Need help?

800-5315-2751 Hours: 8am-5pm PST M-Th;  8am-4pm PST Fri
Medicine Lakex
medicinelakex1.com
/h/housingnet.co.uk1.html
But Australian doctors confirm that erectile dysfunction is not a total lack of erection viagra australia it is possible that the doctor will be able to determine the etiology of erectile dysfunction.

Housingnet.co.uk

Statistical Bulletin Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 Coverage: England and Wales
Date: 03 September 2015
Geographical Areas: Local Authority, Region
Theme: Health and Social Care
Theme: Population
Office for National Statistics 1 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Main points
• There were 3,346 drug poisoning deaths registered in England and Wales in 2014, the highest since comparable records began in 1993.
• Of these, 2,248 (or 67%) were drug misuse deaths involving illegal drugs.
• The mortality rate from drug misuse was the highest ever recorded at 39.9 deaths per million • Males were over 2.5 times more likely to die from drug misuse than females (58.0 and 21.9 deaths per million population for males and females respectively).
• Deaths involving heroin and/or morphine increased by almost two-thirds between 2012 and 2014, from 579 to 952 deaths.
• Deaths involving cocaine increased sharply to 247 in 2014 – up from 169 deaths in 2013.
• People aged 40 to 49 had the highest mortality rate from drug misuse (88.4 deaths per million population); followed by people aged 30 to 39 (87.9 deaths per million).
• In England there was a 17% rise in the drug misuse mortality rate in 2014, to 39.7 per million population, while in Wales the rate fell by 16% to 39.0 deaths per million, the lowest since 2006.
• Within England, the North East had the highest mortality rate from drug misuse in 2014 for the second year running (69.3 deaths per million population), while London had the lowest (25.4deaths per million).
• All figures presented in this bulletin are based on deaths registered in a particular calendar year.
Out of the 3,346 drug-related deaths registered in 2014, half (1,682) occurred in years before2014.
This bulletin presents the latest figures from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) on deathsrelated to drug poisoning (involving both legal and illegal drugs) and drug misuse (involving illegaldrugs) in England and Wales. Figures from 1993 onwards are available to download, and arediscussed in the commentary to provide further context to the latest data.
Drug use and drug dependence are known causes of premature mortality, with drug poisoningaccounting for 1 in 7 deaths among people in their 20s and 30s in 2014 (see Background note6). Drug-related deaths occur in a variety of circumstances, each with different social and policyimplications. Consequently, there is considerable political, media and public interest in these figures.
This bulletin covers accidents and suicides involving drug poisonings, as well as deaths fromdrug abuse and drug dependence. It doesn't include other adverse effects of drugs (for example,anaphylactic shock). Drug poisoning deaths involve a broad spectrum of substances, including legal Office for National Statistics 2 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 and illegal drugs, prescription-type drugs (either prescribed to the individual or obtained by othermeans) and over-the-counter medications. Some of these deaths may also be from complications ofdrug abuse, such as deep vein thrombosis or septicaemia from intravenous drug use, rather than anacute drug overdose.
The definition of a drug misuse death is (a) deaths where the underlying cause is drug abuse ordrug dependence and (b) deaths where the underlying cause is drug poisoning and where any ofthe substances controlled under the used across the UK. More details can be found in Background note 5.
The figures presented here are for deaths registered each year, rather than deaths occurring eachyear. Almost all drug-related deaths are certified by a coroner. Due to the length of time it takes acoroner to complete an inquest, half of drug-related deaths registered in 2014 will have actuallyoccurred prior to 2014. See the "Impact of registration delays on drug-related deaths" section belowfor more information. Nevertheless, general trends in drug-related deaths are broadly equivalent,regardless of whether the data is analysed by year of occurrence or year of registration. Extrainformation is provided in the commentary where differences in the trends do exist. Deaths from all drug poisonings
There were 3,346 drug poisoning deaths (involving both legal and illegal drugs) registered in 2014.
As in previous years, the majority (just over two-thirds) of these deaths were males (2,246 maledeaths and 1,100 female deaths).
Figure 1: Number of deaths from drug-related poisoning, by sex, deaths registered in 2014
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codesshown in Background note 4.
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring in 2014.
Office for National Statistics 3 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
In 2014, the mortality rate for all drug-related deaths increased significantly for both males andfemales to 80.7 and 38.8 deaths per million population respectively. This increase is likely to berelated to the availability and consumption of heroin/morphine (see the "heroin and morphine"section).
Figure 3 shows that the mortality rate from all drug poisoning is significantly higher in males thanin females. The Crime Survey for England and Wales showed that men are more likely to takeillicit drugs than women (). This partly explains the higher mortality rate fromdrug poisoning in males. However, this cannot be the only explanation, as more than 30% of drugpoisoning deaths are not related to drug misuse.
There have been significant rises in the male mortality rates for all drug-related poisonings over thelast 2 years. The mortality rate reached 80.7 deaths per million population in 2014, the highest since2001. This reverses the declining trend that had been seen between 2009 and 2012. Before this,the male mortality rate for all drug-related poisonings rose steeply from 1993 and peaked in 1999.
Since then, mortality rates have been lower but there have been large fluctuations over the years,especially over the 11-year period from 1999 to 2009.
Female mortality rates have steadily increased each year since 2009. They showed a particularlymarked 19% increase in 2014, reaching an all time high of 38.8 deaths per million population in2014. This follows on from relatively stable rates between 1993 and 2004 and then a declining trend,reaching the lowest level in 2007 (26.6 deaths per million population).
Deaths related to drug misuse
The pattern of mortality from drug misuse closely matches the overall trend seen for all drug-relateddeaths. Of the 3,346 drug poisoning deaths in 2014, 2,248 (67%) were from drug misuse whichinvolves illegal drugs. The proportion of drug poisoning deaths involving illegal drugs has generallyincreased over the past 20 years (from 38% in 1993), but has stabilised in recent years.
Office for National Statistics 4 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figure 2: Number and percentage of deaths from drug-related poisoning and drug misuse,
deaths registered in 2014
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Moredetails can be found in Background notes 4 and 5.
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring in 2014.
Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
In 2014, there were 1,624 male drug misuse deaths and 624 female drug misuse deaths. The malemortality rate increased significantly to reach a new peak of 58.0 deaths per million population. Thefemale mortality rate also increased sharply to a record high of 21.9 deaths per million.
In 2014, 72% of male drug-related deaths and 57% of female deaths were due to drug misuse. Thisproportion has increased since 1993, when drug misuse caused 44% of male drug-related deathsand 29% of female deaths. Figure 3 illustrates that over time the drug misuse mortality rate for eachsex has gradually become closer to the all drugs poisoning mortality rate, showing the proportion ofall drug poisoning deaths that can be explained by drug misuse has increased over time.
Office for National Statistics 5 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figure 3: Age-standardised mortality rates for deaths related to drug poisoning and drug
misuse, by sex, deaths registered in 1993 to 2014
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics Age-standardised mortality rates per 1 million population, standardised to the 2013 European Standard Population.
Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) for the years1993 to 2000 and Tenth Revision (ICD-10) from 2001 onwards. More details can be found in Background notes 4and 5.
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring between 1993-2014.
Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
Drug-related deaths involving specific substances
Figure 4 gives the age-standardised mortality rates where selected substances were mentioned onthe death certificate for 1993 to 2014, and Table 1 gives the number of deaths from a wide rangeof substances that are commonly abused. Table 2 provides the number of deaths from a range ofprescription and over-the-counter medicines that are less commonly abused. These figures need tobe interpreted with caution for the following reasons: • These figures are based only on information reported on the coroner's death certificate, and may not include every substance involved in the death.
Office for National Statistics 6 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 • In around 1 in 10 drug poisoning deaths, only a general description is recorded on the coroner's death certificate (such as drug overdose or multiple drug toxicity). Deaths where the certificatecontains only non-specific information cannot contribute to the counts of deaths involving specificsubstances.
• In an additional third of all drug poisoning deaths, the death certificate mentions more than one specific drug. Where more than one drug is mentioned, it is not possible to tell which wasprimarily responsible.
• Where more than one drug is mentioned on a death certificate, the death will be counted in more than one category in Tables 1 and 2 (and may appear in both tables). For example, if both heroinand methadone are mentioned, the death will be recorded once under heroin and once undermethadone. Therefore the numbers for different substances cannot be added together to give atotal number of deaths.
• Approximately 30% of all drug-related deaths also contain a mention of alcohol or long-term alcohol abuse (for example, cirrhosis) in addition to a drug.
Table 1: Number of drug-related deaths where selected substances which are commonly
abused were mentioned on the death certificate, deaths registered in 2010 to 2014
England and Wales Office for National Statistics 7 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Table source: Office for National Statistics
Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) (seeBackground note 4).
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring in 2010-2014.
Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
Figures for opiates exclude opiates contained in a paracetamol compound, ie co-codamol, co-dydramol and co-proxamol.
Office for National Statistics 8 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figure 4: Age-standardised mortality rates for selected substances, deaths registered in 1993
to 2014
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics Age-standardised mortality rates per 1 million population, standardised to the 2013 European Standard Population.
Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) for the years1993 to 2000 and Tenth Revision (ICD-10) from 2001 onwards (see Background note 4). Deaths were includedwhere the underlying cause was drug related and the specified substance was mentioned on the death certificate.
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring between 1993-2014.
Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
Office for National Statistics 9 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Table 2: Number of drug-related deaths where selected prescription and over-the-counter
medicines were mentioned on the death certificate, deaths registered in 2010 to 2014
England and Wales Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) (seeBackground note 4).
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring in 2010-2014.
Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents Dextropropoxyphene is very rarely ingested except in combination with paracetamol, therefore figures includedextropropoxyphene mentioned without paracetamol.
Opiate drugs can be prescribed to treat moderate to severe pain, but repeated use can lead todependence and tolerance (meaning the user needs to take more of the drug to achieve the sameeffect). These drugs also have psychoactive effects and many opiates are taken illicitly due to this ahigh abuse potential.
Office for National Statistics 10 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Over half (53%) of all deaths related to drug poisoning in 2014 involved an opiate drug (excludingopiates which are contained in paracetamol compounds such as co-codamol). This proportion hasbeen relatively stable since 2007.
Heroin and morphine
Deaths involving heroin and/or morphine increased from 579 in 2012 to 952 in 2014 (an increase ofalmost two-thirds) and they remain the most commonly mentioned opiates in drug related deaths.
Figure 4 shows that before the recent rise, the mortality rate for deaths involving heroin and/ormorphine declined between 2008 and 2012, with a particularly sharp drop between 2009 and2011. The recent reversal means the mortality rate in 2014 was the highest since 2001 and nowexceeds the previous peak in 2008 seen before the "heroin drought" (see following paragraph). Thenumber of deaths from heroin/morphine reported here is likely to be an underestimate, as somecoroners simply record "opiate overdose" on the death certificate and do not specify which opiatedrug was involved. Many of these deaths will actually involve heroin/morphine.
Increases in the number of deaths involving heroin/morphine were seen across all ages between2013 and 2014, apart from people aged 70 and over, with the biggest rises seen in those aged 50to 69 (see Reference table 7). However, a different pattern of heroin/morphine-related mortalitywas seen for males and females. In males, the mortality rate for deaths involving heroin and/ormorphine decreased in 2012, then rose sharply in 2013 and increased again in 2014 (by 19%). Incontrast, female mortality rates rose by 18% in 2012, remained stable in 2013, and then increasedby 46% in 2014. Some of this difference between the sexes can be explained by the fact that agreater proportion of female deaths involving heroin/morphine are suicides (rather than accidentaloverdoses), which are less likely to be affected by changes in the purity of heroin.
Evidence suggests that in 2010/11 there was a "heroin drought" in the UK, with reduced availabilityof heroin persisting in some areas in 2011/12 and 2012/13 (Serious Organised Crime Agency(SOCA), ). The heroin drought affected the purity of user-level or "street") to 17% in mid-2012 (National CrimeAgency, 2015), then increased again in the last 2 years to an average of 29% in 2013 and 36%in 2014. This is consistent with the UN report suggesting that global opium poppy cultivation (thesource of heroin) reached its highest level in 2014 since the 1930s (United Nations, of heroin have also changed over this period – the purity-adjusted price of heroin per gram in theUnited Kingdom has fallen from £74.32 in 201 Public Health England (or crack addiction (including those returning to treatment) increased slightly between 2012/13and 2013/14. Frontline drug workers who responded to the Street Drug Trends Survey in 2014suggested the slight upturn in people coming into services may be related to the higher purity heroinin circulation (Drugscope, 2015).
Evidence suggests that overdoses are associated with higher drug purity (the increase in user-level purity, and the changes in price, may partly explain the increase in heroinrelated deaths in 2013 and 2014. However, we would expect this to affect males and females in a Office for National Statistics 11 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 similar way, so the different pattern of mortality seen for males and females suggests the increase inpurity is not the only factor.
Heroin/morphine is particularly dangerous when taken in combination with other central nervoussystem depressant drugs such as methadone, tramadol, benzodiazepines and alcohol, as thesedrugs interact with heroin and can lead to marked respiratory depression resulting in a high risk ofoverdose. Over time, there has been a gradual increase in the number of deaths mentioning heroin/morphine in combination with other substances in England and Wales. Although this cannot fullyexplain the recent sharp increases in deaths involving heroin/morphine, it is possible that changes inthe specific drugs taken with heroin/morphine in recent years may be having an impact.
Other opiates, including tramadol and methadone
Reference table 6a shows that deaths involving the majority of other opiates, including painkillerssuch as tramadol, codeine, oxycodone and fentanyl and unspecified opiates have also increased inrecent years.
A notable trend to emerge in the past few years is the steady increase in the number of deathsmentioning tramadol (a synthetic opioid analgesic). This rise continued in 2014 where the numberof deaths involving tramadol increased by 9% to a new peak of 240 deaths. However, the numberthe increase in deaths may be due to people misusing this substance. In June 2014, tramadol wascontrolled under the ), but we will need to wait for the 2015 death registrations to be reported to us to find out whether this hashad an impact on deaths.
In contrast, deaths involving methadone have shown the opposite trend in 2014, when there were394 deaths, down 8% from 2013. Methadone is an opiate substance used to treat heroin addiction,which is sometimes abused.
There were 247 deaths involving cocaine in 2014. Deaths involving cocaine increased steadily inthe 1990s and 2000s, peaking in 2008, before declining slightly between 2008 and 2011. However,mortality rates have increased 3 years in a row, and have now reached an all time high of 4.4 deathsper million population.
The Crime Survey for England and Wales suggests that cocaine is the second most commonlyused drug (after cannabis) with 2.4% of adults aged 16 to 59 using powder cocaine in 2013/14.
This was slightly higher than in 2012/13 (1.9%), although this remains lower than the peak of 3.0%in 2008/09 (Home Of). The National Crime Agency (2015) suggest there has been agradual increase in user-level cocaine purity over the last 2 years, and there were marked regionalvariations in the purity of crack cocaine. These 2 factors are likely to be contributing to the increasein deaths involving cocaine.
Office for National Statistics 12 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Amphetamines, including ecstasy
The number of deaths involving amphetamines increased from 120 in 2013 to 151 in 2014. This isa mortality rate of 2.6 deaths per million population, which is the highest mortality rate since recordsbegan in 1993. In addition to amphetamine itself, the amphetamines group includes substancessuch as methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, also known as ecstasy), methylamphetamine,paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) and Para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA).
The number of deaths involving ecstasy has varied across the years. The highest number of deathswas seen in 2005 when there were 58 deaths, this then declined to a low of 8 deaths in 2010. Sincethen the number of deaths has gradually increased to 50 deaths in 2014. The Home Office reporteda rise in ecstasy use by adults aged 15 to 59 between 2012/13 and 2013/2014, but this has sincestabilised ().
Reports have expressed concerns about the availability of "super strength" ecstasy, with one recentformulation having a reported MDMA content around 2 to 2.5 times the standard MDMA dose perpill (Drugscope, 2015). The Street Drug Trends Survey (Drugscope, 2015) reports that ecstasypurity levels have increased significantly and have now reached 1990s levels. In addition, ecstasy issometimes taken in combination with the more potent PMA. This may partially explain the increasednumber of deaths involving ecstasy.
The number of death certificates mentioning PMA or PMMA dropped slightly in 2014 from 29 in 2013to 24 in 2014. It is too soon to say if this is the end of the increasing trend seen since 2011, and thefigure is still far higher than the single death seen in 2011. It has been suggested that people may). However,there is not enough information recorded on coroner's death certificates to confirm if this was thecase for the deaths registered in 2014.
New psychoactive substances (including "legal highs")
Over the past few years a number of new drugs have been informally known as "legal highs". Thereis no official definition of new psychoactive substances (NPS), and all drugs included in our definitionfor the purposes of this bulletin are listed in Background note 10. This grouping may be revised infuture years, as and when further NPS are indentified, and we welcome comments on the drugsincluded in this category.
Some of the more common NPS include synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (for example,"spice"), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), piperazines,cathinones such as mephedrone, benzofurans, and more recently, prescription-type drugs, forexample, benzodiazepine analogues. Most of these substances are now controlled under the The number of deaths involving NPS are low compared with the number of deaths involving heroin/morphine, other opiates, or cocaine. However, over the past few years there has been an rise inNPS deaths, with 67 deaths registered in 2014 (up from 60 deaths in 2013). Analysis of the trendsbased on the year the death occurred, reveal a different pattern than that seen for registration year.
Analysis of year of occurrence suggests that there were sharp increases in NPS deaths between Office for National Statistics 13 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 2010 and 2011 and again between 2011 and 2012, but then the number of deaths fell in 2013.
Although figures for deaths occurring in 2014 are very incomplete (and thus are not shown in Figure5), initial indications suggest that the upward trend in NPS deaths has now stabilised.
Figure 5: Number of deaths involving new psychoactive substances, by registration year and
occurrence year, 1993 to 2013
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) for the years1993 to 2000 and Tenth Revision (ICD-10) from 2001 onwards (see Background note 4). Deaths were includedwhere the underlying cause was drug related and one or more new psychoactive substances were mentioned onthe death certificate.
Figure 5 only includes deaths that were registered by 31 December 2014. Due to the length of time it takes tocomplete a coroner's inquest, it can take months or even years for a drug-related death to be registered, so figuresfor deaths occurring in 2013 will be an underestimate. See the section on 'Impact of registration delays on drug-related deaths' for more details.
Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
The majority of new psychoactive substances are now controlled under the Office for National Statistics 14 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 The most commonly mentioned NPS are cathinones, the most well-known of which is mephedrone.
The rise in deaths involving cathinones which we have seen in recent years appears to have levelledoff in 2014, with a small increase from 26 to 27 deaths between 2013 and 2014. Analysis of year ofoccurrence suggests that deaths involving cathinones actually fell in 2013 and have since stabilised.
This is consistent with evidence from the Crime Survey for England and Wales, which suggeststhat the proportion of 16 to 59-year-olds using mephedrone has not changed significantly in the last3 years. (Home Of).
The second most common NPS is gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), which was involved in 20 deaths in 2014, which is in line with figures from thelast 7 years. GBL was controlled under the misuse of drugs act in 2009, so some people would nolonger consider it to be a new psychoactive substance.
An emerging trend is the use of benzodiazepine analogues, such as etizolam, flubromazepam andpyrazolam, which were involved in 9 deaths in 2014 (though around half occurred in 2013).
Another emerging trend is the use of nitrous oxide as a legal high (this substance is commonly usedas pain relief during labour and is also known as laughing gas). The Crime Survey for England andWales reported that 7.6% of people aged 16 to 24 used nitrous oxide in the last year, though thisnumber had not increased significantly compared with the previous year (Home Of).
Our drug deaths figures suggest that there is no evidence of an increase in deaths involving nitrousoxide, as there were only 3 deaths registered in both 2013 and 2014 and between 0 and 5 deathseach year prior to that.
There were 372 drug-related deaths involving benzodiazepines in 2014. The mortality rate was 6.6deaths per million population, an 8% increase from 2013 and the highest mortality rate since recordsbegan in 1993.
Diazepam was the most common type of benzodiazepine mentioned on deaths certificates in 2014,involved in 258 deaths, the highest number on record. Although diazepam can be prescribed itis also widely abused. The Street Trends Drug Survey suggests that the content of these illegalbenzodiazepines varies and there is a trend for taking new benzodiazepine analogues such asetizolam (Drugscope, 2015).
The role of diazepam and other benzodiazepines in drug-related deaths is unclear, as more than 9out of 10 deaths involving benzodiazepines also mentioned another, often more potent, drug such asheroin or methadone.
Zopiclone and zolpidem
The number of deaths involving zopiclone or zolpidem has steadily increased since 1993 to 100deaths in 2014, an increase of 16% since 2013. These drugs are prescribed to treat insomnia in theshort-term, and prescriptions have increased slightly (2% between 2013 and 2014 – HSCIC, but this does not explain the growing number of deaths involving these substances. These drugshave the potential to be misused and in June 2014, zopiclone was controlled under the Office for National Statistics 15 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 ), but it is too soon to say whether thishas had any impact on the number of deaths. As with benzodiazepines, 8 out of 10 deaths involvingZopiclone or Zolpidem also involve another drug.
There were 517 deaths involving antidepressants in 2014, the highest number since 1999. Themajority of this increase is in people aged between 40 and 69.
Deaths involving tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) showed an increase in 2014, with 253 deathsregistered in 2014. The majority of the TCA deaths involved amitriptyline where there was a 13%rise to 195 deaths, continuing the upward trend since 2010. Although TCAs are still involved in moredeaths than other types of antidepressants, the number of deaths from TCA poisoning is now muchlower than its peak of 497 deaths in 1998.
Deaths involving Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) have been steadily increasingover recent years, reaching a peak of 159 deaths in 2014, 1 death higher than the previous peakin 2012. The majority of SSRI deaths involve the drug citalopram. The number of these deaths hadbeen increasing gradually over time, but in 2013 there was a decrease of 19% to 82 deaths. Thisincreased again slightly in 2014 to 86 deaths. Studies show that SSRIs are less toxic in overdosethan TCAs (. In the last 5 yearsprescriptions for SSRIs have increased more rapidly than prescriptions for TCAs (Health and Socialdeaths involving SSRIs.
Deaths involving other types of antidepressants have continued the upward trend, increasing by26% and reaching a peak in 2014 at 155 deaths. Reference table 6a shows that the majority ofthese deaths involved venlafaxine or mirtazapine. The number of deaths involving mirtazapineincreased to 90 deaths in 2014 from 73 in 2013, the highest number on record. Deaths involvingvenlafaxine also increased to the highest number on record (59 deaths in 2014). The NationalInstitute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines () suggest that these drugs shouldnot be used as a first-line treatment for depression, and should only be prescribed to people whohave not responded to SSRIs. Venlafaxine in particular is associated with a greater risk of deathfrom overdose. Prescriptions for venlafaxine and mirtazapine have increased in recent years, butstill only accounted for only 16% of all antidepressant prescriptions in 2014 and yet they wereresponsible for 29% of deaths where antidepressants were mentioned (HSCIC, Paracetamol and other analgesics
There were 200 deaths involving paracetamol and its compounds in 2014. Deaths involvingparacetamol not from a compound decreased by 20% in 2014 to 127, following a small increase in2013. Overall, deaths involving paracetamol not from a compound have been fairly stable in the lastfew years. However, deaths involving co-codamol (paracetamol and codeine) increased by 21% in2014 to a new high of 63 deaths.
Office for National Statistics 16 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 In 2014 the number of deaths involving barbiturates increased by 56%, from 32 up to 50 deaths – anall time high. Although there has been some fluctuation, the data appears to suggest that since 2007there has been an increasing trend, peaking in 2014. There were 126 deaths related to antipsychotics in 2014 (an 18% increase). This continues thegradually increasing trend that has been seen since around 2000. The number of deaths involvingantipsychotics reached an all time high in 2014 and is now more than twice the level recordedin 1994. In 2014, the antipsychotic quetiapine was involved in half these cases (52 deaths). Thenumber of prescriptions for antipsychotic drugs increased in 2014, but not as much as the number ofdeaths (HSCIC, ference is unclear. Age-specific mortality rates for deaths related to drug misuse
Figure 6: Age-specific mortality rates for deaths related to drug misuse, deaths registered in
1993 to 2014
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics Age-specific mortality rates per 1 million population.
Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) for the years1993 to 2000 and Tenth Revision (ICD-10) from 2001 onwards. More details can be found in Background notes 4and 5.
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring between 1993-2014.
Office for National Statistics 17 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
Mortality rates from drug misuse rose across almost all age groups in 2014 for the second year ina row. The only age group to buck this trend were 20 to 29 year-olds where the rate remained thesame. However the size of the increase varied between age groups, with people aged between30 and 69 showing the largest rises; and the youngest and oldest age groups remaining relativelystable in 2014.
A large rise in the mortality rate was seen in the 40 to 49 year old age group, increasing from 70.5 to88.4 deaths per million population between 2013 and 2014 (a 25% increase). Mortality rates in thisage group have followed an upward trend and the latest increase means that for the first time thehighest mortality rate from drug misuse is now in people aged 40 to 49. Mortality rates in those aged30 to 39 also increased in 2014 to 87.9 deaths per million. The mortality rate in people aged 30 to 49was significantly higher than any other age group and this difference is particularly marked in males(see downloadable reference tables). Reference table 7 contains the number of deaths involvingselected substances by age group. This table shows that the increase in deaths in people aged 30to 49 is largely due to deaths involving heroin/morphine, other specified opiates and cocaine. Deathsinvolving amphetamine also contributed to the increase in 30 to 39 year olds.
The mortality rate for 50 to 69 year olds also increased significantly in 2014 from 26.6 to 33.3 deathsper million population. This continues the upward trend seen in previous years and the mortalityrate is now the highest it has ever been for this age group. Reference table 7 shows that the overallincrease in this age group is driven by increases in deaths involving opiate drugs.
In 2014, the mortality rate from drug misuse for 20 to 29 year olds remained stable at 40.5 deathsper million population. Looking at the long-term trends, this age group had the highest mortalityrate from 1994 until 2002. Since its peak in 2001, the mortality rate decreased until 2013, when itincreased from 30.5 to 40.5 deaths per million population, but this increasing trend appears to havelevelled off in 2014.
For the under 20s, the mortality rate increased slightly to 2.4 deaths per million population in 2014,this follows a similar small rise in 2013. Despite the increase, the mortality rate in young people isstill at a historically low level and is much lower than the mortality rate seen in older age groups.
There was a small increase in mortality for people aged 70 and over from 11.9 to 12.2 deaths permillion population in 2014. However, the rate remains relatively low compared with other age groups.
This age pattern of drug misuse deaths is broadly in line with treatment figures from Public HealthEngland (.
Moreover, this ageing drug using population experience wider health problems, making them harderto treat, thus impacting on mortality.
Office for National Statistics 18 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Geographical variations in deaths related to drug misuse
In England as a whole, the mortality rate from drug misuse has increased for 2 consecutive years,marking a reversal of the declining trend which was seen between 2008 and 2012. In 2014 therate increased by 17% from 33.9 to 39.7 deaths per million population, reaching an all time high. Incontrast, since 2010, the mortality rate in Wales has been gradually decreasing, and the mortalityrate declined by 16% between 2013 and 2014, when the figure stood at 39.0 deaths per millionpopulation. These differing trends mean that England now has a higher mortality rate for deathsrelated to drug misuse than Wales for the first time since 2004.
Nevertheless, there was considerable regional variation within England in deaths relating to drugmisuse. Most regions of England saw an increase in the mortality rate from drug misuse between2013 and 2014, though Yorkshire and The Humber and the East Midlands saw small falls. Despitea 10% increase in 2014, London continued to have the lowest mortality rate in England (25.4deaths per million population in 2014). The regions with the highest mortality rates over the last 9years were the North East and North West. The North East has seen particularly sharp rises in themortality rate in the last 2 years (33% in 2014 and 30% in 2013) and the rate of 69.3 deaths permillion population is now more than double that of London.
Office for National Statistics 19 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figure 7: Age-standardised mortality rate for deaths related to drug misuse, by country and
region, deaths registered in 2014
England and Wales
Office for National Statistics 20 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Source: Office for National Statistics Age-standardised mortality rates per 1 million population, standardised to the 2013 European Standard Population.
Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Moredetails can be found in Background notes 4 and 5.
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring in 2014.
Deaths of persons usually resident in each country and region, based on boundaries as of May 2015.
Comparisons with other countries
Figures on drug-related deaths in Scotland are available from show that there were 613 deaths related to drug misuse registered in Scotland in 2014, 16% higher Figures for Northern Ireland are available from the .
The latest figures show that there were 115 drug-related deaths registered in Northern Ireland in2013, up 5% compared with 2012.
mortality rate in Europe .
Figures for other countries may not be comparable with those presented here for England andWales, due to differences in data collection methods and in the death registration system.
Number of deaths related to drug misuse by underlying cause
In January 2014, we introduced a new version of ICD-10 (software version 2013) which replaced theversion introduced in 2011 (version 2010). The impact of this change is detailed in the "Changes tothe coding of underlying cause of death" section. It is not anticipated that this change will have a bigimpact on the assignment of underlying cause of death for the drug-related deaths reported in thisbulletin.
In both males and females, the largest proportion of deaths were from accidental poisonings (79%of all drug misuse deaths in males and 69% in females). Both the proportion and the actual numberof accidental poisoning deaths has increased between 2013 and 2014 from 1,087 to 1,291 deaths inmales and from 332 deaths to 429 deaths in females.
Deaths from mental and behavioural disorders due to drug use are essentially deaths from drugdependence or abuse. These deaths often involve an acute overdose of drugs, but because the Office for National Statistics 21 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 death record did not mention a specific terms such as "overdose", the underlying cause is assignedto mental and behavioural disorders rather than an accidental poisoning. However, these 2 causesoften involve very similar scenarios. The number of deaths where the underlying cause was amental and behavioural disorder remained relatively stable for both males and females in 2014(83 deaths and 24 deaths respectively). However, given the overall number of drug-related deathsincreased in 2014, we would have expected deaths from mental and behavioural disorders toincrease proportionally. As this didn't happen, the percentage of drug misuse deaths from mentaland behavioural disorders dipped slightly to 5% in males and 4% in females.
The proportion of drug-misuse deaths which are suicides (defined as intentional self-poisoning orpoisoning of undetermined intent) is higher in females than in males – 27% compared with 15% in2014. The number of female suicides related to drug misuse increased from 155 deaths in 2013 to168 deaths in 2014. In contrast, the number of male suicides related to drug misuse decreased from271 deaths in 2013 to 246 deaths in 2014.
The number of deaths from assault by drugs are extremely low (less than 10 per year), and havebeen combined with mental and behavioural disorders for completeness.
Office for National Statistics 22 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Fig 8: Male drug misuse deaths by underlying cause, deaths registered in 2014
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Moredetails can be found in Background notes 4 and 5.
There are very few deaths from assault by drugs, so for presentation purposes, these have been combined withmental and behavioural disorders due to drug use.
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring in 2014.
Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
Office for National Statistics 23 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Fig 9: Female drug misuse deaths by underlying cause, deaths registered in 2014
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Moredetails can be found in Background notes 4 and 5.
There are very few deaths from assault by drugs, so for presentation purposes, these have been combined withmental and behavioural disorders due to drug use.
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring in 2014.
Office for National Statistics 24 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
Impact of registration delays on drug-related deaths
In England and Wales, almost all drug-related deaths are certified by a coroner following an inquest.
The death cannot be registered until the inquest is completed, which can take many months or evenyears, and we are not notified that a death has occurred until it is registered. If someone is to becharged in relation to the death, the coroner must adjourn the inquest, and they may carry out anaccelerated registration. However, the full details are not recorded until the inquest is completed,and these accelerated registration deaths are not included in the drug-related deaths figures.
In common with most other mortality statistics, figures for drug-related deaths are presentedfor deaths registered in a particular calendar year, which enables figures to be published in atimely manner. The alternative would be to publish statistics based on the year in which the deathoccurred. However, if we were to do this the publication would be delayed by at least 6 months toallow enough time for the majority of the deaths that occurred in a given year to be registered. If itwas produced any earlier the data would be incomplete and inaccurate.
Due to the length of time it takes to hold an inquest, this bulletin actually presents information ondeaths that may have occurred months or even years ago. Out of the 3,346 drug-related deathsregistered in 2014, half (1,682) occurred in years prior to 2014. This proportion has not changedsubstantially in recent years, but it makes it more difficult to evaluate how changes such as theheroin drought or the banning of certain new psychoactive substances have affected drug-relateddeaths. It also makes it more difficult to compare trends in drug-related deaths between local areas,as registration delays vary considerably across England and Wales.
Office for National Statistics 25 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figure 10: Average registration delay for deaths related to drug poisoning and drug misuse,
deaths registered in 1993 to 2014
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics The registration delay is calculated as the difference between the date each death occurred and the date it wasregistered, measured in days. The average delay is represented using the median.
Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Moredetails can be found in Background notes 4 and 5.
Figures are for deaths registered, rather than deaths occurring between 1993-2014.
Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
Figure 10 shows that the average registration delay has gradually increased over time. In 1993the average delay was 70 days for all drug-related deaths and this had more than doubled to 176days in 2013. However, in 2014 the average registration delay decreased for the first time to 161days, suggesting the upward trend has stabilised. Over the same period the number of deaths fromall causes that were referred to coroners increased from 22% in 1993 to a peak of nearly 40% in2010, but has since levelled off. This increase may have contributed to the lengthening registrationdelays over the same period. Overall, the broad trends in drug-related deaths are similar whetherthe analysis is based on registration year or occurrence year (see Figure 11).
Office for National Statistics 26 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figure 11: Number of deaths from drug misuse, by registration year and occurrence year,
1993 to 2013
England and Wales
Source: Office for National Statistics Cause of death was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) for the years1993 to 2000 and Tenth Revision (ICD-10) from 2001 onwards (see Background notes 4 and 5).
Figure 11 only includes deaths that were registered by 31 December 2014. Due to the length of time it takes tocomplete a coroner's inquest, it can take months or even years for a drug-related death to be registered, so figuresfor deaths occurring in 2013 will be an underestimate.
Figures for England and Wales include deaths of non-residents.
New method for calculating confidence intervals around mortality rates
The deaths data in this release are not subject to sampling variation, as they were not drawn from asample. Nevertheless, they may be affected by random variation, particularly where the number ofdeaths is small. To help assess the variability in the rates, they have been presented alongside 95%confidence intervals.
This bulletin uses a new method for calculating the confidence intervals around the death rates, andfigures have been revised back to 1993. Previously, the confidence intervals were calculated using anormal approximation method, on the assumption that the underlying deaths data on which the rates Office for National Statistics 27 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 are based on are normally distributed. However, in some instances, for example in young people,the number of drug-related deaths is relatively small (fewer than 100), and may be assumed tofollow a Poisson probability distribution. In such cases, it is more appropriate to use the confidencelimit factors from a Poisson probability distribution table to calculate the confidence intervals, insteadof a normal approximation method. The method used to calculate confidence intervals for deathrates based on fewer than 100 deaths was proposed by intervals where there are 100 or more deaths in a year.
A benefit of the new method is that because the Poisson probability distribution is asymmetric andhas a lower bound of 0, the lower confidence interval will never fall below 0 (unlike the normalapproximation).
These changes do not affect the death rate – only the confidence interval around the rate. Theimpact is generally small and affects groups where there are less than 100 deaths, for example,Wales and English regions; females; younger and older age groups and specific substances.
Changes to the coding of underlying cause of death
We code cause of death using the Wenth Revision (ICD-10). Where possible, deaths are automatically coded using specialistsoftware, with the remaining deaths being manually coded. ICD-10 was introduced in England andWales in January 2001. Since then various amendments to the ICD-10 have been authorised byWHO and we have updated cause coding software to incorporate these changes. Between 2001and 2010, we used software version 2001.2; between 2011 and 2013 version 2010 was used andon 1 January 2014, we changed the software to a package called IRIS (version 2013). IRIS softwareversion 2013 incorporates all official updates to ICD-10 approved by WHO, which were timetabledfor implementation before 2014.
To understand the impact of these changes on mortality statistics, we carried out bridge codingstudies in which a sample of deaths that had previously been coded using the old software werethen independently recoded using the new version of ICD-10 (Of The move to v2010 in 2011 had a big impact on the assignment of underlying cause of death fordrug-related deaths, causing a large reduction in deaths with an underlying cause of a mental andbehavioural disorder and a corresponding increase in deaths with an accidental underlying cause. Itdid not, however, affect the total number of drug-related deaths. More information about the impactof this coding change on drug-related deaths statistics can be found in the 2012 statistical bulletin(Of).
The move to IRIS (version 2013) software in 2014 was expected to cause a small decrease in thenumber of drug-related deaths, due to a change in the coding of deaths involving helium. Almost allof these deaths are suicides and until 2014 they would have been assigned an underlying cause ofX64 or Y14 (poisoning by other and unspecified drugs, medicaments and biological substances).
From 2014, deaths involving helium are assigned an underlying cause of X67 or Y17 (poisoning byother gases and vapours), and are no longer included in the range of codes used to select drug- Office for National Statistics 28 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 related deaths (see Background note 4). Consequently, the total number of drug-related deathsare approximately 2% lower in 2014 than they would have been had the coding change not beenimplemented.
In addition, analysis of the bridge coded data suggested a small increase in deaths assigned anaccidental poisoning underlying cause and a corresponding decrease in deaths assigned to mentaland behavioural disorder due to drug use. The selection of 1 of these 2 causes is dependent on theprecise wording on the death certificate and due to the small number of drug-related deaths in thebridge coded data (around 200) it is possible these changes are simply random noise in the data.
This means figures for 2011 onwards by underlying cause will not be directly comparable withfigures for 2001 to 2010. The current Government drug strategy, "Reducing demand, restricting supply, building recovery:supporting people to live a drug-free life" (related deaths as one of the key outcomes that recovery-oriented services should be focusedon. The Government has also placed an increased emphasis on drug prevention alongside drugtreatment across all substances and drug using cohorts. In April 2013, responsibility for publichealth – including drug and alcohol prevention and treatment – transferred from the NHS to localauthorities.
Patterns of drug use change over time. For instance, in recent years people have been takingnew psychoactive substances (NPS), sometimes referred to as "legal highs". In response to this,last year the Government commissioned an expert panel to look at ways to tackle NPS. Followingthe recommendations of the review, in May 2015, the Government introduced the PsychoactiveSubstances Bill in the House of Lords. Under the Bill it will be an offence to supply any substanceintended for human consumption that is capable of producing a psychoactive ef In February 2013, the Welsh Government published the Substance Misuse Delivery Plan 2013–2015 (), which included the specific target of "reducing the number ofsubstance misuse related deaths and non-fatal overdoses and alcohol poisonings in Wales".
To support this, guidance for undertaking fatal and non-fatal drug poisoning reviews has beendeveloped and the Welsh Government are now working with partners to implement the guidance. Uses made of this data
The figures contained in this bulletin are used by a range of public bodies, such as Public HealthEngland (PHE), the Department of Health (DH), the Home Office and the Welsh Government toevaluate the effectiveness of various drug strategies. For example, the 2014 expert panel review ofnew psychoactive substances and the Home Offices own review of the evidence made use of ourdrug-related deaths data (Expert Panel, ).
In April 2013, the key functions of the National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse weretransferred into PHE, and they have linked our data on drug-related deaths with data from the Office for National Statistics 29 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 English National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS). This study suggested that theEnglish public treatment system for opioid use disorder prevented an average of 880 deaths eachyear from opioid-related poisoning ( The Wales have linked our drug-related deathsdata to information on the distribution and coverage of the National Take-Home Naloxone (THN)programme. This will be used to evaluate whether the THN program is having an impact on thenumber of drug-related deaths in Wales and also to identify areas requiring further focus. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) combines data forEngland and Wales from our drug poisoning database with data from Scotland and Northern Irelandto publish UK figures. This allows comparisons to be made with other European countries. The2015 European drug report shows that the drug-related mortality rate in the UK was the seventhhighest in Europe (, caution should be applied when making internationalcomparisons, because of differences in definitions and the quality of reporting.
Our drug poisoning data are also used by academic researchers. For example, analysis of thisdata by the Centre for Suicide Research at the University of Oxford revealed that there was a majorreduction in deaths involving co-proxamol following its withdrawal in 2005, with no evidence of anincrease in deaths involving other analgesics, apart from oxycodone (data on deaths involving co-proxamol and other analgesics are shown in Reference table 6a. 1. The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (2000) Reducing drug related deaths, Home 2. APHO – Association of Public Health Observatories, (2008) " 3. Bazazi A.R. et al (2015) " , 26, 675–681, accessed on 26 August 2015 4. Christophersen O, Rooney C and Kelly S (1998) " rends 93, 29–37, accessed on 19 August 2015 5. Department of Health (2001) " 6. Dobson, A, Kuulasmaa K, Eberle E and Scherer J (1991) " 7. Drugscope (2014) ‘Business as usual? A status report on new psychoactive substances (NPS) and club drugs in the UK' 8. Drugscope (2015) ‘Down a stony road: The 2014 DrugScope Street Drug Survey'9. EMCDDA – European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2015) " 10. Expert Panel (2014) "11. Frank (2013) "12. Hawton K, Bergen H, Simkin S, W Office for National Statistics 30 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 13. Home Office (2010) " 14. Home office (2014a) " on 19 August 2015 15. Home Office (2014b) " 16. Home office (2015a) " 17. Home Office (2015b) " accessed on 19 August 2015 18. HSCIC – Health and Social Care Information Centre (2010) " 19. HSCIC – Health and Social Care Information Centre (2014) " 20. HSCIC – Health and Social Care Information Centre (2015) " 21. "fice Ltd, accessed on 19 August 201522. National Crime Agency (2015), personal communication23. NICE – National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2009) " 24. Office for National Statistics (2002) " 25. Office for National Statistics (201 26. Office for National Statistics (2012) " ", accessed on 19 August 2015 27. Office for National Statistics (2014a) " 28. Office for National Statistics (2014b) " 29. Public health England (2013) " 30. Public Health England (2014) " 31. SOCA (2011) "", accessed on 19 August 2015 32. SOCA (2012) " accessed on 19 August 2015 33. SOCA (2013) " accessed on 19 August 2015 34. SOCA (2014) " accessed on 19 August 2015 35. United Kingdom Focal Point on Drugs (2014) "36. United Nations (2015) " Office for National Statistics 31 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 37. Welsh Government (201", accessed on 19 August 2015 38. Welsh Government (2013) " 39. White et al (2015) " ", Addiction 110(8), 1321-9, accessed on 19August 2015 40. World Health Organisation – WHO (2010) " on 19 August 2015 1. Quality information
2. Mortality metadata
Information about the underlying mortality data, including details on how the data is collectedand coded are available in the 3. Drug poisoning database
The figures presented in this bulletin have been produced using a special database of deathsrelated to drug poisoning. This has been developed to facilitate research into these deathsand to aid the identification of specific substances involved. The database is extracted fromthe national mortality database for England and Wales. Deaths are included if the underlyingcause of death is regarded as drug-related, according to the National Statistics definition. Moreinformation on this definition and issues relating to the interpretation of drug-related deathsdata can be found in poisoning database had a coroner's inquest. For each death the database includes the followinginformation: • the ICD codes for underlying cause of death and other causes mentioned on the death • every mention of a substance recorded by the coroner in the cause of death section or elsewhere on the coroner's certificate after inquest (up to seven substances).
• an indicator to show if alcohol is mentioned – this includes a wide variety of scenarios ranging from evidence of alcohol consumption around the time of death (for example, anempty vodka bottle found at the scene or alcohol found after toxicology tests) to long-termalcohol abuse and cirrhosis of the liver.
• other information recorded at death registration such as age, sex, marital status, occupation and place of usual residence. Office for National Statistics 32 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 4. Definition of a drug-related death
International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) and Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes usedto define deaths related to drug poisoning Description
ICD-9 Codes
ICD-10 Codes
Mental and behavioural 292, 304, 305.2–305.9 F11–F16, F18–F19 disorders due to drug use(excluding alcohol andtobacco)Accidental poisoning by drugs, medicaments andbiological substances Intentional self-poisoning by drugs, medicamentsand biological substancesAssault by drugs, medicaments andbiological substancesPoisoning by drugs, medicaments andbiological substances,undetermined intent 5. Definition of a death related to drug misuse
In 2000, the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs published a report called "ReducingDrug Related Deaths" (The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2000). In responseto this report's recommendations on improving the present system for collecting data ondrug-related deaths, a technical working group was set up. This group, consisting of expertsacross government, the devolved administrations, coroners, toxicologists and drugs agencies,proposed a headline indicator for drug misuse deaths as part of the government's action plan(into account the information needs of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and DrugAddiction. The baseline year for monitoring deaths related to drug misuse was set as 1999. Thedefinition of the headline indicator using ICD-10 is shown below. The definition using ICD-9 waspublished in a previous annual report (, 2002).
Cause of death categories included in the headline indicator of drug misuse deaths (the relevantICD-10 codes are given in brackets): Office for National Statistics 33 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 a) Deaths where the underlying cause of death has been coded to one of the followingcategories of mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use (excludingalcohol, tobacco and volatile solvents): • opioids (F11)• cannabinoids (F12)• sedatives or hypnotics (F13)• cocaine (F14)• other stimulants, including caffeine (F15)• halucinogens (F16)• multiple drug use and use of other psychoactive substances (F19) b) Deaths where the underlying cause of death has been coded to one of the followingcategories and where a drug controlled under the the death certificate: • Accidental poisoning by drugs, medicaments and biological substances (X40–X44)• Intentional self-poisoning by drugs, medicaments and biological substances (X60–X64)• Poisoning by drugs, medicaments and biological substances, undetermined intent (Y10– • Assault by drugs, medicaments and biological substances (X85)• Mental and behavioural disorders due to use of volatile solvents (F18) i. Specific rules were adopted for dealing with compound analgesics which contain relativelysmall quantities of drugs listed under the Misuse of Drugs Act, the major ones beingdextropropoxyphene, dihydrocodeine and codeine. Where these drugs are mentioned ona death record, they have been excluded from the drug misuse indicator if they are part ofa compound analgesic (such as co-proxamol, co-dydramol or co-codamol) or cold remedy.
Dextropropoxyphene has been excluded on all occasions, whether or not paracetamol or acompound analgesic was mentioned. This is because dextropropoxyphene is rarely, if ever,available other than as part of a paracetamol compound. However, codeine or dihydrocodeinementioned without paracetamol or ibuprofen were included in the indicator. This is because theyare routinely available and known to be abused in this form. This approach is the same as thattaken by National Records of Scotland (NRS). Drugs controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act1971 include class A, B and C drugs. 6. Deaths among people in their 20s and 30s
Around 1 in 7 deaths among people in their 20s and 30s were drug-related. This figure hasbeen calculated from the number of deaths from all drug poisonings of people aged 20 to 39,(1,275 deaths) and the number of deaths from all causes in this age group (8,725 deaths) forEngland and Wales in 2014. The number of deaths from all causes, by sex and age is availableon the 7. Heroin and morphine
Office for National Statistics 34 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Heroin (diamorphine) breaks down in the body into morphine, so either heroin and/or morphinemay be detected at post mortem and recorded on the death certificate. Therefore a combinedfigure for deaths where heroin or morphine was mentioned on the death certificate is included inTable 1.
8. Cocaine
The figure for cocaine in Table 1 includes deaths where cocaine was taken in the form of crackcocaine. It is not possible to separately identify crack cocaine from other forms of cocaine atpost mortem. Other evidence to distinguish the form of cocaine taken is rarely provided on deathcertificates.
9. GHB and GBL
The figure for GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) in Reference table 6a includes deaths where GBL(gamma-butyrolactone) was taken. It is not possible to separately identify GBL and GHB at postmortem as GBL is rapidly converted to GHB when ingested into the human body. 10. List of drugs included as new psychoactive substances
There is no national statistics definition of new psychoactive substances. The followingsubstances have been included in this group in this bulletin: • 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine• 1-(Benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine• 1-(Benzofuran-6-yl)-propan-2-amine• 2-(1H-Indol-5-yl)-1-methylethylamine• 25B-NBOMe• 25C-NBOMe• 2-diphenylmethylpyrrolidine• 4,4'-DMAR• 4-Fluoroephedrine• 4-Fluoromethcathinone• 4-Methoxymethcathinone• 4-Methylamphetamine• 4-Methylethcathinone• 5-EAPB• 5F-AKB-48• AH-7921• Alpha-methyltryptamine• APB• BZP• Cathinone• Desoxypipradrol• Diphenidine• Etizolam• Flubromazepam• Fluoromethamphetamine Office for National Statistics 35 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 • Fluoromethcathinone• GHB• Khat• MDDA• Mephedrone• Methiopropamine• Methoxetamine• Methoxphenidine• Methylenedioxypyrovalerone• Methylethcathinone• Methylone• N-Methyl-3-phenyl-norbornan-2-amine• Pyrazolam• Synthetic cannabinoid• TFMPP It is likely that this list will be revised in future as new substances emerge, and we welcomecomments on the grouping. 11. Calculation of mortality rates
Mortality rates are presented as deaths per one million population. The mortality rates in Figure6 are age-specific rates; and those in Figures 3, 4 and 7 are directly age-standardised to the2013 European standard population. Age-standardised rates are used to allow comparisonbetween populations which may contain different proportions of people of different ages,including comparisons between males and females and over time. Eurostat, the statisticalinstitute of the European Union, has decided to update the European Standard Population,which is used in the calculation of age-standardised rates. More information can be found on the 12. Confidence intervals
Excel workbooks containing the data used to produce the figures and tables in this bulletinare available to download from the and the upper and lower confidence limits. These limits form a confidence interval, which is ameasure of the statistical precision of an estimate and shows the range of uncertainty aroundthe estimated figure. Calculations based on small numbers of events are often subject torandom fluctuations. As a general rule, if the confidence interval around one figure overlapswith the interval around another, we cannot say with certainty that there is more than a chancedifference between the two figures. Within this statistical bulletin, a difference which is describedas "significant", means "statistically significant", assessed by examining the confidence intervals.
The ONS revisions policy is available on our 14. Calculation of registration delays
Office for National Statistics 36 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Figure 10 presents data on the length of time taken to register a death (also known as theregistration delay) for drug-related deaths. This is calculated as the difference between the dateeach death occurred and the date it was registered, measured in days. Data where the exactdate of death was unknown or where either the date of death or date of registration was clearlyrecorded incorrectly (that is, the death appeared to have been registered before it occurred)were excluded from this analysis. Approximately 0.2% of the data were excluded for thesereasons. Analysis showed that the data was positively skewed, and contains some deathswith very long registration delays (for example, more than eight years). Therefore the averageregistration delay has been presented using the median value, as this is not influenced byextreme values. The median is defined as the value that is halfway through the ordered data set,below and above which there lies an equal number of data values.
15. Special extracts of data
Special extracts and tabulations of drug poisoning deaths data are available to order (subjectto legal frameworks, disclosure control and agreement of costs, where appropriate). Enquiriesshould be made to: Mortality Analysis Team, Life Events and Population Sources Division Office for National Statistics Government Buildings Tel: +44 (0)1633 455341 Our charging policy is available on the 16. Feedback
We would welcome feedback on the content, format and relevance of this release. Please sendfeedback to the postal or email address above.
17. Pre-release access
A list of the names of those given pre-publication access to the statistics and writtencommentary is available in this England and Wales in 2014. The rules and principles which govern pre-release access arefeatured within the .
18. National Statistics
The has designated these statistics as National Statistics, in accordancewith the .
Office for National Statistics 37 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Designation can be broadly interpreted to mean that the statistics: • meet identified user needs• are well explained and readily accessible• are produced according to sound methods• are managed impartially and objectively in the public interest.
Once statistics have been designated as National Statistics it is a statutory requirement that the Code of Practice shall continue to be observed 19. Social Media
20. Terms and conditions
You may use or re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format ormedium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit theeam, The National Archives, Kew,London TW9 4DU, or email: . 21. Details of the policy governing the release of new data are available by visiting These National Statistics are produced to high professional standards and released according tothe arrangements approved by the UK Statistics Authority.
Crown copyright 2015 You may use or re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any formator medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visitwww.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/ or write to the Information Policy Team,The National Archives, Kew.
This document is also available on our website at .
+44 (0)1633 455341 Office for National Office for National Statistics 38 Deaths related to drug poisoning in England and Wales, 2014 registrations 03 September 2015 Office for National Statistics Media Contact Details:
Telephone: 0845 604 1858 (8.30am-5.30pm Weekdays) Emergency out of hours (limited service): 07867 906553 Office for National Statistics 39

Source: http://www.housingnet.co.uk/download_pdf/999

radiographia.ru

Document downloaded from http://www.archbronconeumol.org, day 15/12/2014. This copy is for personal use. Any transmission of this document by any media or format is strictly prohibited. The Halo Sign in Computed Tomography Images: DifferentialDiagnosis and Correlation With Pathology Findings Manuel Parrón,a Isabel Torres,a Mercedes Pardo,a Carmen Morales,b Marta Navarro,band Marta Martínez-Schmizcrafta

Doi:10.1530/jme-13-024

A WECKMAN and others Autophagy in the endocrine Autophagy in the endocrine glands Andrea Weckman, Antonio Di Ieva, Fabio Rotondo1, Luis V Syro2, Leon D Ortiz3, Kalman Kovacs1 and Michael D Cusimano Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario,Canada 1Division of Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto,