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Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics
Esther de Ru
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 2

Author: Esther de Ru Editor: Hans Heukels Layout: Naäma de Ru Photography: Helma Kaspers , Javier Merino Andrés, Eduard Ockerse, Esther de Ru Reviewers: Helma Kaspers, Janine Kerstholt, Bernadette Veeger, Greet Wagemaker, Marion Main. Cover illustration: Caty Cactus with mini-diaphfragm tape on. ISBN: 978-90-818888-2-0 Publisher: GoPhysio Zutphen NL Printing house: Repro Mecurius Ede NL GoPhysio 2013 The development of this manual, Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics (ETTPed) has been an on-going process. It is highly probable that, with medical knowledge constantly changing, change will continue to take place. New tape applications will be developed and others will be disregarded. This manual is based on the knowledge of this moment in time. The author does not accept responsibility for information that is incomplete or incorrect. She is open to discuss suggestions regarding the contents. Edition December 2013 is the first edition in the English language. It has been corrected and adapted from the Dutch September 2013 version and it includes the latest scientific and practical knowledge and a number of new applications. Neither the author nor the publisher assume any liability for any injury and/ or damage to persons or property arising from this publication. The author cannot be held liable for consequences arising from the improper or unprofessional use of the described tape applications. The content of this publication is not intended as a substitute for professional help. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or made public in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author. Permission to reproduce parts of this publication should be addressed to the author directly. Esther de Ru Paediatric Physiotherapist GoPhysio Email Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3 Preface

You have just opened this work in progress.
It was time to process the forever growing amount of information being stowed into the
ETTPed Course reader into a complete manual. The result being this practical manual
intended for physiotherapists, occupational therapists, (sports) physiotherapists and nurses
capable and trained in using and applying this tape and working with children.
Main goal of this manual is the transfer of knowledge and clinical skills. Taping cannot be
learnt from reading this manual alone. The author suggests that the readers not trained in
using ET-Tape take any available taping course of learn this skill from peers.
According to Tonelli* who promotes integrating evidence into clinical practice "Evidence-
based medicine (EBM) has thus far failed to adequately account for the appropriate
incorporation of other potential warrants for medical decision making into clinical practice".
In particular he states that: "EBM has struggled with the value and integration of other
kinds of medical knowledge, such as those derived from clinical experience or based on
pathophysiologic rationale". The skilled clinician must weigh these potentially conflicting
evidentiary and non-evidentiary warrants for action, employing both practical and
theoretical reasoning, in order to arrive at the best choice for an individual patient."
The author considers her clinical experience and knowledge of this subject worth sharing.
As a result a second goal is to present the evidence and examples of best practice of the use
of ET-Tape applications in children found so far.
Since the quality of research on taping varies greatly the author has chosen to include all
known and available information. In doing so she hopes to contribute to the initiation of
further research.
The contents of this ETTPed manual have been compiled by Esther de Ru. The expert input,
reviews, feedback and the recommendations made by the following professionals have
helped me to complete this manual and to include the most up-to-date information. All the
applications in this manual have shown promising results in the clinic.
They are by no means the only ones possible.

Many thanks are due to:
Mr Thieu Berkhout BSc physiotherapist, hand physiotherapist Netherlands: new application
Dr Josette Bettany-Saltikov, PhD MSc MCSP PGC Senior Lecturer in Research Methods and
Chartered Physiotherapist, United Kingdom: feedback regarding scoliosis in section 3.6.1
Mrs Joyce Bosman physiotherapist, oedema physiotherapist Netherlands: feedback on
lymphoedema in section 3.6.4
Prof. Dr. Jaques Duysens neurophysiologist St. Maartenskliniek Nijmegen Netherlands and
University Leuven Belgium: feedback.
Mrs Helma Kaspers BSc, physiotherapist, lecturer, orofacial mycologist Switzerland: peer
Mrs. Drs. Janine Kerstholt BSc, physiotherapist, scoliosis specialist, personal trainer
Netherlands: peer review.
Javier Merino Andrés, physiotherapist Spain: new applications.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 4 Mrs. Marion Main MCSP, consultant physiotherapist in paediatric neuromuscular disorders,
United Kingdom: peer review and support
Mr. Tae Hwan Park, M.D. (board certified plastic surgeon in South Korea, formerly affiliated
with Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea (2008-2013): feedback
Mrs. Naäma de Ru, quality manager Netherlands: layout and design.
Prof.Dr Radoslaw Spiewak Specialist dermatologist and allergist, Professor of Dermatology.
Department of Experimental Dermatology and Cosmetology, Jagiellonian University,
Krakow, Poland: feedback skin, skin disorders and test patch
Mrs. Bernadette Veeger, general practitioner, acupuncturist Spain: review.
Mrs. Greet Wagemaker, paediatric physiotherapist, lecturer paediatric physiotherapy
Academy Rotterdam Netherlands: peer review, counselling and guidance.
The contents of this manual are the result of cumulative knowledge and experience gained
in the last six years of using elastic therapeutic tape. It comes from a variety of sources;
taping seminars, courses, conferences, discussions with colleagues, books, literature and
insights gained from teaching and working in a number of clinics. The author has
endeavoured to arrange the information in a practical and manageable manner. Having had
extensive experience (40+ years) in using bandages, elastic and non-elastic (athletic) tape,
the author believes that this elastic therapeutic tape will prove to be a very welcome
addition to the daily clinic.
Chiropractor Dr. Kenzo Kase (Japan) developed the original Kinesiotape. In contrast to other
elastic tapes and bandages, this tape has a smooth wave-shaped adhesive layer. The tape
has been applied to paper with a certain amount of stretch. The perceived clinical effects
make it worth while to have this treatment tool in our toolbox.
Thorough research and evidence regarding the application of this tape in the paediatric
population is slowly increasing. All available evidence and documents found to date in as
many languages as possible (including abstracts Korean, Chinees and Japanese articles) are
described in this manual. During the whole process of developing this manual the author
was always in search of new studies in as many languages as possible. Searches were
conducted in on-line journals, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane.
The author presumes that the practitioner has sufficient knowledge of the anatomy,
physiology and pathophysiology of the developing child and that he or she can examine and
treat children. It is the sole responsibility of the practitioner to determine the best
treatment and method of application for their patients.
Thanks go to all the parents of the young patients who have agreed to share their pictures.
Thanks to Eline, Estefania, Gwen, Ivo, Luc, Ralph and Susan for their contribution as tape
Thanks are most certainly due to my partner Hans Heukels for his patience and assistance
throughout the whole process from the development of the ETTPed course to this manual.
This manual does not contain examples of:
Tape applications of non-elastic (athletic, rigid) tape,
Elastic therapeutic tape that can be stretched in more than one direction (Dynamic tape),
Combination of both non-elastic and elastic therapeutic tape applications,
Applications using the new Kinesio Tex Fingerprint tape
Physio Hybrid Shapes tape applications designed to be a flexible ‘exo-skeleton'.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 5 Contents
1. Introduction
Development ETTPed Literature reviews and trails/PEDro Hypotheses, reasoning and reflections Elastic Therapeutic Tape (ET-Tape) Effects observed and attributed to ET-Tape Indications, contraindications Does colour matter? General tape tips 2. Shapes stretch techniques & applications
Shapes and stretch tape Nomenclature ET-Tape Muscle technique Ligament technique Correction technique Organ zone application Dermatome application Assist technique Scar application Cross patch, Cure Tape Punch & Spiral taping
3. Classification body structures
3.1 Head and cervical spine applications
Juvenile Ideopathic temporo-mandibular Arthritis (JIA) Poor head control Torticollis application I Torticollis application II Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ) Neck pain and neck related headache 3.2 Trunk applications
Diaphragm mini-tape Oblique (internus & externus) abdominis muscle mini-tapes 72 Rectus abdominis mini-tape Rib fracture and rib contusion Multifidi and erector trunci muscle mini-tape Transversus abdominis combi-tape Small genital-zone tape (dysmenorrhoea) Costochondritis Tietze's syndrome Colon dysfunction : (constipation) application I Colon dysfunction : (constipation) application II Colon dysfunction : (constipation) application III Colon dysfunction : (constipation) application IV Diastasis recti tape (D-tape) Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 6 3.3 Upper limb applications
Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injury Acromial bursitis Clavicle fracture Deltoid muscle weakness/paresis Scapular protraction Shoulder (sub) luxation: application I Shoulder (sub) luxation: application II Humeroscapular joint positioning: application I Humeroscapular joint positioning: application II Olecranon bursitis Hyper-extention elbow Pronated forearm Reduced R.O.M. post-surgery/trauma Hand and wrist

Clasped thumb application I Clasped thumb application II Contusion phalangeal joints: application I Contusion phalangeal joints: application II 3.3.18 Overuse injury wrist Palmar flexed wrist Swan neck deformity 3.4 Lower limb applications
Internally rotated/ flexed hip Hematoma thigh: application grid Hematoma thigh: application basket weave Acute and chronic hip pain Gluteus maximus weakness Gluteus medius weakness Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) Hamstrings soft tissue injury Prepatellar bursitis Collateral ligament strain Knee effusion: application I 3.4.12 Knee effusion: application II Hyper-extension knee Osgood Slatter's disease Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: (PFPS) application I Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: (PFPS) application II 3.4.18 Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: (PFPS) application III Vastus Medialis Obliquus (VMO) weakness Ankle and foot

Repetitive inversion (lateral) ankle sprain Eversion (medial) ankel sprain High ankle sprain Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 7 Ankle and foot
Retrocalcaneal bursitis Achilles tendinitis Gastrocnemius muscle weakness Pes planus or pediatric flatfoot Plantar fasciitis 3.5 Specific tape applications
3.5.2 Transverse arch (TA) tape Heel-lock tape & stirrup applications Cutaneous nerve endings tape 3.6 Specific cases
Scoliosis: do we tape? 145-146 Taping children with Obstretic Brachial Plexus Lesion (OBPL) 147-148 Should we keep using the glove application or not? Taping children with primary lymphoedema (LE). Taping children with haemophilia? PFPS in more detail. What about the fascia technique or fascial correction? S-tape development, reasoning and outcomes 158-161 What do we know about Cross patches? What more can be done with ET-Tape? Contemplating on touch as tool
4. Literature

Tape use in paediatrics 4.3 The connection between skin, brain and nerves ET-Tape Instruction sheet Protocol S-tape 2013.1 Websites & blogs Dermatomes and cutaneous nerve endings Lymphatic System Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 8 1.1 Development ETTPed

New treatment possibility
Elastic tape, bandages and non-elastic (athletic) tape have been used in the daily clinic for
decades. In 1999 elastic therapeutic tape was first introduced to Europe. Many new brands
have been developed and spread on local and international markets since.
What is elastic therapeutic tape exactly?
This tape is completely different to the classic brands of elastic tapes and bandages that
were known at the time. The (Kinesio) tape is made of elastic cotton and has hypoallergenic
glue. It has been applied to paper under a certain amount of stretch. Its glue has a wave-like
pattern and allows for ventilation and transport of fluids (evaporation). It stretches along its
longitudinal axis only. The tape is available in many brands and colours.
What does it do? The perceived effects in the clinic are:
Improved muscle function Activated circulation (blood and lymph flow) Support of unstable joints Influence on the central nervous system. Breathing difficulties, problems with proprioception, balance and stability, problems arising from hypertonia and hypotonia, functional strength problems, posture related problems, organ dysfunction and decreased ROM have been perceived to be influenced by applying ET-Tape. Research and documents regarding the effect of ET-Tape on children is slowly increasing. The possibilities of the applications are numerous and many are described in this manual. Applying tape on the very young child should be done with great caution. In general the author suggests using less tape than has been presented in nearly all articles and manuals so far. Knowledge of the skin is of great importance. Knowledge of the child's disorder, the natural development of these disorders and the skin's reactions to stimuli is needed to make wise treatment decisions. As knowledge increases so do the taping possibilities. In this manual a number of different ways of applying tape for patellofemoral pain, contusion of phalangeal joints and constipation are introduced as examples. This manual has been written for allied health professionals working with children. The primary aim is to be a practical manual with a number of tape applications for neurological and orthopaedic disorders. The goal is to increase knowledge about this taping method and therefor assist in the making of an informed and where possible evidence based choice. It by no means holds the truth or every possibility. It is an accumulation of practical applications that have been perceived to work and the ponderings of the author. Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 9 Layout manual
During development of the practical course thorough research was deemed necessary. This
search for best practice and current evidence has resulted in the practical examples
presented in this taping manual. For convenience sake it has been divided into different
sections. According to the author knowledge of the skin is necessary to be able to apply the
tape well.
In the first chapter the anatomy and physiology of the skin, the nervous system, the
dermatomes and the importance of cutaneous nerve exit regions are discussed. Indications
contraindications the ‘be careful's' when taping, general tips and details are presented. The
original and the new hypotheses are described and scrutinized.
II. The second chapter describes how to cut, stretch and apply ET-Tape. The basic techniques and the special applications will be presented step by step. Cross patch and Punch tape applications are introduced and discussed. III. In the third chapter tape applications have been subdivided into body structures. A number of applications for the spine, trunk, upper and lower extremities are discussed. A significant number of these applications have been divided into anatomic regions and a number subdivided into disorders or diseases. IV. The fourth chapter consists of literature, scientific documents and questionnaires directly relating to the clinic. V. In the fifth chapter references, websites & blogs, dermatomes and index are included. Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru Nerve supply skin and sensory processing
‘The skin is an efficient barrier which protects our bodies from the external environment but
it is also an important site for the perception of various stimuli. Sensory neurones of the
peripheral nervous system send many primary afferent fibres to the skin. They pass through
the dermis and penetrate the basement membrane to innervate epidermal cells or remain
as free endings. The epidermis can be considered a true sensory tissue where sensor
proteins and neurone-like properties enable epidermal cells to participate in the skin
surface perception through interactions with nerve fibres.' Boulais N and Misery L*
‘There are many sensors (receptors) for specific stimuli in the body. These can come from
external sources (exteroceptors), from the body's ‘moving parts' (proprioceptors) or from
internal sources (interoceptors). There are mechano-, chemo-, noci, photo and osmotic-
sensors. The stimulus a receptor is most sensitive to is called the appropriate stimulus. Each
receptor ‘translates' the relevant stimulus into an electrical signal (generator potential). It
generates a series of action potentials of which the frequency is a measure of the intensity
of the stimulus. A part of the sensory information reaches the cerebral cortex and becomes
conscious.' Cranenburgh Ben van *
Sensory nerve endings in the skin

Fibre type
Mechanoreceptor Type I Meissner, Aβ- fibres Merkel cel, Aβ-fibres Low threshold C fibres Type II vibration Pacini, Aβ-fibres Ruffini nerve endings Thermoreceptor Cold pressure Aβ-fibres & Aδ fibres ischemia histaminergic C fibres Differences in child-adult skins
‘The functions of the skin remain essentially the same at all phases of life including: barrier,
photoprotection, thermoregulation, immune surveillance, hormonal synthesis, insensible
fluid loss prevention, and sensory perception'. Fluhr JW*
The ratio skin surface/bodyweight is larger in children. The ratio is 3:1 in new-borns. The skin of a young child has a higher permeability. Substances can easily be transmitted through their skin. As a result their skin absorbs more chemicals on a per weight basis when compared to adults. Fluhr JW* The skin of a child is more sensitive. Skin development and development of the immune system takes approximately 2 years. Skin thickens in the first four to five years and then becomes thinner again. Amirlak Bardia* Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru

Using tape on children should be done with great care
Caution is advised when taping on dry or sensitive skin.
When in any doubt at all, it is recommended to contact a dermatologist first.
Because the ratio skin surface: body weight is higher in very young infants, it is reasonable
to assume that tape of the same size as tape applied to an adult, will have a much larger
impact. The tape is proportionally ‘larger'.
Babies and young child regularly put their hands and feet into their mouth. Children should
not be allowed or able to suck on the tape. These contain artificial dyes and adhesives
containing chemicals and it is highly probable that these could be harmful.
Thanks to clinical reasoning and experimental development in daily practice the author
decided to use less tape, look for the area that reacts best to the tape and to use tape
brands with the ‘best' glue possible. It soon became apparent that smaller pieces of tape
had the same effect as the ‘original' tapes applied from ‘origin to insertion' or visa-versa.
The mini-tapes came to be and were named.
Tape can be applied on the muscle belly only.
Tape can be applied on the tendon of the affected muscle.

Tape as therapeutic stimulus
ET-Tape can be applied in the same direction of the best therapeutic stimulus found. This
tape can mimic the hand position and direction of stimulus used during various therapy
methods (PNF, NDT-Bobath, Schroth, SEAS, Vojta). In many cases, these mini-tapes have
given sufficient stimulus to reach treatment goals and obtain positive results.
Thanks to the work of Diana Jacobs, we now know that a small piece of tape applied to the
exit area of a cutaneous nerve has the possibility to assisting in the ‘release' of the
entrapped nerves.
Thanks to the work of Tsutomu Ben Fukui we know a little more on the physiological
movement direction of skin and can use this knowledge when applying tape.
Examples mini-tapes

Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru Hypothesis III. The skin/brain model.
More and more research is pointing in the direction of the interaction between the skin and
the brain. In the last number of years research into the processing of sensory information
from skin to the brain (in relation to taping) has been carried out.
Tobin D* described the skin as our brain on the outside as early as 2006.
Prezner* concluded that a skin stimulus around the foot affects balance.
Tsutomu Ben Fukui * published his study on the physiology and direction of the skin's
movement on the trunk and the extremities.
Diana Jacobs* has been sharing her knowledge on the skin (DNM method) forum, blog and
websites for years.
A number of colleagues have looked intensively into the possible reasons how this tape
works. Their reasoning and research has led to a better understanding of the possible
principles behind the perceived effects.
Callaghan M.J* researched the effects of taping on the brain. Akio Mori & Masaki Takasaki* researched the local effects of taping through Ultrasonic Imaging. Thedon T et al * researched the effect of tape on postural control after fatigue. Todd Hargrove* described two possible neurological mechanisms why tape might relieve pain. Thedon T*. et al.
Thedon and colleagues addressed the issue of the interaction of two effects, the ability of
humans to maintain a quiet standing posture and the degrading thereof after fatigue of the
muscles at the ankle. In the abstract to their article Degraded postural performance after
muscle fatigue can be compensated by skin stimulation, they described the study as follows:
‘Subjects were tested with the eyes closed in four conditions of quiet stance: with or
without skin stimulation and before and after a fatigue protocol. The skin was stimulated
with a piece of medical adhesive tape on the Achilles' tendon. The fatigue protocol
consisted of multiple sets of ankle plantar flexion of both legs on a stool. Without fatigue,
we did not observe a significant effect of the tape. With fatigue, subjects decreased their
postural performance significantly, but this effect was cancelled out when a piece of tape
was glued on the Achilles' tendon. This indicated that the beneficial effect of the tape was
unveiled by the degraded postural performance after fatigue. We conclude that, when the
muscular sensory input flow normally relevant for the postural system is impaired due to
fatigue, the weight of cutaneous information increases for the successful representation of
movements in space to adjust postural control.'
Todd Hargrove*
One of the themes Todd Hargrove contemplates in his weblog is: How does Kinesiotape
work? In May 2011 he blogs his reflections as to why this tape works. ‘The skin and the
brain go way back, all the way to the embryo, as they are both part of the ectoderm. Skin is
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru View author
From the first introduction to this tape, the author has chosen to follow the theoretical
model regarding the skin and sensory information processing. The tape is applied to the skin
and it seemed no more than logical that we consider the skin as our most important
The information shared by colleague Tsutomu Ben Fukui and Diana Jacobs * have resulted
in the author becoming more knowledgeable about the skin and the effect of stimulus of
the skin. The wonderful videos produced by Dr. Guimberteau* made very clear that the skin
and the underlying connective tissue are ingeniously connected.
After thirty-six years of clinical experience with the skin through the superficial skin massage
technique used in the Bindegewebsmassage (BGM Dr. Teilich-Leube), the author is very
aware of the powerful effect of the skin stimulus.
That a simple hand position can be mimicked with a small piece of tape is a wonderful
concept. The author has tried many different possibilities and a number of ‘new' tape
applications and the mini-tapes have been the result. She feels this is definitely a work in
The future?
David Blow* describes the differences in skin elasticity he has observed in his taping
manual. He called the lines found Mayor Elasticity Lines (MEL.) According to his clinical
experience taping on the so-called MEL's has the best effect. The author is familiar with his
concept and it is possible that the manner in which he uses tape could have some surprising
results. We are looking forward to seeing his ideas researched.
The author considers the presentation on the skin by colleague Tsutomu Ben Fukui * at the
WCPT 2011 in Amsterdam very worth our while. He has mapped the physiological
movement of the skin. Sadly his book about this whole research is in Japanese only. An
English version is on its way and the author is very much looking forward to hearing more
from him.
More and more colleague allied health professionals are using this tape and are doing so in
a variety of manners. This will most probably result in more and better possibilities for our
patient groups in the future.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 1.9 The clinic

This tape can be used in many different ways. It can be applied to:
1. Whole muscle from origin to insertion or insertion to origin (original method)
2. Myofascial chains of specific parts of these chains (anatomy trains Tom Myers)
3. Meridians or certain parts of meridians
4. Trigger points and acupuncture points
5. Cutaneous nerves entry points
6. Dermatomes
7. The area a therapeutic stimulus was given
8. The middle of the muscle belly
9. Fascial sheets
10. Specific parts of the skin such as Langer lines or MEL's.
Many colleagues use this tape with 100% stretch.
Tape does not have to be stretched at all to be affective.
This is certainly the case with small children. A small amount of stretch is sometimes needed
when using tape on older children. When using the correction technique, stretch (15-25%) is
needed to give the required response. In the case of adolescents, more stretch (20-40%)
must sometimes be applied.

It seems that the direction of the stretch is most important, not the amount of stretch.
ET-Tape can be used together with non-elastic tape
Not all applications mentioned above are suitable for very young children.
Tape is becoming a regular treatment modality in the clinic.
To make treatment effects clear specific tape related assessment tools are necessary. As
these do not exist we have no choice but to use the tools we have available. As tape is often
used as an extra part of the whole treatment, it is not always easy to assess the effects of
the tape alone.
The exceptions are function and pain. Pain can be measure using the VAS score and more
and more valid functional tests can be used.
Pain relief can be immediate and enhance and influence the course of further treatment.
Tape can also make the difference when transition to a new function/state is the treatment
goal. If a small hands-on stimulus is sufficient to make the transition possible, then tape
could very well do the same.
Assessments tools can be used to evaluate direct treatment effect and effects over time.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru

Spider or fan shape
Special shapes:
Tape can be cut in the many different shapes: glove, braided basket, web and buttonhole.
The grid and the star are examples of applications using a number of tape strips.
Basket weave
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru Tips for easy removal from the paper backing:
Ligament technique: tear paper in the middle and fold back paper on both sides.

Muscle technique and correction technique: tear tape near one end of tape and remove
paper from short side. Fold paper back on other side. Remark: remember ⅓-⅓-⅓ rule

Lymph technique using spider or fan application: tear paper through all strips. Fold paper
back on all strips making sure all the paper strips are loose.

Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 2.5 Lymph technique

Measure tape and cut the spider shape. Round off all the tape's corners. Tear paper backing at the base and fold the paper back. Apply tape base without stretching in the main direction of the lymphatic
Step 3 Apply both outer strips using 0-10% stretch of paper-off tension first. Leave
paper stuck on the last 2-3 cm's of tape. Make sure that the whole swollen
area has been included.
Step 4 Apply the other strips in the same manner leaving room in between.
Step 5 Remove paper and apply all anchors without stretch.
Step 6 Rub tape for optimal adhesion.
Remark For more information about lymphtaping see chapter 3.6.4.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.1.3 Torticollis application I

Features: unilateral muscle weakness /dysbalance in head and neck region.
Note: weakness and /or shortened latero-flexor muscles, sometimes in combination with
weakness in rotator muscles. Involved muscles are sternocleidomastoid muscle and/or
the upper trapezius muscle.

lateral aspect neck.
Position child: baby and small children on their parent's lap, older children seated with
feet supported.
Technique: cross patch

Tape: remove cross patch from the paper backing.

apply crosspatch with wooden spatula diagonally on the appropriate area.
Remark: several articles on Congenital Muscular Torticollis (CMT) including clinical guidelines
and an article on taping have been published in the IOPTP Newsletter Issue 11, July 2013.
Is using Elastic Therapeutic (Kinesio) Tape an option for children with Congenital Muscular
Torticollis? Pg. 10-
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.2.7 Small genital-zone tape

Features: tape can have influence on organ function through the organ-zones in the skin.
Note: in this case the tape is being used for young girls with dysmenorrhoea (menstrual

small genital zone lumbar area (if needed zone on lower abdomen as seen in
photo on the right).
Position child: supine of seated with feet supported.
Technique: ligament technique (I-shape)

Tape: measure and cut the I-shape and round the corners.
Tear paper in the middle and fold both sides back.
In some cases two tapes will be needed.
Application: Apply middle section of tape using 10-15% stretch on the area that has been
found through palpation. Apply both anchors without using stretch. Determine if a second
tape is needed on the abdomen. If necessary, apply in the same manner.
Apply both anchors without using stretch.
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.
Two articles on this subject have been published in Korean and Dutch. (5.1)
Only applicable for those who are familiar with the Bindegewebs-massage and
organ zones according to Mrs. E. Dicke and Mrs. Dr. H. Teilrich Leube.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.2.11 Colon dysfunction (constipation) application III
a child is constipated when bowel movements occur less than three times a week
or the child has difficulty with defecating because the stool has become hard and dry.
Note: constipation can occur at any age. Delayed transit time and constipation are
significantly related to ambulation possibilities. A weak abdominal wall can make normal
bowel movement difficult.
Photo: lumbar region child (photo J. Merino Andres)
Location: on dorsal aspect trunk between the spinous process of T6 to T12.
Position child:
seated with feet supported and trunk slightly flexed.
Technique: ligament technique (I-shape)
Tape: measure and cut the number of I-shaped tapes necessary. Round the corners, tear
paper in the middle and fold both sides back.
Application: apply as many tapes as deemed necessary in the appropriate dermatomes with
10-15% stretch. Apply both anchors without stretching the tape.

this tape is developed by colleague Javier Merino Andrés*. It seems to have the
same effects as applications I and II
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.3.2 Subacromial bursitis
pain and possible weakness in lifting the arm with or without a painful arch.
Local pain, possible swelling, discolouration of the skin in area around the joint.

can be the result of a direct trauma such as a fall on the shoulder. Is also seen as a
result of repetitive overhead movement as in the case with the serve in tennis, pitching in
baseball or the golf swing.
Bursitis in small children is rare – be aware this could be an infection.
lateral aspect of shoulder with tape applied on top of glenohumeral joint

Location: glenohumeral joint.
Position child: sitting with arm hanging loose in a neutral position.

Technique: ligament technique (I-shape)

Tape: measure the tape with shoulder and arm relaxed. Cut I- shape and round the corners.
Tear paper in the middle and fold both sides back.

Application: apply tape with slight stretch (10-15%) on top of the HS joint.
Remove paper from anchors. Apply both anchors without stretching the tape.
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.3.7 Shoulder (sub)luxation application II

Features: lower position humeral head due to deltoid weakness.
Note: most shoulder dislocations are sub-coracoid and the humeral head moves
anteriorly (95%). Joint luxation's can be very painful.

whole shoulder region and area of deltoid muscle.

Position child:
sit with elbow supported.

Technique: ligament technique (I-shape)
measure and cut the two I-shapes and round the corners.
Tear paper in the middle and fold both sides back.
stretch tape 10-15% and apply on top of the glenohumeral joint.
Apply both anchors without stretching the tape.
Apply second tape using the same technique around the lower border of the deltoid
muscle. Apply anchors without stretching the tape.
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.

Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.3.12 Pronated forearm

Features: passive and active supination are not, or not sufficiently possible because of
hypertonia or hypotonia.

Location: on skin located on top of the muscle of the forearm the tape needs to ‘influence'.
Position child:
seated with arm in 90° flexion and forearm in slight pronation.

Technique: correction technique (I-shape)
Remark: remember ⅓-⅓-⅓ rule

measure tape from supinator muscle belly halfway along the forearm.
Cut the I-shape and round the corners.
Tear paper and remove from the base.
Application: apply broad base on supinator muscle belly without stretching tape. Lead tape
in a pronating distal direction using (15-25%) stretch to the lower ⅓ part of the forearm
Apply broad anchor without stretching the tape. More stretch might be needed for a good
effect in older children. (20-40%)
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.

Remark: the same correction can be given in the case that the elbow is in a supinated
position. In this case the tape direction is opposite to the application described above.
The tape will be lead along the area around the pronator teres muscle.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.3.15 Clasped thumb application II
also called thumb-in-palm deformity or adducted thumb syndrome.
Note: flexion adduction deformity with possible contracture of muscles in webspace.
Clasped thumb is classified in three groups I supple, II with hand contractures and
III associated with Arthrogryposis.

wrist and thumb.
Position child: seated with arm supported.
Technique: correction technique (I-shape)

Remark: remember ⅓-⅓-⅓ rule
measure and cut the I-shapes and round the corners.
Tear paper near end of tape and remove from the base.
Application: determine where the broad base is to be applied and apply on wrist without
stretching the tape. Lead tape with 15-25% stretch in the direction of the interphalangeal
joint over the thumb and apply broad anchor without stretching the tape.
In older children more stretch might be needed. (20-40%)
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.

Remark: be very careful not to have any pleats in the tape or in de skin under the tape!

Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.3.17 Contusion phalangeal joints application II
swelling, pain and restricted range of motion in finger or thumb joint.
Note: any phalangeal joint can be affected but the middle finger is traumatized most.

Location: area surrounding injured joint.
Position child: seated with arm supported.

Technique: ligament technique

Tape: measure and cut tape into a Barbapapa model as shown in left picture.
Tear paper in the middle and fold back.
Application: apply middle section of tape around the painful joint with slight stretch 10-
15%. Apply anchors without stretching the tape.
Be careful not to form pleats in the tape or in the skin under the tape.
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.

Remark: this Barbapapa tape application was developed by Thieu Berkhout, colleague
physiotherapist specialized in treating hand injuries. He was looking for an application with
the largest base and anchor possible avoiding having to apply tape to the palmar side of
fingers and thumb at the same time.
It is now the author's first choice.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.4.2 Hematoma thigh: application grid

pain, swelling and possible visible haematoma depending on the seriousness of
the injury.
Note: restricted movement and difficulty walking due to pain and swelling are often the
result. In the case of a small muscle tear, a dent can sometimes be felt.

picture taken from above sitting on plinth with legs relaxed.

Location: anterior aspect thigh in this case.
Position child: seated with knees flexed or on plinth with legs outstretched. (knee
supported with cushion).
Technique: ligament technique (grid application)
measure and cut as many I-shaped strips as deemed necessary. Round the corners.
Application: Tear paper in the middle and fold both sides back.
Apply using 0-15% stretch on top of the haematoma. Apply as many strips as deemed
necessary in one direction. Apply both anchors without stretching the tape.
Rub these tapes for optimal adhesion.
Apply the other strips perpendicular to the first in a similar manner.
Rub these tapes carefully for better adhesion.

Remark: in the case of smaller haematoma's a piece of Punch tape can be applied as well.
See study Ostiak W. et al* on effectiveness of kinesiotaping in the treatment of soft tissue
injury in adolescent football players.
This application can be seen as a lymph application as well. It has been applied to swollen
areas successfully.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.4.7 Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS)
(referred) lateral knee pain.

The band is crucial to stabilizing the knee during running and ITBFS is often seen in
runners. Possible causes; muscle imbalance, structural abnormalities, shortened fascia, leg
length discrepancy. In severe overload situations the patella may fracture.
picture of lateral aspect of thigh in side position and sitting.

Location: lateral aspect of thigh from greater trochanter to knee joint.

Position child:
seated with leg position dependent on tape choice.

muscle technique (I-shape)
measure and cut I- shape and round the corners. Tear and remove paper from short
side (base).
Tape 1. (photo left) Apply base near greater trochantor without stretching the tape.
Tape 2. (photo right) Apply base just proximal to painful site.
Lead tape 1 or 2 using 0-15% stretch in the direction of the knee joint.
Apply anchor without stretching the tape.
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.

Remark: Both tapes are possible. Applying the tape to the irritated area only is
often sufficient to obtain good results
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.4.18 Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS): application

Features: pain anterior aspect of the knee that can be aggravated by functional activity such
as stair climbing and squatting. Also called anterior knee pain (AKP).
Note: occurs when patella does not track properly in the sulcus during flexion and
extension. Weakness of vastus medialis obliques (VMO) seems to move patella laterally.

Location: frontal part of knee.
Position child: seated with knees bent 90°.
Technique: ligament technique
measure and cut the 2 I-shapes and round the corners.
Tear paper in the middle and fold paper back.
Application: apply tape across the knee without using any stretch at all. Apply anchors
without stretching the tape on both sides. Repeat with second strip.
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.
this application is the practical result of the research into sensory input that M.
Callaghan* has been conducting. His research demonstrated that patellar taping modulates
brain activity in several areas of the brain during a proprioception knee movement task.
More possibilities for taping PFPS in chapter 3.6.7

Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.4.23 High ankle sprain
pain on palpation and swelling.
Note: often overload injury (ballet, football). Can occur together with a serious lateral
ligament sprain.
In acute/sub-acute stage pain during loading. A hematoma lower in foot means higher
probability of ligament injury.
In chronic stage hypermobility with complaints of instability (giving away) and pain (in some

area around talocrural joint.
Position child: seated with leg supported and ankle in neutral position.

ligament technique (stirrup application)

measure and cut the I-shape and round the corners.
Tear paper in the middle and fold both sides back.
apply tape on the heelpad using a little more stretch (10-25% ).
Lead tape along both lateral and medial malleoli in proximal direction.
Use 10-15% stretch here. Apply anchors without stretching the tape.
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.
this injury is difficult to treat. Good results using this tape application have
been observed in the clinic. The author is not aware of any research in this area.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.4.30 Pes planus or paediatric flatfoot
flattened medial arch.

often asymptomatic. The longitudinal arch is not visible in most children until about 6
years of age. A significant proportion of the world's population is flatfooted.
During loading the foot pronates, calcaneus moves to valgus position and a navicular drop
and forefoot adduction can be seen.

ankle and foot area.

Position child: seated with legs dangling, ankle held in neutral position.
Technique: correction technique (I-tape)

Remark: remember ⅓-⅓-⅓ rule
measure from the lateral side of the foot to halfway around ankle. Cut the I-shape
and round the corners. Tear and remove paper from short side (base).
Application: determine direction of pull and where to apply base. Do so without stretching
the tape. Lead tape with 15-25% stretch over the navicular bone to the medial arch and
pass under foot. In older children 20-40% stretch may be needed.
Apply anchor on lateral forefoot area without stretching the tape.
Rub tape for optimal adhesion.

Remark: Navicular droptest or observation of foot during one-leg stance can be used as an
assessment measure.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.5.1 S-tape application

Location: the submandibular region; soft part under lower jaw behind jawbone (area
mylohiodeus muscle)
Position child: sitting
Technique: ligament technique (I-shape)

measure and cut the I-shape and round the corners. Tear the paper in the middle and
fold the paper back on both sides.
Application: Palpate and ask child to swallow to localize the proper anatomic region.
Apply tape with slight stretch (10-15%).
Apply both anchors without stretching the tape.
Hold on to the tape or rub for optimal adhesion.

Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.6.1 Scoliosis: do we tape?

Scoliosis is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine with torsion of the spine and chest as
well as a disturbance of the sagittal profile. Weiss HR* et al (2008)
Scoliosis can be classified in both structure and groups.
Infantile scoliosis: (0 – 2.11 yrs.) Juvenile scoliosis: (3- 9.11 yrs.) Idiopathic Adolescent Scoliosis: (10 – 17.11 yrs.) Postural related scoliosis and pain scoliosis Scoliosis in children with neuromuscular disorders More information regarding the International Scientific Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and
Rehabilitation Treatment SOSORT guidelines and online journal can be found online. (5.2)

Is taping possible?
Taping the upper and lower extremities can influence the position of the trunk.
Upper extremities: taping both upper extremities symmetrically does not necessarily have
an influence on the scoliosis. Taping one shoulder joint however can. This is especially the
case when using the correction technique. (3.3.6 – 3.3.9)
Taping the lower extremity can influence trunk and scoliosis.
Applying tape to the lower extremities (even the foot soles) can have a profound influence
on the spine and trunk. Changes in the whole muscle chain often become visible after
having applied the transverse-arch tape. (3.5.2)
More information on this topic can be found in chapter 3.6.12.
Trunk: taping the trunk will have a local effect and is not recommended unless the therapist
is a specialized scoliosis therapist. Even so, multidisciplinary teamwork (with orthotist and
medical specialist) is needed. A recent X-ray of the child's spine is necessary for a proper
evaluation. Tsutomu Ben Fukui's* research could also prove to be of great importance in
this respect. (1.4)
There will be clinical situations in which the choice to tape can be made. The choice of tape
size, direction and location will be different for each child. If for example a good hand
position has been found (assisting breathing or an active rotation) and the child finds it hard
to remain in this position, a small tape can be applied to mimick the stimulus. This will serve
as a reminder (feedback CNS).
Ideopathic infantile scoliosis (IIS): (0 – 2.11 yrs.)
Taping is not recommended unless the therapist is involved in multidisciplinary team and
close monitoring is possible. ‘The curve is typically between the shoulder blades or in the
thoracic region of the spine and the spine curves to the left. The IIS resolves spontaneously
in many cases but curves that reach 30 degrees tend to continue to worsen without
treatment.' SourceJuvenile scoliosis (JS): (3- 9.11 yrs.)
Taping is not recommended because the curves are not stable at this age. Even if the
therapist is involved in a multidisciplinary team or works with specialists and close
monitoring of the spine is possible. As long as the curves are not stable the influence of
taping is completely unknown and could possibly harm the child.
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 3.6.3. Should we keep using the glove application?

The glove was presented as a tape that is mostly used to assist extension of the child's wrist
or ankle. The tape has been really well liked by children with over-use injuries of the wrist, it
gives them nice support.
This application is a true challenge to apply properly.
It is truly difficult to get the child's fingers or toes through the diamond shaped (round)
openings. Pleats in the tape are easily formed and they are very difficult to avoid.
When cutting the holes care needs to be taken as cutting too deeply will result in the tape
threading in between fingers or toes. This can cause skin irritation.
When thinking about the sense of using this application on wrist or ankle of children with
CP the author wonders if the information the tape is giving to the brain will bring on the
effects one hopes for (in this case more extension). Giving a stimulus to the skin covering
both flexor and extensor muscle ‘groups' must be a very ‘challenging' piece of information
to process.
An alternative is to cut a ‘half- glove'.
This application can be applied to either dorsal or ventral side of hand and wrist, making the
stimulus a little clearer. The anchor we need in the palm is necessary and could very well be
experienced as confusing. This is certainly the case in normal adults. (Experience and
discussion in the various courses)
This application can be applied to any part of the hand. The glove application technique is described in detail on the following page. Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru So far author's conclusions are that the s-tape:
1. Is effective in about 20-25% of all cases treated (adults & children),
2. Can be effective in children with; genetic disorders, serious developmental delay and
adults and children with Cerebral Palsy, adults with Parkinson and stroke,
3. Size will differ per person and this is a question of trial and error,
4. Application method may differ (daily, 2 x week, 1 x week) per person.
In some cases there is a clear learning effect, in others adaptation. The result is that some
patients need application always and some don't. The reason behind this is unknown and
the author welcomes more research regarding this question.
This little s-tape can influence: frequency & severity drooling, coughing and choking, the
rash, smell and bib use. Other reported outcomes have been: more oral motor activity,
tongue activity, less problems during feeding and better articulation.

When taping the orbicularis oris muscle could be useful.
The Thesis on: Assessment of the effects of mechanical labial contention based on oral
clinical parameters in patients with cerebral palsy was published by dentist mrs Dr.Freitas
(2012). Mrs Freitas's findings with a tape to the lower orbicular oris muscle similar to
the one in the photo below, was that the saliva was contained. She does not speak of
Colleague clinicians have reported that taping the orbicularis oris muscle can be very useful during therapy sessions: It has been successfully used treating: 1. Paralysis or palsy of the facial nerve. As the orbicularis oris is one of the many muscles that can be affected it is possible this tape will be meaningful in a number of these cases. 2. Tape for the cleft palate. A case study was published in Advance Healing (2010) by Pulcher M & Sellier-Piteo S* using Kinesio Tex Tape in the treatment of an infant with cleft lip and palate in Brazil. In this case study tape was successfully applied to the upper orbicularis only. So far this is the only study found on this topic. In the November 2013 edition of Noticias de VNM colleague Isabel Jiménez Mata* speaks of taping the whole orbicularis oris muscle with favourable results during therapy sessions. Author can support using this tape during oral therapy sessions to enhance mouth closure but is not in favour of keeping this application on for a longer period of time. * online patient questionnaire: QETED Questionnaire Elastic Taping Excessive Drooling. Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 4.1 Tape use in paediatrics

Publications rigid athletic tape

Almeida Angélica et al (2007) O efeito de aplicacao de ligadural funcionais no padrao de march e
control postural em criancas hemiplegicas esàsticas por paralisia cerebral. R.Port Cien Desp 7(1) 48-58
Barnes D et al (2001) Aggressive treatment of infants with arthrogryposis multiple congentia (AMC) vol 7 nr 4
Burditt Footer Cheryl (2006) The effects of therapeutic taping on gross motor function in children with
cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy pg 245-252
Coram S.J. (1990) Taping applications for the neurologically involved. Clinical suggestions 53-54
Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2(1):53-54.
Passe R & Jansen J (2011) Is tapen zinvol bij een fasciitis plantaris? Fysiopraxis Juli 2011

Publications other tape possibilities

Greer K & Wilkens K (2011) presentation. A review of physical therapy intervention in the pediatric
population with hypermobility spectrum disorders. Gillette Childrens Hospital 2-12-2011
McNeal B et al (2011) The effectiveness of taping, strapping and garments in the physical therapy care
of children with neuromuscular disorders: a systematic review APTA sect.ped.2011
Mazzone S et al (2011) Functional taping appied to upper limb of children with hemiplegic cerebral
palsy: a pilot study. Neuropediatrics 1.2011;42(06):249-253 dOI 10.1055/s-0031-1295478
Nath R.K. et al (2006) Surgical correction of unsuccessful de-rotational humeral osteotomy in obstetric
brachial plexus lesion. accessed 12-10-2011
Publications Elastic Therapeutic Tape

Airaksinen Leena & Lovén Marietta (2011) Hemiplegia spastica children's upper extremity kinesio
taping Ba thesis, onderzoek lit. CP arm Jamk University of Applied Sciences
Alaca N et al (2012) the subjective effect of kinesiology taping in children with brachial plexus injury.
EACD congress Istanbul May 2012.
Almeide de Barreto Rafael et al. (2010) Efeito da bandagem neuromuscular em atletas de futebol
durante a simulacao entorse de tornozelo por inversae:uma analise eletromiografica. volume 4, numero 13 2010 accessed 15 febr 2011-02-18
Anderson Mariela (2011) Contribuciones de la aplicacion de taping neuromuscular al tratamiento de
terapie ocupacional en pediatra. Hospital Subzonal Especializado en Rehabilitacion Fisica Buenos Aries.
Dr J.M. Jorge.
Anani A et al (2011) Shoulder dislocation in a neonate. 2011
accessed 22-01-2012
Asmaa M. Ghalwash et al(2012) Efficacy of adhesive taping in controlling genu recurvatum in diplegic
children: a pilot study. Egypt J med Hum Genet(2012)pg 1-6
Aynur Dem Rel. (2010) The effect of palmar kinesiotaping on children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy
Rome Kinesio Research Congress June 2010
Bac Aneta et al (2009) Efficacy of kinesiology taping in the rehabilitation of children with low-angle
scoliosis FP 2009 9(3) ICID 894681
Barnes Tracy (2008) Chiropractic adjustments plus massage and kinesio taping in the care of an infant
with gasterosophageal reflux. J.of Cl Chirop Ped. vol 9(1)march2008 572-574.
Barnes T (2011) making the adjustment stick. My story using Kinesio taping with kids. AdvanceHealing
winter 11 pg 26-7
Bellia Rosario (2008) Trauma contusivo al quadricipite di un giovane calciatore. website

Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 4.3 The Connection between skin, brain & nerves

Aimonetti et al JM. (2007) Cutaneous afferents provide a neuronal population vector that encodes the
orientation of human ankle movement2007) 649-658
Boulais N. (2008)The epidermis: a sensory tissue Eur J Dermatol 2008;18(2)119-27
Collins D. et al (2005) Cutaneous receptors contribute to kinaesthesia at the index finger, elbow and
knee. J.Neurophysiol.94;1699-1706
Edin B. (1992) Quantitative analysis of static strain sensitivity in human mechanoreceptors from hairy
skin. JNeurophysiol 675 1105-1113 1992
Edin B. (2001) Cutaneous afferents provide information about knee joint movements in humans
2001)531.1. 289-297
Edin B & Abbs J H (1991) Finger movement responses of cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the dorsal
skin of the human hand, J Abbs j.Neurophysiol 1991/03;65(3) 657-70
Edin B & Johansson N. (1995) Skin strain patterns provide kinaesthetic information to the human
central nervous system1995)487.1.243-251
Elam M.& Macefield V. (2004) Does sympathetic nerve discharge effect the firing of myelinated
cutaneous afferents in humans? Auton Neurosci. 2004 Apr 30;111(2):116-26.
Gordon N. (2008) Wiring of the brain Eur.J Paed Neurol 12 (2008)1-3
Konishi Y (2012) Tactile stimulation with Kinesiology tape alleviates muscle weakness attributable to
attenuation of I1 afferents. JSciMedSport 2012 juni 6 epub ahead of print PMID: 22682093
Jeka J.J. et al (1997) Coupling of fingertip somatosensory information to head and body sway. Exp.Brain
Martinez-Gramagea J et al (2011) Immediate effect of kinesiotape on the reflex response of the vastus
medialis regarding the use of two different application techniques: facilitation and inhibition of muscle.
Fisioterapia vol. 33, issue 1 pg 1-38

Moon Hwan lee et al
(2011) Influence of kinesio taping on the motor neuron conduction velocity.
J.Physc.Ther.Schi.23:313-315, 2011

Morrison I et al
(2010) The skin as a social organ. Exp Brain Res (2010)204;305-314
Olausson et al H.(2008) Functional role of unmyelinated tactile afferents in human hairy skin:
sympathetic response and perceptual localization. Exp Brain Res (2008)184:135-140
Tobin D. (2006) Biochemistry of human skin- our brain on the outside Che, Soc.Rev.2006,35, 52-67
Trulsson M. (2001) Mechanoreceptive afferents in the human sural nerve Exp. Brain Res
Welsch M. (2002) Biochemical basis of touch perception:mechanosensory function of
degenerin/epithelial Na+ channelol 277 no 4 25-01-2002 2369-2372
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 5.1 References
Specific Conditions:
Lit. Skin Thickness in Children Treated With Daily or Periodical Inhaled Budesonide for Mild
Persistent Asthma. The Helsinki Early Intervention Childhood Asthma Study. Pediatric Research:
February 2010 - Volume 67 - Issue 2 - pp 221-225 doi:
10.1203/ accessed 31-12-2011
Szcegielniak J* et al (2007) The use of kinesio taping in patients with acute stages of bronchial asthma.
Med. Sportowa 2007;6(6); vol 23, 337-341
Jiminez Mata I (2011) Utilizacion del vendaje neuromuscular en el diafragma anterior en ninos con
discapacidad matriz grave y trastonos respiratrius asociados; a proposito de dos casos clinicos. VNM
Bursitis: Paisley JW. (1982) Septic bursitis in childhood. J Pediatr Orthop. 1982;2(1):57-61
Constipation: Park ES et al. (2004) Colonic transit time and constipation in children with spastic
cerebral palsy. Arch Phys.Med Rehab 2004;85:453-6.
Fractures: Ru de E. (2011) Uso del vendaje neuromuscular para aliviar el dolor en fractures cerrades de
clavicula y costillas. Efectos del Cure Tape en un caso pediatrico y dos adultos. VNM no7 2011
The use of elastic therapeutic tape for pain relief of closed fractures of the clavicle and costae (floating
ribs). The effects of Cure tape on pain in one paediatric & two adult caseHaemophilia: Aldridge (2010) Kinesio Taping shows up at summer Olympics. Taping used in hemophilia
community for yearcessed 29-07-2012
Kleijn de P et al (2012) Differences between developed and developing countries in paediatric care in
Haemophilia. Heamophilia (2012), 18(suppl 4), 94-100
Cindy Bailey.
Menstrual Pain: Do E.S.P. (2003) A study on the effects of kinesio taping method on perimenstrual
discomforts. Korean Nursing Journal
Wefers al (2009) Het effect van Curetape op pijn tijdens menstruatie bij patienten met primaire
dysmenorrhoe. Ned Tijdschrift Fysiotherapie 2009;119(6)193-197
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Miller J et al (2013) Immediate effects of lumbopelvic manipulation and
lateral gluteal kinesio taping on unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome: a pilot study.
Weiss HR* et al (2008)
Thigh muscle injuries in Youth Soccer:
Cloke D et al (2012) predictors of recovery.

Blow David (2012) Neuromuscular Taping. From Theory to Practice. Edi ErmiKumbrink B. (2009) K-taping: An illustrated guide, basics, techniques, indications. 2009 in German: 2011
in English Springer
Sijmonsma J. (2010) Lymph taping.
Tonelli Mark. R. (2006) Intergrating evidence into clinical practice: an alternative to evidence based
approaches. 2006 Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12:3;248-256
Tsutomu Fukui Ben (2011) Skin Movement of the trunk during trunk rotation Poster WCPT Congress
Amsterda RR-PO-203-1-Thu
O'Conner Z (2011) Colour Psychology and Colour Therapy: Caveat Emptor. Vol 36, nr 3, June 2011
accessed 10-01-2
Contact allergy/skin diseases:
Mikolajewska E (2010) Allergy in patients treated with kinesiology taping: a case report. Medical
Rehabilitation 2010, 14 (4), 29–32
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru Dermatomes & cutaneous nerve endings frontal aspect

Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru 5.4 Lymphatic System

Thanking the AEVNM for permission to use image
Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru Sample: pages Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Paediatrics Edition December 2013 Esther de Ru


Microsoft word - pubp 758 - final paper _p. walsh_

Table of Contents Abstract . 2 Purpose . 2 Introduction and Background . 3 Methodology . 6 Results and Discussion . 9 Conclusion and Policy Implications . 18 Works Cited . 20 Appendix A . 23 Appendix B . 24 Appendix C . 25 Patrick J. Walsh - 1 Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common blood-borne infection in the United States and is seven times more prevalent than HIV/AIDS infections in the United States

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 306: G796–G801, 2014.First published March 13, 2014; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00130.2013. Prokinetic effects of mirtazapine on gastrointestinal transit Jieyun Yin,1 Jun Song,1 Yong Lei,3 Xiaohong Xu,3 and Jiande D. Z. Chen1,2,31Division of Gastroenterology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas; 2Ningbo Pace Translational MedicalResearch Center, Ningbo, China; and 3Veterans Research and Education Foundation, VA Medical Center, Oklahoma City,Oklahoma