua Okelo
256 Ramjus Ponde
257 Joshua Obunga
258 Daniel Olewe
260 Joanes Ogalo
261 William Akumu
263 Ochieng dume
MATUNGA - B VILLAGE
Osack Odira – Alice Odira
285 Otieno Odede – Nereah Otieno
David Okello – Doris Okello
286 Otieno Auma – Evaline Otieno
Larius Owino – Lilian Owino
287 Aloo Orinda – Rose Aloo
Enos Owanje – Mary Enos
288 Agutu Pskal – Florence Agutu
Onyango Owenje – Claris Onyango
289 Rapemo – Jane Rapemo
Mboya Owenje – Victorine Mboya
290 James Juma – Lizi Juma
Michael Okuta – Dorca Okuta
291 Samson Otieno – Eunice Otineo
Ambrose Anganga – Leah Anganga
292 Akoth Agiso – Gladis Akoth
Kornel Okumu – Mary Okumu
293 Okello Agiso – Silper Okello
Richard Odongo – Maren Odongo
294 Richard Oliew -
Aruo Agiso – Berguda Aruo
295 Mose – Ebsiba Mose
Samson Ondiegi – Risper Ondiegi
296 James – Esther James
George Ouma – Mary Ouma
297 Nick Opiyo – Velma Odhiambo
Alsamus Onduto – Rose Onduto
298 Otieno Moro – Judy Otieno
Elisha Odhiambo – Hellen Odhiambo
299 Janabi Oluoch
Opiyo Agiso – Dinah Opiyo
Richard Owenje – Esther Owenje
301 Agiso – Magarita Agiso
Ezron Ngiela – Hellen Ngiela
302 Onyango Odede – Millicent Onyango
Oginga Orinda – Mary Oginga
303 Odede – Nyagao Odede
Gordon Otieno Ware
Teresha A. Mamba
Calvin's O. Pongo
Elisha Obuyu Agola
Jane Achieng Otieno
NYATOTO TOWN CENTRE
Eunita A. Obongo
Flora Auma Okwaro
Consolata Ogowe Grace
Evance Lawrence Ratemo
Teresa Adhiambo Odhiambo
David Ochieng Odhiambo
Mrs. Odongo Odhiambo
Mrs. Juma Nyambune
Mrs. Jakobo Muga
Mrs. Sami Nyauke
Mrs. Ochieng Awino
The livelihood Foundation
P.O. Box 56410 – 00200 NAIROBI
MOBILE NO: (254) 720 546 147
Email: [email protected]
/ [email protected]
BASELINE SURVEY TOOL FOR NYATOTO SUB-LOCATION IN
COLLABORATION WITH FORUM SYD
SECTION 1: IDENTIFICATION PAGE
District Name .
Division Name .
Sub – Location Name.
Village Name .
Village Elder Name.
Community Health Worker's Name .
Name of Numerator .
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 20/11/2008 SEC(2008) 2902 final COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Products of Plant Origin in the European Union, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein TABLE OF CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS & SPECIAL TERMS USED IN THE REPORT 1. INTRODUCTION .
COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL POLICY OF THE JOGORKU KENESH OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC Special report on the results of monitoring and evaluation of implementation of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic «On Preventing and Combating Traﬃcking in Persons» COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL POLICY OF THE JOGORKU KENESH OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC