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Microsoft word - abstracts3.doc

Adrian Howe (Australia)
Title: "Emotional Law—Provocation and the Cultural Politics of Law Reform."
Abstract: "This paper analyses the cultural politics of criminal law reform, focusing on 21st
century efforts to reform partial defences to murder in jurisdictions in Australia and the UK.
Subjecting the case law and conventional black-letter law commentaries to critiques offered
by feminist law scholarship and contemporary emotion theory, it explores deeply emotional
reactions to the provocation defence—western societies' most emotional law. A comparative
analysis is provided of the different options canvassed in debates that have raged in recent
law commission inquiries into whether provocation is capable of reform or whether it should
be abolished outright. It is argued that reforms which retain the defence but limit its use or
which more ‘radically' abolish the defence but retain provocation as a sentencing discretion
are destined to fail because they do not get to the heart of the problem—the deeply
ingrained cultural script that men who kill in the heat of ‘passion' deserve some compassion.
All contributors to the debate have emotional investments in their positions, but it is the
passionate attachments of provocation's ardent apologists for this antediluvian defence that
are the paper's analytical focus."

Agnieszka Kubal (UK)
Title: "Recognizing the Place of Legal Culture in Legal Integration Research. Polish
post-2004 EU Enlargement Migrants in the United Kingdom."
"The paper is placed at the intersection of migration and legal studies. Enquiring
into the study of the immigrants in the new socio-legal environment suggests existing gaps
and certain shortcomings in the current knowledge on the various aspects of legal
integration. This research, engaging critically with the reviewed literature, offers a new
approach to studying legal integration, taking Polish post-2004 EU Enlargement migrants in
the UK as a case study. It suggests a combined focus on structural factors stemming from
the host country's legal environment as well as migrants' cultural background – their values,
accustomed patterns of legal behaviour, attitudes to law (legal culture) – in the process of
shaping – and possibly re-shaping – their relationship to law during the settlement process.
This paper aims to offer an understanding of how people in their daily interactions gradually
change their behaviour, views and attitudes engaging in the complex interplay between the
new environment and their cultural background during the process of integration. This study
makes the claim for the proper recognition of the cultural background of immigrants while
investigating their modes and strategies of legal integration. It acknowledges the legal
culture of immigrants as a significant factor in empirical research, accounting for nuances
and bringing out the subtle differences and therefore revealing the bigger, richer picture of
immigrant integration, than one solely relying on structural factors and government policies
of immigrant incorporation. The approach to legal culture adopted in this research
acknowledges the diversity of sub-cultures and sub-groups within it, at the same time
stressing a general, distinguishable and largely shared pattern of accustomed behaviour,
thinking and experience of law."
Ahti Laitinen (Finland)
Title: "Arson: Crime Rates, Offenders, and Prevention in Finland."
"This paper deals with arson and its prevention in Finland. Arson will first be
viewed in the light of history and criminological theory. The second part of the paper
contains the results of an empirical study on arson. The material has been collected from
different official sources. For example, the offenses data base of the police, the so-called
"Accident data base" of the Ministry of the Interior, and the data base of trials have been
used. In addition, the documents of the preliminary investigations of the police have been
utilized. According to the preliminary results, approximately one-third of all fires are arson.
Most often the offenders are young, undereducated males. What is surprising is that arson is
more common in some prosperous cities, where, for example, the unemployment rate is
unusually low. During 2005-2007 many arson of historical and valuable buildings, like
churches, have occurred. This has again started a strong discussion about arson as a crime,
and the prevention of arson."
Alberto Febbrajo (Italy)
Title: "Law and Politics in Time of Crisis. A systems theoretical perspective."
"How can the current world society crisis be described from a system theoretical
perspective? Should the causes be found in the incapability of the political and of the legal
systems to regulate societal developments? And what is the impact of the current economic
recession on the welfare governance? Are new institutional forms emerging as a response to
the crisis?"
Alexandre Pesseri (Brazil)

Title: "Square pegs and round holes: copyright, access to content and information."
Abstract: "The diminishing of replication costs and the technical possibilities of creation and
adaptation of artistic and literary works that came along with the digital technologies, have
made possible new forms of expression that are characterized by the use of portions of
preexisting cultural artifacts for the creation of original works of art. This "sampling culture"
is made possible by the recombination of information. The reuse of works and concepts in
new contexts, with different semantic values, has enhanced the quality and quantities of
works available for the public, and thus incrementing culture as a whole. But the legal status
of such works is polemic, at best. Arguably, how far can legal limits affect creativity?
Techniques such as collage, mash-ups, mixing et alli are being freely used by artists to bring
significant innovation into the art paradigm; but the copyright framework was not built to
understand such re-contextualization of intellectual works. A text fragment, a sound bit or an
image, used in another context, are still (for copyright effects) essentially the same pieces of
protected works. Intellectual creations follow the technological and cultural changes in
society, and are not contained by a predetermined script of innovation possibilities. It is
inevitable and natural that the existing protections mechanisms are inefficient when
confronted with such novelty. Considering the digital challenge, this paper proposes to
analyze how such mechanisms can stifle creativity and the promotion of culture, and hinder
access to content in detriment of social interests."

Ana Catarina Mota Fernandes (Portugal)
Title: "Violence within the private life and multiculturalism."
"This paper intends to offer an overview of a study on violence within private life
within the multicultural societies of the present days. Such form of violence bears inside an
uneven conception of family and gender relations, and with the globalizations' phenomena
and the migratory movements it has been gaining new contours and raising further
questions. This phenomenon places the new multicultural societies before behaviours that
are beforehand considered as criminal offenses in many destination countries, but that are
committed by im-migrants motivated by cultural reasons related to the ethical group to
which they belong. It is interesting to observe such behaviours in an objective, impartial
way, seeking to contextualize them and comprehend their motivations, in order to establish
(1) if the aggressor acted motivated by cultural reasons, related to its ethnocultural group
(2) and if there is an antinomic relation between such specific practice and the respect for
the dignity of the human being and fundamental rights. It is furthermore crucial to consider
if there should be given special treatment to the ones who commit a crime for ethnocultural
reasons, i.e. if multiculturalism can appear as a new excuse in criminal law."
Andrea Diaz Rozas (Belgium)

Title: "Is reconciliation a useful term for truth commissions? The case of the
Peruvian truth and reconciliation commission."
"This paper argues that the use of term "reconciliation" during transitions is
problematic not only because the complexity and diverse definitions of the concept, but also
because the relation between the capacities and resources of these bodies and what they are
able to pursue. Dismissing this reality generates different problems that I will develop in
three points: a) first, truth commissions that include "reconciliation" in their names and
mandates use a twofold approximation to "reconciliation", merging micro and macro
definitions of this concept which at the end have unnecessary and problematic results; b)
second, these bodies mix two "not inherently linked" functions or tasks, the seeking of truth
and the achieving of "reconciliation"; and c) third, they have a limited time of existence and
restricted resources to accomplish such an ambitious task as promoting "reconciliation" in
addition to the seeking of truth. This analysis is then applied to the Peruvian case, where it is
possible to see all these shortcomings in the framework of a specific case."
Andrei Koerner (Brazil)
Title: "Instituições judiciárias, prática judicial e pesquisa sobre o pensamento
jurídico na América Latina."
"A comunicação apresenta os resultados parciais de pesquisa sobre a prática
decisória do Supremo Tribunal Federal nos anos noventa. Adotou-se uma abordagem
institucional, tratando o processo decisório no Tribunal como parte da produção normativa do
Estado brasileiro, com o objetivo de se identificar o arcabouço conceitual que tornou-se
predominante naquele processo. Num primeiro momento, a pesquisa foi concentrada
nas características institucionais do STF antes e depois da Constituição de 1988 e nas
decisões do Tribunal sobre o próprio processo do controle concentrado da constitucionalidade
(a ação direta de inconstitucionalidade). O STF adquiriu desde 1965 características
institucionais que o diferenciam tanto do modelo da Suprema Corte norteamericana quanto
dos Tribunais Constitucionais europeus. Constatou-se que a concepção do tribunal sobre o
processo constitucional após 1988 apresenta fortes continuidades com a prevalecente no
período anterior.
Verificou-se, também, mudanças nessa jurisprudência ao longo da década de noventa, sob o
impacto das fortes pressões sobre o Tribunal durante o processo de reforma neoliberal do
Estado brasileiro, impulsionadas durante o primeiro mandato de Fernando Henrique Cardoso
(1995-1998). Nota-se, pois, que, na ordem constitucional instaurada em 1988, o sistema
brasileiro de controle da constitucionalidade manteve características próprias, que podem ser
identificadas em quatro dimensões: a constituição da autoridade política, a forma de
governo, os processos constitucionais e os métodos de tomada de decisão.
Apresenta-se, enfim, uma explicação político-sociológica dessas características e se propõe
uma pesquisa comparativa do pensamento sobre os processos constitucionais na América
Latina, a fim de conhecer e explicar as variações desses institutos jurídicos em nosso
Angélica Cuellar (México) y Germano Schwartz (Brazil)
WG Law and Politics
Título de la sesión: "Derecho y transformación social en América Latina."
"¿Hasta que punto el derecho ha acompañado o ha servido para promover
transformaciones sociales en latinoamerica? El objetivo de este workshop es observar el
derecho como una acción social. Una acción que es procesada por distintos actores con
intereses, valores, ideologías y preferencias políticas. Así pues, debemos preguntarnos
¿cómo es utilizado el derecho en los procesos de transformación política en el contexto de
América Latina? ¿Acaso hemos llegado a un punto en el que los movimientos sociales, y la
ciudadanía en su conjunto, recurren al derecho como parte de su estrategia para transformar
la realidad social de nuestros países? o, por el contrario, ¿será que la ley es un mecanismo
utilizado por los gobiernos para desincentivar la agencia ciudadana? La oleada
democratizadora y la llegada de gobiernos de filiación izquierdista a la región hace pensar en
la posibilidad de un cambio en las instituciones encargadas de impartir justicia, sin embargo,
aún está por verse el uso que darán estas nuevas administraciones al derecho y si son
capaces de utilizarlo para fomentar prácticas democráticas garantizando los derechos
Angélica Cuéllar Vazquez (México)
Título: "La sociología jurídica en América Latina."

Abstract: "La sociología jurídica es una disciplina nueva en América Latina que todavía no se
consolida en muchos países de la región. En la ponencia que presentaré, menciono los países
y los temas que me han parecido más relevantes y también señalo reflexión teórica, tanto
apoyada en las macro-teorías de autores clásicos como conceptos concretos construidos a un
nivel micro para investigaciones concretas, es aún incipiente.
Frente a esto que podríamos llamar timidez teórica, destaca el abrumador trabajo empírico
que se ha realizado. Las investigaciones sobre los tribunales, las judicaturas, acceso a la
justicia, los mecanismos de mediación, los cambios en la cultura jurídica asociados a
transformaciones democráticas en la región, el cambio de los estados autoritarios del cono
sur y los cambios en las culturas jurídicas, han sido temas explorados y desarrollados en la
región latinoamericana que han pensado al derecho como parte de sus sociedades.
En esta ponencia pretendo hacer una reseña de lo que ha sido y es la sociología jurídica en
México y en el resto de América Latina; para ello seguiré la siguiente estrategia: primero,
definiré el objeto de la sociología jurídica; posteriormente describiré y analizaré las
características de la sociología jurídica desarrollada en la región, citando los autores que me
han parecido más relevantes así como los temas tratados. Para finalizar, haré una breve
reflexión a manera de conclusiones."
Ann Varley (UK)
Título: "Modest Expectations: Gender, Marital Property and Inheritance in Urban
"The question of how far individual property rights can or should be separated out
from social relations has received renewed attention in recent years in the light of tenure
regularisation and titling programmes in many parts of the world. This article examines the
connections between law, gender, and property in low-income neighbourhoods of
Guadalajara, Mexico. Most discussions of the social embeddedness of property rights relate
to customary law and agrarian land, but the focus here is on urban homes and a civil law
tradition. The paper examines marital property and the question of whose name should
appear on property titles, and inheritance: differing beliefs about who should inherit the
family home. The findings draw on a survey of women householders and discussion groups in
each area. I conclude that women are indeed less likely to be regarded as fully-acting
subjects in relation to property, although there is evidence of a shift towards greater
equality, and that the opposition of individual title to social embeddedness in current debates
about titling is a false dichotomy."
Anna Krajewska (Poland) and Anna Konieczna (Poland)

Title: "Immigrant women on Polish labour market: in search for policy."
Abstract: "In the past few years Poland – as well as the other countries of the region – was
dealing with the growing number of immigrants coming in search of employment. Poland has
not yet developed a coherent and unified policy towards foreigners coming into the country.
Poland lacks a comprehensive approach to the immigration issue, and the public authorities
focus only on adjusting the Polish law to the requirements of the common asylum and
migration policy of the European Union. At the same time, the actual situation of foreigners
employed in Poland is often clearly less advantageous than that of Polish citizens. Illegal
employment is widespread. Abuse by employers is commonplace. There is no integration
policy and no support system for refugees and persons under other forms of international
protection. Prejudice and stereotypes are ripe among Polish employers. Due to all of the
above reasons, the Polish labour market is not attractive to foreigners. There is also no
policy pertaining to foreign women undertaking employment in Poland. It is to be expected
that the situation of such women is particularly difficult: they encounter not only the
problems that all foreigners, irrespective of gender, face on the Polish labour market, but
they also experience unequal treatment to which also Polish women are exposed in the
professional sphere. In the paper I will present the results of research concerning the
situation of immigrant women working in the elderly care sector in Poland. The research
aims to identify the main problems immigrant women deal with on the Polish labour market.
This will indicate the main challenges to the policy concerning immigrant women seeking
employment in Poland."

Anne Boigeol (France)

Title: "The rise of women in the corporate bar and the reproduction of gender

Abstract: "In this paper the contrasted situation of women in the corporate bar in France
will be presented. If it is unarguable that more women reache partnership, gender
inequalities still exist through old and new forms of differenciations which will be analyzed."

Antal Szerletics (Hungary)
Title: "Souvenirs of the past": the regulation of totalitarian symbols in Hungary."

Abstract: "The Hungarian Criminal Code contains a provision prohibiting the public display
of Nazi and communist totalitarian symbols (i.e. the swastika, red star, sickle and hammer,
SS badge and arrowcross). A recent decision of the European Court of Human Rights (Vajnai
v Hungary
) has held that the applicant's conviction for the public use of the red star violated
the right to freedom of expression. The outcome of this case necessarily implies the
amendment of the criminal code but the legislator seems hesitant to modify the current
regulation. Partial decriminalization is unappealing, since the legislator tries to maintain a
neutral position and treat both totalitarian regimes equally - especially in the light of the
Constitutional Court's opinion formulated in judgment 14/2000 AB that reaffirms this
positivistic neutrality. Full decriminalization, encompassing Nazi symbols, is undesirable due
to the growing extreme right wing sentiments in the country. In fact, this social tendency
has caused the legislator to consider the introduction of more limitation on the freedom of
expression (e.g. criminalizing Holocaust denial).
The case raises important questions concerning our approach to such remnants of the past.
Can the reference to public order or to the offense to certain segments of society legitimize
the violation of freedom of expression? Is it possible to differentiate between the crimes of
the Nazi and communist regimes? Is criminalization, at all, the best way to handle these
issues? I argue that the militant approach ("Streitbare Demokratie") is unnecessary in this
situation. My theoretical objection against the limitation of freedom of expression is based on
John Stuart Mill's argument: the evil of silencing the expression of an opinion, even if the
opinion is erroneous or morally wrong, is that it deprives people of the "clearer perception
and livelier impression of truth, produced by its collision with error". The practical arguments
against criminalization include the objective wording and indefinite content of the statute
(e.g. its application is independent of intent or circumstances). At any rate, it seems unlikely
that right-wing movements would discredit themselves by using Nazi totalitarian symbols;
rather, they find a way to unite under new but historically bound symbols."
Antonio Azuela de la Cueva (México)
WG Urban Problems

Title: "Urban space and the environment. Bridging the gap."
"One of the most important environmental discussions in the United Kingdom
today is about the necessity of building a third runway at Heathrow airport. A national
government in Italy was brought down by its disastrous management of a waste disposal
crisis. A small peasant community has prevented the use of "their" water to provide millions
at Mexico City with regular water supply. All these cases have one thing in common. They
are environmental conflicts that have a direct impact on urban areas. Most of these conflicts
have legal implications and are processed through legal institutions. However, most of the
literature on environmental regulation does not take into account its urban dimension. The
same is true the other way around. Accounts of the relationship between the law and urban
space rarely take into account the environmental dimension as if territory could be divided
between urban and non-urban forgetting the artificiality of this division. In order to bridge
this gap, we need to undertake the analysis of both the cognitive and regulatory dimensions
of legal phenomena. The panel on "Urban space and the environment. Bridging the gap" is
an invitation to socio-legal scholars to discuss the interrelations between law, urban space
and the environment."
Antonio Casimiro Ferreira (Portugal)
Title: "Governance and Organization of Justice: a new geography of justice."
"The social context of justice and the performance of judicial courts suffered
intense changes in recent years due to social, economic and political transformations
occurred, involving mutations in the social awareness of the judiciary role in the increasing
social and political visibility of courts. The administration of justice specificity as an
organizational phenomenon is very significant among the different approaches related to the
organization of justice systems, according to the centrality of courts and taking into account
that the judicial system must satisfy to meet the demands of democracy. The organization of
the courts influences the current discussions concerning the judicial activity, especially the
organizational approaches about the functions of courts, mainly in search of increased quality
and transparency of justice. In this reflection should be taken into account social factors that
influence the functioning of courts besides rationality and efficiency. Issues related to the
organization and management of courts will be discussed in this workshop in accordance with
the perspectives of reforms on the judiciary map and "justice territories", trying to forward
with proposals that can contribute to increasing the effectiveness, efficiency and quality of
justice, trying to incorporate the experience of Portugal and comparative studies."
Artur Stamford da Silva (Brasil)
Título: "Sociología de la decisión jurídica: fallos y transformación social en Brasil."
"Sociología de la decisión jurídica es un programa de investigación sobre la
semántica social del derecho. Esto Programa tiene por objeto la producción de sentido del
derecho desde los fallos de tribunales y, por objetivo, demostrar que la producción y
transformación de sentido de los institutos jurídicos no resultan ni del arbitrio ni de la
discrecionalidad, pero sí, de la comunicación del derecho (sistema de sentido que es). Para
llegar a esto objetivo, los datos son colectados en sites de Tribunales. Una vez obtenidos, en
la íntegra, los textos de los fallos, los dados son sistematizamos y analizados. Las análisis
son hechas bajo el marco teórico de la teoría de la sociedad de Niklas Luhmann, a tenor de
la cual: "comunicación es la célula de la sociedad"; "la sociedad es un sistema que establece
sentido"; "sentido es una operación de comunicación" (información + darla-a-conocer +
entenderla). Esta circularidad nos lleva a observar el derecho de la sociedad como sistema
de sentido: sistema, porque el derecho es una forma de diferenciación por comunicación y,
sentido, por ser producto de la operación de selección por diferenciación. Así, "en tanto el
sistema jurídico utiliza el lenguaje para comunicar, presupone posibilidades de conexión
fuera del sistema". Por eso, investigar los fallos es una manera de observar la paradoja
derecho/sociedad, la paradoja del establecer normas (identidad, unidad y estructura)
mutantes (adaptación, acoplamiento, variación). Ocurre que los dos lados de la forma del
derecho componen, a lo mismo tiempo, la producción de sentido del derecho. Nuestras
encuestas utilizan los fallos de Tribunales para buscar una explicación a la producción de
sentido vividas por los institutos jurídicos, por lo tanto, la transformación semántica del
derecho. Aun no conclusas, entre las temáticas de investigaciones, citamos: igualdad; aborto
anacefálico; videoconferencia; cosa juzgada; patrio poder; propiedad (MST); prueba ilícita,
homoafetividad, concesión de medicamentos, corrupción, racismo, crimen de bagatela. *O
presente trabalho foi realizado com apoio do CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento
Científico e Tecnológico – Brasil."
Arvind Kumar Agrawal (India) and Hanne Petersen (Denmark)
Title: WG Law and Migration. "Law, Human Rights and Migrants."
"International Sociological Association Annual Conference of the Research
Committee of Sociology of Law Working Group On Law and Migration Law, Human Rights and
Migrants ONATI, July 2009 Dr Arvind Agrawal (,Head,
Department of Sociology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, and Convener, Ad Hoc group of
Sociology of Law, Indian Sociological Society, India. Abstract Within the existing framework
of International Law, is there any scope for the host state to create conditions for a more
meaningful and dignified way of enforcing the human rights of migrants from the countries
and the communities outside? The Rights and Law discourse delineates such a facilitation
process with which the citizens must get around them for regulating the process of living
cohesively. To this enforceability, the means of legal regime is an anchoring point. As for the
case of migrants (both internal and international migrants), displaced persons, refugees and
asylum seekers, there is a need for going beyond the rights accorded by citizens among
themselves to the issue of Constitutionality, State as system of rights called as Human
Rights. In this regard, the legal norms as human rights provide the capacity for the Migrants
to have the rights as a political will and as a medium of regulating the state and society to
respect the human dignity of these social groups in the host society. Law, thus provides
intersubjective recognition for the migrants as a class of people along with the natives in a
given society and community. The functionality, validity of law to regulate the human rights
of the migrants in the host society/migrated place and state of affairs of migrants in a host
state will be captured with a set of papers among the sessions proposed."
Asier Martínez de Bringas (Bilbao)
Título: "Aplicación extraterritorial del Convenio 169 de la OIT en el Estado
"La tesis y argumento fundamental que queremos defender en este escrito es que
el C sí posee valor jurídico para el Estado español, siempre que se apela a una aplicación
extraterritorial del mismo. Con ello se quiere significar que el contenido y obligaciones
jurídicas que establece el C, sí son de obligado cumplimiento para el Estado español, pese a
que éste carezca de pueblos indígenas en el ámbito territorial de sus fronteras. Una de las
formas para otorgar validez jurídica a los contenidos del C es apelando a una aplicación
extraterritorial del mismo, esto es, el C tendrá validez jurídica fuera de las fronteras del
Estado español, para todos aquellos actores españoles -en un sentido lato hablaríamos de
"órganos de la sociedad" , aunque de manera específica nos referiremos a ETN- que tengan
algún nivel de actuación e intervención en territorio indígena. Con una estrategia como la de
la aplicación extraterritorial del C se pretende ampliar el alcance de las responsabilidades en
materia de derechos humanos a otros actores (españoles) distintos del Estado que, aún no
actuando en territorio español, lo hacen, en el marco de posibilidades que otorga la
globalización del capital, en otros Estados y territorios, representando y habilitados por el
propio Estado."
Avanti Perera (Sri Lanka)

Title: "Doctoring the Law: Resolving Medical Negligence Disputes in Sri Lanka."
"This paper explores the relevance of legal culture, context and consciousness to
the process of dispute resolution in the area of medical negligence. The arguments presented
are drawn from findings of research-in-progress on medical negligence claims processing in Sri Lanka. The empirical evidence has been obtained from analysis of documents, in-depth interviews with healthcare officials, medical professionals, the judiciary, lawyers, civil society groups and claimants, and results of a pilot study of brief interviews with out-patients at a hospital in Sri Lanka. Preliminary field data indicates competing demands, dynamics and desires among the various stakeholders who operate and interact in the chosen area of disputation. Where existing dispute resolution mechanisms in the form of tort law and other "legalised" and bureaucratised processes do not seem to effectively respond to medical negligence disputes, it may be time to consider a different approach to the issue. By considering the relevant theoretical and practical implications, the thrust of this paper is an attempt to understand the potential for application of alternate dispute resolution (ADR) to medical negligence disputes in Sri Lanka. Although the current stage of research does not suggest a particular type of dispute resolution process, the emerging ideas provide strong support for law and policy to be approached from comparative socio-cultural perspectives rather than through the narrow lenses of mainstream definitions and structures that States have on offer at present. The conclusions indicate that the "law" must be capable of adjusting to divergent purposes, processes and outcomes."
Bärbel Dorbeck-Jung (Netherlands)

Title: "Drawing inspiration from regulatory innovation of European
nanotechnologies regulation."

Abstract: "It is striking that the socio-legal discipline has not yet paid much attention to the
governance of new technologies, which increasingly attracts other social science scholars.
This paper is an attempt to identify the lessons European risk regulation can learn from
nanotechnologies governance. Regulators and academics who are interested in regulatory
issues of modern technologies are having exciting times. Regarding the huge promises of
profit-making, governmental ambitions and potential benefits to society it is expected that
applications of nanotechnologies will penetrate and permeate through nearly all sectors and
spheres of life, and will be accompanied by immense changes in the social, economic, ethical
and ecological spheres. In this field regulatory innovation is driven by the European
Commission's commitment to the precautionary principle and a worldwide emerging sense of
responsible technology development that is largely inspired by lessons from earlier
technology regulation (amongst which genetic modified organisms). Regulatory innovation is
induced by the fundamental uncertainties of risk problems (i.e. toxicity) and the
unpredictability of nanotechnological evolution paths. Conventional tools do not seem to be
equipped to provide quick and anticipatory regulatory action. Up to now, most countries have
taken an incremental regulatory approach which focuses on co-regulation between public and
private regulators. This paper analyses nanotechnological co-regulation within the European
Union (amongst which the European Commission's Code of Conduct for Responsible
Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Research and voluntary reporting schemes on
nanotechnological risks and product properties). It compares these regulatory efforts with
earlier European technological risk governance. This leads to conclusions related to the
innovation of technological risk regulation. If these lessons inspire further research of socio-
legal studies the aim of the paper is achieved."

Benoit Bastard (France)
Title: "Women as visting parents: contact centres in a gender perspective."

Abstract: "Contact centres pretend to be "neutral" as they organize contacts between
children and their non-custodial parent in highly contested divorce. It seems to make no
difference, for professionals working in these services, if the visiting parent is a man or a
woman. For them, the interest of the child is the main focus. Still, the activity of contact
centres is characterised by a strong gender bias, which is rarely questioned: the visiting
parent is generally the father. The fact that few mothers attend contact services as visiting
parents depends on the decisions taken usually during the divorce process and, more
generally, reflects the specialization of gender roles as regards the caring of children. In this
contribution, I will describe the situation of visiting mothers in contact centres and discuss
this phenomenon. Using a gender perspective, I will argue, that beyond its apparent
neutrality, the intervention of contact centres is restoring disaffiliated fathers in their role
and, so doing, contributes to change the balance between men and women."
Bernard Hubeau and Stephan Parmentier (Belgium)
Title: "Lawyers and their professional, public and market logics."

Abstract: "What is the background of the lawyer population in Flanders? What fields of law
are they engaged in and how are they organized? What is their income and what are their
ambitions? These questions are discussed through the results of an empirical survey with the
whole lawyer population in Flanders, the first ever conducted of this size and nature,
conducted by a research team from the K.U.Leuven and the U. Ghent. Moreover, the
empirical survey results are analysed in the framework of some major developments in the
legal professions in all Western countries, including professional logics, public logics and
market logics. "
Boaventura de Sousa Santos and Tiago Ribeiro (Portugal)
Title: "The value of life in work accidents. Some brief considerations."

Abstract: "The goal of this paper consists in the problematization of the normative
frameworks and judicial practices concerning injuries in the context of work accidents in
Portugal. The sociological task of studying the value of life and the body is a problematic but
revealing exercise of contemporary social relations. On the one hand, the dominant
compensatory models historically prioritize the coverage of strictly patrimonial damages
deriving from injuries, reducing the individual to its economical and productive dimensions,
devaluing aspects like the personal and social disadvantages of which they are victims in a
subordinated labour relation. Depreciation of physical integrity within the asymmetric context
of work relations will be one of the most visible markers of the structural inequalities the
social State and labour law aim to correct and, however, keep reproducing and
strengthening. Accordingly, we will try to analyse the normative options regarding body
damage compensation in the context of work accidents, discussing its impact towards the
victims as well as the insurance companies responsible for the compensation. On the other
hand, multiple deficiencies in the Portuguese judicial system and culture - weak judiciary
support regarding access to law and justice, unqualified professionals, passivity of the Public
Prossecutor, dubious legal medical examinations, lack of institutional articulation, among
others - contribute to degrade the effectiveness of victims' social and labour rights, awarding
them, in the most dramatic conditions, a biography of lessness and subcitizenship. Having
characterized the problematic of compensation within the Portuguese judicial system, we
shall try to understand the nature and effects of resorting to labour mediation of work
accidents, so as to highlight the risks involved in dejudicialization. This system legitimized by
the rhetoric of acceleration and efficiency in conflict resolution constitutes an empirical
verification of some of the recent tendencies of vulnerability of victims towards the insurance

Bregje Dijksterhuis (Amsterdam)
Title: "Activistic alimony judges prevent legislation three times."
"My finished empirical PhD research is on an existing form of judicial cooperation,
the 'Werkgroep Alimentatienormen', a judicial alimony commission, in which family law
judges of the 19 District Courts and five Courts of Appeal participate. This Commission
drafted guidelines, that regard the alimony ex-partners are obliged to pay after their
marriage had broken up. These alimony guidelines ('alimentatienormen') give judges
something to hold on to when calculating the level of alimony. The important question I raise
in this book is if the activities of the judicial alimony commission can be considered as
judicial tasks. The assumption was that the judges in the judicial alimony commission,set up
guidelines to fill the existing gaps in legislation, because the legislator did not perform his
task. I found that this assumption is not correct. The judicial alimony commission, pioneer in
the field of judicial collaboration, tried to prevent legislation actively. When the legislator
came into action, the judicial alimony commission tried to stop this process by criticizing the
legislative proposal and by developing their own alimony guidelines and thus offering
alternative regulation. The legislator decided three times to discontinue the legislative
procedure. I found that the making of guidelines by judges has certain disadvantages. The
judicial alimony commission was blind to five aspects of regulation. First, the judicial alimony
commission had insufficient sight of the social economic consequences of their choices for
society. Further, judges have insufficient sight of usefulness of their alimony guidelines. The
third blind spot is that judges have insufficient sight on the political development of their
guidelines over a long period. Because of their pragmatic approach, the judicial alimony
commission did not notice for a long time that the system worked out more positively for the
partner who is obliged to make maintenance payments and less for the partner and the
children who needed maintenance payments. Fourthly, the agenda of the judicial alimony
commission was mainly set by judges. The consequence was that the alimony commission
did not meet in a need for changes from other organizations that were involved in alimony.
The fifth disadvantage is that judges hold on to their own regulation. The legislator asked the
opinion of the judicial alimony commission about proposed legislation in a domain where
judges fulfill a role, because judges had to work with the legislation if it should come into
force. The implication is that for 30 years a battle was going on between the judges and the
legislator about the field of regulation on alimony maintenance. The arguments of the judicial
alimony commission against the proposed legislation were neither convincing nor consistent.
The main objection was that the proposed legislation was too broad. But that argument
includes all legislation. The judicial alimony commission had a good timing of their
intervention in the legislative procedure. The Dutch Lower House listened more to the judges
than to any other organization involved in alimony. These judicial interventions were hardly
made public. The judicial alimony commission had identified with its own regulation, so that
he was not able anymore to advice in a distant manner. Judges saw proposed legislation
primary as a threat to their own regulations. They watched over their judicial domain of
regulation in the field of alimony. I found that Judges have a restricted sight on the public
interest. The Judiciary and the legislator have different perspectives, which leads to different
choices. If judges are of the opinion that the goals of the legislator are partly not relevant, it
is undesirable that they can prevent legislation, even if they come up with an alternative.
The argument that judges can solve the problems that the legislator signals shows an
overestimation of their possibilities."
Carlo Pennisi (Italy)
Title: "Nec tecum nec sine tecum: partecipation and proceduralization of the
administrative decision in Italy."

Abstract: "In Italy, the traditional models of administrative decision are challenged by social
and institutional changes that question their assumptions: the due process (principio di
legalità) and the separation of powers. Such assumptions were the guarantees expressed by
the rule of law in the civil law tradition. The attempt to retrieve those guarantees by means
of more efficient normative tools and the pervading influence of EU decision practices are
deeply changing the ways of administrative decision. In this process, the proceduralization
redefines both administration and citizens starting off from weak and contingent collective
decision structures which are permeable to uncontrolled influences on behalf of the
politicians. The decisions produced in these experiences are revisable and recursive: this
triggers a new and problematic attention on the participation of social actors to public and
administrative decisions but requires time (and patience) that collective movements cannot
afford. "

"Nec tecum nec sine tecum: partecipation and
proceduralization of the
administrative decision in Italy."
I modelli tradizionali della decisione amministrativa sono sfidati, in Italia, da mutamenti
sociali ed istituzionali che mettono in discussione i loro presupposti: il principio di legalità e la
separazione dei poteri. Tali presupposti avevano costituito le garanzie espresse dal modello
dello stato di diritto. Il tentativo di mantenere quelle garanzie con strumenti normativi che
recuperino efficienza ed il pervasivo influsso delle pratiche decisionali dell'UE stanno
modificando profondamente le modalità della decisione amministrativa. In questo processo,
la procedimentalizzazione ridefinisce contestualmente amministrazione e cittadini a partire
da fragili e contingenti strutture di decisione collettiva molto permeabili da incontrollate
influenze del personale politico. La rivedibilità e la ricorsività delle decisioni prodotte in
queste esperienze anima una nuova e problematica attenzione sulla partecipazione delle
persone alle decisioni pubbliche ed amministrative, ma richiede un tempo (e una pazienza)
che i movimenti collettivi non possono permettersi."
Carlos A. Lista (Argentina)
Title: "La Sociología Jurídica en Argentina." 1
: "En Argentina la inserción de la sociología en los planes de estudio de las carreras
de abogacía fue muy temprana, mucho antes de que se abrieran las primeras carreras de
sociología. Algunas de las universidades públicas más antiguas cuentan con cátedras de
sociología que ya han celebrado su primer centenario, lo cual no significa que la situación de
la investigación y enseñanza de la sociología y la sociología jurídica en las carreras de
abogacía en el país sea estable ni carente de problemas. Por el contrario, su inserción es
precaria, marginal y en tensión con el paradigma jurídico dominante.
El trabajo contiene algunos datos y reflexiones sobre el desarrollo de la sociología jurídica en
Argentina, con particular énfasis en su enseñanza. Es parte de un proyecto de investigación
aún en desarrollo."
1 Trabajo en co-autoría con Silvana Begala, docente de Sociología Jurídica, Cátedra
B, Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba,
Caroline Gendreau (Canada)
Title: "Considerations of Methods Arising from an Appropriation of Max Weber's
"My specific interest in Max Weber's work is its usefulness for empirical research
in sociology of law. The goal of my presentation is to highlight -and to discuss- certain
requirements of methods whose implications are important for understanding "empirical
law". From this perspective, I argue for the necessity of combining an investigation of social
actors' motivations (their subjective meaning) with an empirical study of various legal
rationalities which characterize law in specific contexts. To do so, I suggest to establish an
empirical analytic framework (as opposed to an action framework) for the in-depth and
multi-faceted examination of the way social actors' motivations are, to different degrees of
intensity, linked with law. This is central to Weber's sociology to identify "empirical law" i.e.
such as understood by social actors and effectively taken into account in their action.
Moreover, this analysis is of particular utility to elaborate different types of "relationship to
law" of the observed social actors. As for the investigation on legal rationalities, it seems that
more attention should be paid to the "juridical techniques" used by different groups of legal
intermediaries (lawyers or non-lawyers). In fact, the "juridical techniques", from modes of
reasoning to tangible forms of procedures, are of great utility because they are empirically
identifiable and thus they are a valuable method for sociology of law. This appreciation
comes from an empirical study I recently conducted which is an example of an appropriation
of Max Weber's work for contemporary sociology of law. I compared the observable -yet non-
exclusive- consequences of the relationship between legal intermediaries and social actors
consulting them on the "relationship to law" of the latter. According to my research, "state
law" is characterized by a very different legal rationality whether it's "carried" by legal
intermediaries that are lawyers or mediators (non-lawyers). This was observed by a close
examination of the "juridical techniques" used by these two groups of legal intermediaries
while I was conducting a study on divorces negotiated in Montreal during the early 1990's.
The findings suggest, among other things, that the diverse type of "relationship to law" of
the divorcees I interviewed (nearly 80) are a significant consequence of their relationship
with those legal intermediaries. This may contribute to better understand how law is,
factually, part of social relations in various contexts."
Catherine Hoskyns (UK), Silvia Niccolai (Italy) and Ann Stewart (UK)
Title: "Disability Discrimination by Association. Social and Legal Implications of the
European Court of Justice Ruling in Coleman v Attridge Law (Case C-303/06)
"In July 2008 the European Court of Justice (ECJ) ruled that European anti-
discrimination law embodied the right to equal treatment not only of a disabled person but
also of someone closely associated with that person, namely through the act of caring. This
ruling has important implications for the complex relationship between paid work and caring
and for the scope of EC law. Sharon Coleman, the claimant in the case, was a legal secretary
in the law firm Attridge Law in the UK. Her baby born in 2002 was found to be severely
disabled. After months of struggling to care for the child as a single parent she finally
resigned from the firm and claimed unfair dismissal. After consulting lawyers, she lodged a
claim for unfair treatment on grounds of disability, on the basis that she was the main carer
of her disabled son and that parents in the firm with normal babies had been treated more
favourably than her. The case went to the UK Employment Tribunal which referred a number
of questions to the European Court.
The paper will examine this case from three perspectives. First, its place in the jurisprudence
of the Court. The ECJ has in the past taken a firm line on unpaid work and caring seeing
these activities as outside the public sphere and therefore more appropriately dealt with at
national level. However, new forms of employment, the extension of EC anti-discrimination
law to new grounds, and the general drawing together of the economic and the social, make
these distinctions harder to maintain. The ruling may therefore be an isolated one triggered
by particular circumstances - or the beginning of a new trend. Either way it has significant
implications. In this context we shall make use of recent Italian feminist theory which reads
in the condition of being both a worker and a carer a challenge to the traditional
subordination of the reproductive to the productive sphere.
Second, we will explore the origins and use of arguments for discrimination by association
which play a central role in the Coleman case and in the rights oriented opinion of the
Advocate General. After examining how this concept has arisen and how it has been used in
European countries and other jurisdictions, particularly the US, the paper will assess its
capacity to give recognition to the new needs of workers with caring responsibilities. In this
section, the origins of the case in the UK will be examined in detail, assessing the roles of the
claimant, the lawyers involved, public agencies and the media as well as the use made of
legal reasoning and argumentation.
Third, we will explore the consequences and implications of the ruling by examining what
effect it is having in the UK and other European countries and the resulting implications for
EC anti-discrimination law. Are ‘carers' emerging as subjects in law, is ‘care' becoming a
value in contemporary living and if so what is the contribution of the concept of
discrimination by association to meeting these new demands?
Finally, the paper will consider how the legal and the social interact in both the bringing of
this case and its implementation."
Cecília MacDowell (Portugal) and Teresa Maneca Lima (Portugal)
"The Politics of Human Rights, Transnational Activism and Justice."
Abstract: "In the last twenty years, human rights values, language and norms have gained
prominence in law, politics and social activism at local, national and international scales. The
definition, legalization and implementation of human rights norms have become a central
issue of social, legal and political practices. We have observed an increasing
transnationalization of legal institutions and a growing number of individuals and
organizations using international law to address conflicts over human rights in different part
of the world. The politics of human rights involves several types and levels of relationships:
between local and international communities; between social, legal and political actors and
institutions at the local, national, regional and transnational levels of interaction. Thus, the
increasing engagement with the politics of human rights offers a unique opportunity to
examine a set of complex relationships and conflicts in the current development of law,
politics and transnational activism all over the world. This session seeks to promote a
discussion on the ways in which the politics of human rights relates to transnational activism
and justice in their concrete embeddedness. How do social movement actors engage with
human rights discourses and frameworks to foster their causes? How do they use human
rights norms and approach (trans)national institutions created to protect human rights? How
do legal and political actors and institutions participate in the field of human rights at both
national and international levels of interactions? How does the politics of human rights relate
to the development of democracy? What are the contributions and limitations of the
legalization of human rights in different cultural and political contexts? These are some of the
questions that this workshop intends to address."
Cecilia MacDowell Santos (Portugal)
"Homoparental rights are human rights: Reconstructing the European
Convention through legal mobilization."

Abstract: "There is little sociological analysis of transnational legal mobilization in the
context of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The local impacts of the cases
presented to the ECHR, the political and social processes shaping the legal mobilization of
the European Convention on Human Rights, as well as the discourses and strategies of the
litigants and judges involved in the disputes are topics of research that deserve further
investigation. Moreover, little we know about the cases against Portugal in the ECHR and the
lessons we can draw from them. This paper aims to fill some of these gaps by examining the
role of transnational legal mobilization in the reconstruction of European human rights and
homoparental rights, using Portugal and the ECHR as a case study. Drawing on partial
results of the research project "Reconstructing Human Rights through Transnational Legal
Mobilization? Portugal and the European Court of Human Rights," housed at the Center for
Social Studies at the University of Coimbra, the paper examines the case of Salgueiro Silva
Mouta v. Portugal, which addresses the parental rights of a gay man who was discriminated
against by the Portuguese Court of Appeals on the basis of his sexual orientation. The paper
examines the discourses of the actors involved in this case, all the way from the domestic
courts to the ECHR. This was the first case to introduce the discussion of homoparental rights
in the Portuguese courts and in the ECHR. It shows that, even from an individualistic
perspective, transnational legal mobilization can contribute to the reconstruction of both
parental rights and human rights. By recognizing as human rights the homoparental right
and the right to non-discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, the ECHR decision
enlarged and reconstructed, though in a limited way, the meaning of European Convention

Cecília MacDowell Santos (Portugal) and José Atiles (Puerto Rico)
Title: "Political Violence, the State and (Trans)national Justice."
"In this Workshop we propose a socio-legal and political reflection on how the
State, social movements and justice systems address the issue of "political violence" at both
national and international scales. The major goal is to reflect on the definitions and uses of
"political violence" as possible strategies for either imposing or resisting forms of dominance
and control by the State, inter-governmental institutions and social movement actors in
varying political contexts. Social movement actors may include, for example, guerrilla
movements, national liberation struggles, and struggles over the memory of a violent,
authoritarian past. Regarding the State, we are especially interested in encouraging a debate
on its role as a major actor in promoting the use of violence as well as defining "political
violence" while also serving as protector of citizens against violence. This may include
reflections on "new" categories of political-juridical action such as the establishment of a
"state of exception" and anti-terrorism laws. This can also include the ways in which the
State participates in the construction of political memory. Finally, the Workshop seeks to
engage in a discussion on the particular role played by the Judiciary and varying mechanisms
of "transitional justice" - such as Truth and Reconciliation Commissions, memorials,
reparations - in the struggles over the definitions of "political violence" and the constitution
of political memory and justice. The debates on the role of justice systems in response to
such struggles can also focus on the participation of international courts or quasi-judicial
institutions, such as the European and Inter-American Systems of Human Rights."
Cecilia MacDowell Santos. University of Coimbra (Portugal) and University of San
Francisco (USA)
Title: "Political memory-justice and transnational human rights mobilization in
"The literature on "transitional justice" calls attention to the constitutive role of
justice in relation to political memory, stressing that the political context is one of the major
factors shaping the formation and implementation of "transitional justice" measures in
specific places and historical moments. Usually centered on criminal trials that gain
international visibility, or on extra-judicial commissions of truth, justice and/or reconciliation,
this literature tends, however, to assume that in periods of political transition State action is
homogeneous and that the State has a single political will, most often identified with a
consensus on making justice about the violations of human rights that occurred during the
period of repression. In addition, this literature tends to overlook the role of transnational
human rights activism and the use of international human rights law in the process of
reconstructing the memory of a violent past. This paper attempts to contribute to this
literature by examining both the potentials and limits of transnational human rights activism
in the struggles over political memory-justice, as well as the contradictory practices of the
State in response to such struggles. Drawing on cases against Brazil taken by human rights
activists to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, both during and after the
period of State repression under the military dictatorship, the paper problematizes the notion
of "transitional justice" by examining the complex relationships between transnational
justice, transnational human rights activism and State action, showing the contradictory
positions of the Brazilian State in both political periods and the challenges facing the labor of
memory-justice in Brazil today."

Cerfontaine Gaëtan (Belgium)

Titre: "Le droit procéduralisé comme intermédiaire : méthode et approche

Abstract: "Cette communication est basée sur une recherche empirique menée pendant
près d'un an sur un programme européen de développement durable de l'économie rurale
appelé LEADER (Liaison Entre Actions de Développement de l'Economie Rurale). Ce dernier
s'inscrit dans un mouvement, abondamment commenté par la littérature sociologique, de
territorialisation et de procéduralisation de l'action publique (Duran, Thoenig, 1996),
conférant aux acteurs locaux un pouvoir inédit de définition des enjeux. La majorité de ces
travaux souligne les relations d'interdépendance et les modalités de coordination entre les
différents acteurs (Le Galès, 1995) et met également en évidence un système articulant les
différentes logiques d'action (Crozier, Friedberg, 1977 ; Musselin, 2005). Toutefois, les
interactions et les jeux de pouvoir, qui figurent au cour de la sociologie de l'action organisée,
ne rendent compte, à eux seuls, que de certaines formes relativement stables de la vie des
organisations (Friedberg, 1993). Basée sur une méthodologie fondée sur les entretiens face à
face (Friedberg, 1988), cette approche analytique semble mieux se prêter à l'analyse de la
permanence que des processus qui sous-tendent l'innovation. L'apparition depuis quelques
années d'analyses symétriques conférant un pouvoir d'actantialité aux objets (Callon, 1986)
a contribué au développement d'approches par les instruments (Le Galès, Lascoumes, 2005)
pouvant intégrer les questions classiques que posent la science politique et la sociologie de
l'action publique (Lascoumes, 1996). Considérer les politiques procédurales comme des
objets intermédiaires (Mélard, 2008) permet ainsi de rendre compte de leur capacité de
médiation (Latour, 2006) et de donner un compte rendu de l'action plus dynamique. Comme
ce fut le cas pour notre travail, l'entrée dans l'analyse par les controverses comme le
suggère ce courant théorique n'est cependant pas toujours possible. L'entrée par les
nombreux documents produits tels que les programmes de développement stratégique, les
présentations de projets ou les évaluations, constitue ainsi, non pas une solution du moindre
mal, mais au contraire, comme l'a montré Florian Charvolin (2003), une méthode permettant
de déployer toute la capacité médiatrice de ces instruments procéduralisés."
César Leonidas Gamboa Balbín (Madrid)
"Defensa legal de territorios indígenas en la amazonia peruana."
Abstract: "Hasta hace pocos años las organizaciones indígenas no confiaban ni utilizaban las
herramientas legales del marco internacional y nacional de derechos humanos o mecanismo
que reconocían sus derechos colectivos. Sin embargo, poco a poco han ido utilizando estas
herramientas y otras más para tratar de cambiar y moldear la nueva legislación que
intensifica las actividades extractivas en la amazonia peruana. El presente ensayo pretende
exponer brevemente un estado de la cuestión, pero sobre todo, pretende identificar los
cambios de prácticas estatales y de las organizaciones indígenas en el uso de estas
herramientas legales (consulta previa, participación, monitoreo, procesos de planificación,
etc.) ante la política energética en Perú y la región."

Chiara Calderoni (Italia)
Title: "Some Limits of Citizenship in the Present "World of Migrations."

Abstract: "Some limits of citizenship in today world will be exposed in this paper, focusing
on the Italian and Spanish laws on citizenship and on the factual implementation of these
laws. After having briefly explored part of the debate concerning the issue, it will be shown
how the empirical analysis on the two countries confirms and reinforces the theoretical idea
of the existence of these limits."

Christian Sundquist (USA)

Title: "Child Soldiers, the Persecutor Bar and Asylum."
Abstract: "I plan to examine the content and meaning of the American immigration barrier
to asylum for individuals who have engaged in the persecution of others on account of
political opinion, ethnicity or social group. I argue that this so-called Persecutor Bar should
be interpreted in a narrow fashion so as to allow for claims of certain applicants who were
coerced as children into performing disqualifying acts of persecution. That said, I argue that
an often ambiguous distinction between Voluntary and Involuntary Acts is inadequate to
guide asylum policy, as it can ultimately result in a Socractic Paradox for decisionmakers."
Christophe Dubois (Belgium)
Titre: "Orienter la culture carcérale vers la justice réparatrice en Belgique."
"La présente communication portera sur la mise en oeuvre, en Belgique, de la
circulaire ministérielle du 4 octobre 2000, qui proposait d'orienter la culture de la détention
vers la justice réparatrice.
Premièrement, l'analyse du texte de cette circulaire révèle qu'il s'agit d'un dispositif d'action
public flou, renseignant le cadre normatif et cognitif d'un projet de changement, bien plus
que d'une procédure substantielle contraignante pour les acteurs. Le concept de «partition à
construire», emprunté au compositeur John Cage, nous permettra d'éclairer ce point.
Ensuite, l'analyse de quatre établissements pénitentiaires distincts démontre qu'en réalité la
politique pénitentiaire étudiée, même si elle est floue et qu'elle tente d'introduire en prison
(univers bureaucratique) une valeur (la réparation) perçue comme utopique, permet à de
nouveaux acteurs de créer des activités, tout en nouant des partenariats avec des
associations extérieures. En outre, on observe la création de lien social dans des univers où
les effets désocialisants sont déterminants.
Dans cette optique, notre analyse vise à situer des effets d'amplification et des effets de
réduction, ainsi que ceux de cadrage et de débordement, consécutifs à la mise en œuvre de
la circulaire du 4 octobre 2000."

Cirus Rinaldi (Italy)
"Victims, Victimization Arenas and Recognition: Theoretical and
Methodological Assumptions."

Abstract: The aims of the paper are theoretical and methodological: the first step is aimed
to develop a theoretical framework through which analyse the definition of victimization
under a "process approach" (following Viano, 1989; 1990) focusing on loan sharking,
racketeering and extortion in Sicily; the methodological aim takes into account the
advantages of using qualitative methods and mixed methods research in process oriented
perspectives. Under this constructivist and processual perspective, the definition of
victimization will take into account four different and complementary stages: (a) the act
(individuals' experience of harm or suffering caused by someone else); (b) the perception of
the act (the perception of the harm considered as unfair and the self-perception as victims);
(c) the "quasi-formal" recognition (the perceived victims needs to find someone to validate
their claim, e.g. family, friends, professionals, etc.); (d) the "formal" recognition (claiming
the official status of victim, publicly validation, and support). This interdisciplinary
processual framework will help the researcher: (i) to analyse the social construction of the
status and the role of the victim according to what has been defined elsewhere as a
sociology of social problems (Spector and Kitsuse), (ii) to address questions concerning who
will occupy each stage, who will move from one stage to the next, and when, how, and why
(Viano, 1989). The victim's career and the different status passages (Glaser and Strauss,
1971), as explained before, give the researcher the opportunity to focus on the interaction
between people's social structure's constraints and their subjective interpretation of these;
moreover they allow the investigator to analyse the interplay between objective and
subjective, that is, between the Self and the related "significant society" which defines the
dynamic of the status passage itself. From a socio-criminological perspective, the
understanding of such interplay is a contribution to to the shift from a "victimology of the
act" (e.g., specific violent crimes) to the "victimology of the action" (Fattah, 1992a; 1992b),
stressing its processual dynamics and components. From a methodological point of view, the
paper will show uses and strengths of Grounded Theory as a qualitative research
methodology emphasizing the generation of theory from data in the process of conducting
research, especially if combined with specific analyse methods (such as Atlas.ti) in socio-
juridicial and socio-criminological investigation.
Fattah, Ezzat A. (1992), The need for a critical criminology, in Id. (a cura di), Towards a
critical victimology, St.Martin's Press, New York.
Fattah, Ezzat A. (ed.) (1992), Towards a critical victimology, St.Martin's Press, New York
Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. (1971). Status passage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Viano Emilio C. (1989), Victimology today: major issues in research and public policy, in Id.
(ed.), Crime and its victims: international research and public policy issues-proceedings of
the fourth international institute on Victimology (NATO Advanced research Workshop),
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York-Washington-Philadelphia-London, pp.3-14.
Viano Emilio C. (ed.) (1990), The Victimology handbook. Research findings, treatment, and
public policy
, Garland Publishing, New York & London. "

Claire Weber (South Africa)
Title: "Resistance to the Extension of Human Rights Protection to Migrants in South

Abstract: "Although humanitarian goals of different international and transnational actors,
might be fairly straightforward in principle, the emergence of different means through which
these goals are met has created a transnational, normative pluralism of which the full effects
and meanings are still unclear. However, there is one outcome that has become clear -
human rights have become decentred and their status remains as ‘unsettled' as ever. The
xenophobic violence and attacks which broke out at an unprecedented level in 2008 in South
Africa, alerted to the fact that extensive hostility against, abuse of and violence towards
migrants and other non-nationals has become much more visible on a global, national and
local scale. In a society which holds human rights as universal, indivisible and inalienable,
and a country that is somewhat admired for its constitutional dispensation and underlying
priniciples of equality, human freedom and human dignity, such xenophobic violence has
emphasised the necessity to increase the effort to understand and to develop a human rights
framework of migration that has the ability to deal with the social implications. Efforts to
defend human rights of migrants and to combat xenophobia remain fragmented, limited in
impact and starved of resources. It is clear that there is a need for the extension of the
human rights afforded to migrants. However, a look at the "double-edged" use of human
rights shows how present-day rights can control and work as a "dynamic of power
distribution and redistribution". Such power shapes the emergence of the human rights
afforded to migrants as a category of socio-legal practice - looking at how South African
migration laws seem to resist the extension of human rights protection, and also looks at the
trend of associating migration and migrants with criminality. Trafficking has emerged as a
global theme contextualising migration in a framework of combating organised crime and
criminality, subordinating human rights protections to control and anti-crime measures.
This paper will look at the reasons why dealing with a rights and values based approach to
migration is difficult in a country that can be described as a highly xenophobic society, which
out of the fear of foreigners, does not naturally value the human rights of non-nationals. At
the same time, the paper will look at the new forms of social resistance that have been
developing for a human rights and value-centred approach to the rights of migrants. The
xenophobic phenomenon that resulted will be analysed against the backdrop of current
migration law in South Africa, and looking at how South Africa's human trafficking law is a
good example of the diaspora that exists between a ‘human-rights and values-based
paradigm' and that of a ‘law-enforcement and control paradigm' of migration policy."

Claudia Cirelli (France)
Title: "Right to earth versus right to Environment: the wastewater use in irrigated
agriculture and the protection of the environment in the outskirts of Mexican

Abstract: "This paper analyses the controversial approaches of the use of the wastewater in
irrigated agriculture and of the social and spatial system related to it. This use of
wastewater, a mode of treatment closely related to the modernization of cities of the end of
the XIXth and the beginning of the XXth century, is now regarded as hazardous.
Nevertheless this practice keeps spreading around fast growing cities and is often promoted
as an efficient tool of development policies. As far as the Mexican case is concerned it
analyses the links between those practices and urban and environmental policies. It also
studies the influence of those policies on the ways in which the actors of territories shaped
by wastewater use try to maintain their activities in suburban areas."

Claudia Maria Barbosa (Brazil)
Title: "Judicial Politics and Administration of Justice". "Política Judiciária e
Administração da Justiça."

Abstract: "The Working Group on Judicial Politics and Administration of Justice aims studies
the judicial system and its current judicial reforms in several countries. Justification: The
changing society has important consequences in the Judiciary. It emphasizes a crisis that
could be considered punctual in the Liberal State, became expanded in the Welfare State,
and in post-modernity threatens the very identity of the Judiciary. The crisis of the Judiciary
shall be considered in the context of the modern paradigm crisis, including sociological,
anthropological and historical perspectives which are being studied by the sociology of law.
The proposals for judicial reform that is implemented in several countries, especially Latin
Americans one, favor two distinct areas of analysis: the judicial politics, as instance of a
political theory of jurisdiction, which involves issues of power relations and political-
institutional within the State and the State with the Society; and the administration of
justice, which focuses on issues of organization and management of the Judiciary organs for
greater efficiency and effectiveness. From the perspective of the judicial politics, a judicial
reform must take into account the legal practice teaching in schools of law, the form of
recruitment of legal operators, the internal and external independence of judges and other
operators in the law, the technical training of lawyers and the construction of socio-political
legitimacy of the judiciary, the definition of apparent and latent functions of the judiciary in
society today. From the point of view of the administration of justice, the main obstacles to
optimal functioning of the Judiciary are material limitations (high cost to the courts and
general scarcity of resources for the efficient provision of service), deficiencies in the
management of service (training of officials, bureaucracy, opacity, lack of appropriate
technology), cost and delay in providing court (legislative inflation, inadequate judicial
review, outdated ordinary law, uncertainty in the decisions, among others). The proposal is
to study these different aspects in a group that has the Judicial System as privileged object
of analysis."
"O grupo de trabalho "Política Judiciária e Administração da Justiça" tem por objeto
específico de estudo o Sistema Judiciário e as reformas judiciárias em curso em vários
países. Justificativa: A sociedade em transformação traz importantes reflexos no Poder
Judiciário e acentua uma crise que se poderia dizer pontual no Estado Liberal, ampliou-se no
Estado Social, e na pós-modernidade ameaça a própria identidade do Poder Judiciário. A
crise do Judiciário deve ser analisada no contexto da crise do paradigma moderno,
comportando perspectivas sociológicas, antropológicas e históricas que a sociologia jurídica
vem procurando analisar. As propostas de reformas judiciárias que se vem implementando
em diversos países, especialmente latino-americanos, privilegiam dois âmbitos distintos de
análise: a política judiciária, como instância de uma teoria política da jurisdição, que envolve
as questões de poder e as relações político-institucionais no interior do Estado, e do Estado
com a Sociedade; e a administração da justiça, que enfoca as questões de organização e
gestão dos órgãos judiciários, em busca de sua maior eficiência e efetividade. Desde a ótica
da política judiciária, uma reforma do Judiciário deve levar em conta o ensino jurídico
praticado nas escolas de direito, a forma de recrutamento dos operadores jurídicos, a
independência interna e externa dos magistrados e demais operadores do direito; a
capacitação técnica dos advogados; a construção da legitimidade sócio-política do Judiciário,
a definição das funções aparentes e latentes do Poder Judiciário na sociedade atual. Desde o
ponto de vista da administração da justiça, os principais obstáculos ao funcionamento ótimo
do Judiciário são: restrições materiais (alto custo para o jurisdicionado e escassez
generalizada de recursos para a prestação eficiente do serviço), deficiências na gestão do

serviço prestado (capacitação dos funcionários, burocracia, opacidade, falta de tecnologias
adequadas), custo e morosidade na prestação jurisdicional (inflação legislativa, modelo
recursal inadequado, legislação infraconstitucional ultrapassada, insegurança nas decisões,
entre outros). A proposta é estudar esses diferentes aspectos em um grupo que tem o
Sistema Judiciário como objeto privilegiado de análise."

Claudia Maria Barbosa (Brazil)

Title: "The public hearing in Brazilian Judicial Power and its democratization."
Abstract: "The Brazilian Constitution, promulgated in 1988, was considered as the Citizen
Constitution. However, Brazilian society has witnessed a deficit of political participation in the
realization of the rights established therein. The public hearing is one of the constitutionally
provided for effective participation in such acts of legislation. This possibility has been
expanded to other institutions and spheres of public power through legal rules. The Law
9868/1999 which rules the judicial review to be performed by the STF, provided the
instrument when the Supreme Court deems advisable to hearing of expertise in specific
matters to implement its decisions. The first public hearing of the history of the STF was on
April 20, 2007, when they were heard 34 experts from different areas who sought to answer
the question "when life begins," to assess the constitutionality of research with embryonic
stem cells. This public hearing was an efficient mechanism for the participation of civil
society, because religious groups, scientists, academics, nongovernmental organizations
could defend their points of view for or against its constitutionality. The discussion influences
the trial, which ended with the decision by the constitutionality of research with embryonic
stem cells. The experience moved the discussion of the legal framework and has approached
the society of the performance of the Supreme Court of Brazil. On one side is a responsibility
imposed on the judicial power that had been only tangentially addressed; on the other side it
evidences the strength of civil society in controlling and defining the role of one of the
powers of the state. This situation opens up space to implement a citizenship still dormant.
Other initiatives of public hearing are occurring under the Public Ministry and the federal
government, which may show a new practice of society in the participatory role of public
Córa Hisae Hagino (Portugal)
Title: "Aventureiro Beach (Angra dos Reis- Brazil): a social and environmental

Abstract: "The study's object of this paper is the analysis of the social and environmental
conflict, which is located on Aventureiro Beach, in the south of Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis,
Rio de Janeiro State. It has been a fishermen village on this beach for more than one
century. However, in 1981 this area was transformed in an environmental conservation unity
where is not permitted human presence, the Praia do Sul Biological Reserve. This
environmental conservation unity was created without consulting the local population that
has lived there. For that reason, they have suffered a lot of limitations in their way of life,
because they could not fish, plant, hunt or construct houses. In 1990´s years when the
penitentiary was removed from Ilha Grande, the Aventureiro´s people began to develop
camping tourism. Actually, there is a tourist limit in this area and there is a process to
convert the "biological reserve" in another environmental conservation unity, where people
can live. The local population, ONGs, researchers and State participate in this process. In this
research, some participant observation was realized, by following the meetings and the daily
process of changing, as well as the lifestyle of this local population. This research has two
objectives. The fisrt one is to understand how the natives use the category "traditional
population" to recognize their land rights. And the second is to analyze the discourses,
tensions and conflicts in this process to criate another environmental conservation unity in
the same space: Aventureiro Beach."

Córa Hisae Hagino (Portugal)
Title: "Voluntarism and chaos in acess to justice: the trainees in Defensoria

Abstract: "The main point of this work is understanding the development of voluntarism and
chaos in a governmental office responsible for free judicial assistance directed to low income
people. Our social study's object is the trainee of this institution, which can be official or
volunteer. However, one can realize that the informal condition of these law students is not
one of the main concerns, as they help to develop an effective access to Justice. On the
other hand, the certificate offered by the institution doesn't seem to be the most important
aim of theses students, as they are really concerned on learning and acquiring experience.
The methodology consisted in visits to the Public Defense offices, interviews with public
defenders and employees and filling profiles in. The impact of this process in the law
students and how the chaos develops the access to Justice resulted in this research."

Criziany Machado Felix (Portugal)

Título: "Entre la orden y el progreso podrá el juez ser un emancipador?"
Abstract: "El estudio a ser presentado se basa en la inquietante pregunta de Boaventura de
Sousa Santos sobre poder el derecho ser una vía para la emancipación, discurre sobre la
matriz teórica del autor a cerca de la tensión entre regulación y emancipación, para
entonces, preguntar si el magistrado debe promover la emancipación en un Estado
democrático de derecho como el brasileño. El ensayo analiza los problemas a la luz del
emblema "orden y progreso" y de la actual Constitución Federal. La redemocratización y el
nuevo marco constitucional llevaran a una mayor credibilidad del uso de la vía judicial como
alternativa para alcanzar derechos. Así discutiremos si el modelo oriundo de la Carta
Constitucional de 1988 supera el positivismo jurídico y es capaz de superar, en parte, la
crisis de la modernidad: la absorción de la emancipación por la regulación."
Danielle Annoni (Brazil)
Title: "El quebranto de las patentes y las ONG's: entre la legalidad formal y el

Abstract: "El actual artículo pretende reflejar acerca de la tensión existente entre el derecho
de patentes y la posibilidad del quebranto bajo la alegación del interés social, en vista del
papel de las ONG's y del Estado de Derecho en una perspectiva de un mundo globalizado. El
estudio pretende analizar la demanda internacional que implica Brasil y los E.E.U.U., sobre el
quebranto de las patentes, por Brasil, de las medicinas usadas en el tratamiento de personas
infectadas con el virus VIH, así como su disposición para el consumo en los mercados
nacionales e internacionales, sobretodo en África, y el significado histórico, político, social y
jurídico de este proceso. Esta pelea tiene como objetivo presentar a la forma como las ONGs
en Brasil ayudaron en gobierno a defender moralmente su posición delante de la comunidad
internacional. La discusión propuesta pretende contribuir con los estudios referentes a la
aplicación los principios de la igualdad y de la justicia y sus nuevos conceptos en la sociedad
internacional globalizada."

Danielle Annoni (Brazil)
Title: "Tempo y Justicia: El tiempo como imperativo de eficacia jurídica."

Abstract: "El principal objetivo de este estudio es circunscribir el derecho de acceso a la
justicia en un plazo razonable. Se hace una reflexión respecto a la eficacia de este derecho,
objetivando definir su concepto y criterios de apuración y aplicación ante un caso concreto.
El tema se justifica por su relieve mundial, ubicándose entre la problemática del acceso a la
justicia en los Estados contemporáneos. Pretende atacar y minimizar los problemas
resultantes de la demora en la prestación de la justicia y, por consiguiente, desea reducir las
violaciones de los derechos humanos, sobretodo por la impunidad y por la injusticia oriundas
de esta demora. Además, se analisa la posición del Brasil y el reciente reconocimiento por la
Constitución Federal de 1988 del derecho de acceso a la justicia en plazo razonable. Las
conclusiones del trabajo demuestran la eficacia de este derecho, bastando, solamente, con
implementar reformas precisas y políticas públicas adecuadas a la garantía y efectivación de
los derechos humanos, en especial a la población carente. El presente estudio obtuvo
financiamiento de la CAPES para las investigaciones realizadas en el Exterior."

David Delvaux (Belgium)
Title: "Management et Justice:la mesure de la charge de travail des magistrats."

Abstract: "Les tribunaux belges sont depuis une décennie le théâtre de profondes
mutations. Le point de départ de cette vague réformatrice est généralement situé au
lendemain de l'affaire Dutroux (1998), qui a révélé au grand public les dysfonctionnements
de l'appareil pénal et inscrit la rénovation de la Justice à l'agenda politique. L'effort
réformateur s'est depuis lors essentiellement porté sur la question de la performance des
tribunaux et sur la transposition en leur sein de la philosophie et des méthodes du
management. Pour mener à bien ce processus, un arsenal de moyens de différentes natures
a été développé : structurels (mise en place de nouveaux organes comme le Conseil
Supérieur de la Justice ou la Commission de Modernisation de l'Ordre judiciaire), fonctionnels
(outil de mesure de la charge de travail, cercles de qualité, intégration des bases de données
judiciaires.) et humains (responsabilisation des chefs de corps, formation des juges et
greffiers au management.). Un ambitieux programme de décentralisation de la gestion des
juridictions (Plan Thémis) a également été annoncé par le gouvernement en 2003. L'objectif
de cette contribution sera de rendre compte des modalités de cette vague réformatrice au
travers l'analyse de la mise en place d'un outil de mesure de la charge de travail des
magistrats destiné au siège. L'ambition première de cet exposé sera d'analyser, dans une
perspective de sociologie des organisations (Friedberg : 1993), l'impact de ce nouveau
dispositif sur les « ordres locaux » établis au sein de chaque corps. Par ailleurs, en nous
inscrivant dans la lignée des travaux de sociologie de la gestion (Maugeri, Boussard : 2001),
nous envisagerons l'outil de mesure de la charge de travail comme un véritable dispositif de
gestion, favorisant l'émergence de représentations collectives susceptibles de fournir un
nouveau référant commun, un nouvel éthos professionnel."

David Kopel (USA)
Title: "Firearms Law and Policy: Global Perspectives."
"This panel examines some recent issues in firearms law and regulation. Papers
will deal with the United Nations, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zimbabwe, Italy, and
the United States."

David McCallum (Australia)

Title: "Punishing Welfare: prosecuting vulnerable children in Australia."
Abstract: "Child protection in Australia is reportedly in a state of crisis. The media regularly
provides commentary on escalating rates of child abuse, deaths of clients in child protection
services, and the use of the army and police in Northern Territory Indigenous communities,
all of which point to a child welfare system in crisis. In Victoria, legislative changes to child
protection have introduced new procedures for managing the state's child protection
services. Among its objectives, the legislation seeks to promote stable long-term care for
children through timely and more efficient family interventions. This paper places these
events in the historical context of recurring shifts in how the problem of child abuse is
calculated and acted upon. It draws particular attention to the evolution of new forms of
power deployed in relation to children, families and communities, which delimit the scope of
law, promote individual parental responsibility for the underlying arrangements affecting
child maltreatment, and secure the delivery of numbers of children into the criminal justice
David McCallum (Australia) and Gary Wickham (Australia)
Title: "Social Theroy and the Law."
Abstract: "This Workshop invites participants interested in the exploring the role of 'the
social' in relation to problems in socio-legal investigations. Starting points of investigation
might include the makeup of the law/society relation, and the fabrication of the social in
social work investigations of
and participants are welcome, and further enquiries may be made to"
David Restrepo Amariles (Colombia)
Title: "Transitional Justice and the global legal order: Colombian questions in a
global perspective."

Abstract: "The making of justice after violent conflicts and in time of transition faces in
today's global world a twofold challenge. On the one hand, the increasing and competing
number of (national) judicial forums willing to deal with victim's claims opens a new range of
possibilities that may convey the reproduction of social inequalities among plaintiffs, and the
breaking of a somehow desired and needed narrative coherence of truth. On the other hand,
non-centralized transitional justice may hinder successful reparations to victims. The lack of
a coherent legal framework and a homogenous institutional setting jeopardizes the progress
of claims in terms of facts, proofs, etc. within the different courts, while making more
difficult the execution of economic and symbolic reparation to victims. These challenges will
be addressed in the light of the current Colombian process of transitional justice, and
particularly, in the light of the several claims that Colombian victims have recently filed in
American Courts. The paper ends up by claiming that, in times of globalized legal and
economic orders, transitional justice has to be contextualized in terms of global law and
global justice."

David Whyte (UK)

Title: "State Crime in a State of Exception."
Abstract: "There can be no doubt that a 'state of exception' is visible in the political core of
the most powerful states. It is also clear that the state of exception is currently being
consolidated via the deployment of highly repressive and violent state counter-terror
strategies. It is therefore crucial to understand the extent to which the state of exception can
indeed be understood as representing the core of state power. This paper argues that
debates on the state of exception have so far ignored significant dimensions of state power:
on one hand, the covert (and unambiguously illegitimate) violent and criminal activities of
state agencies and on the other, the normative positioning of the state. This paper will argue
that those dimensions must be included in analyses of the state of exception as a means of
developing a more complete understanding of state power."
Débora da Cunha Piacesi (Portugal)
Título: "Constructing the ‘Enemy'."
Abstract: "This paper intends to discuss the ambiguous role of the State as a promoter of
violence, specially, regarding the construction of the "enemy figure" as advocated by
Günther Jakobs. In this way, this works wishes to reflect on questions such as: Is it
legitimate to see criminals as enemies? How would a State define the criminal that can be
perceived as a person from the one that will be taken as non-person? Who is really being
labeled as the enemy? The argument points to two important conclusions: one that the idea
to create a more repressive criminal system just for the "enemy" so that the citizens would
be protected from severe State intervention is having the opposite effect; and two that this
perverse effect puts the State on the role of the enemy. This analysis will be specially based
in the case of Brazil."
Débora da Cunha Piacesi (Portugal)
Título: "The permeability of the Brazilian Criminal Justice system to the culture of

Abstract: "This paper examines the culture of fear as a mechanism that, in a society of
passive classes, institutionalizes authoritarian continuity in a context of low-intensity
democracy as opposed to the democratic principles of criminal law guaranteed in the
Brazilian Constitution (Constitution of the Republic 1988). This analysis takes the
anniversaries of 20 years of the Constitution of the Republic and 60 years of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, both in 2008, to point to the positive progress in the various
existing rights related to criminal issue in Brazil, and, at the same time, draw attention to
certain mechanisms that can be hindering the implementation of such rights in Brazil,
increasing the distance between the discourse and the reality of the criminal justice system.
The formal speech is presented through the analysis of positive human rights in the Brazilian
Constitution. The remoteness of such discourse before the reality is presented through a
dialogue between the concepts of low intensity democracy of Boaventura de Souza Santos,
passive classes of society of Jesus-Maria Silva Sánchez, culture of fear and related influence
of the media, and risk in the context of reflexive modernization of Ulrich Beck. Finally, the
strengthening of citizenship is proposed as a form of resistance to the culture of fear, the
low-intensity democracy and the inaction of the classes. It points out the concept of
citizenship as the link capable of reducing the distance between the speech and the reality of
the penal system."
Débora da Cunha Piacesi (Portugal)
Título: "Ascension of what State? Arguing dichotomous theories in a complex

Abstract: "The analyses of what is contemporaneous demands the use of a whole new
vocabulary that sees society through the lenses of what is reflexive, as in Ulrich Beck; liquid,
as in Zygmunt Bauman; post-modern, at last. Having those notions in mind, it is possible to
reflect on the recent social diagnosis that read society in a quite linear and dichotomous way.
On this paper, we choose to analyze two of these ideas. The first, defended by Zygmunt
Bauman and Loic Wacquant, that modern State is on a transformation process of coming
from a Social State to becoming a Penal State; and the second, as proposed by Pierre
Guibentif, that what we see, in fact, is a change from a Rule of law and Penal State to this
new model that is neither so based on law nor in punishment. The aim of this paper is to
critically analyze those two theories; to question the adequacy of adopting wide range
dichotomous theories to explain the modern state; and to propose that, given
contemporaneous complexity of a reflexive and liquid world, all these theories are, at the
same time, operating and governing risks, fears and dangers."
Deepika Murali (India) and Tanushree Bhatnagar (India)
Title: "Gender, Migration and Globalization: Studying the Trends within this

Abstract: "Migration in this era of globalization is very hard to regulate. Poverty, illiteracy,
genocide and various other reasons push people to migrate from one region to another. The
effects of migration are different on men and on women. Work opportunities available are
different for both genders and so are the wages in certain cases.
Another important facet is that migrant women get employed in unregulated sectors like
domestic work, sex industry, etc. This puts them out of the purview of the public eye. It is
difficult of determine how many women work in such sectors and what their living conditions
are. This leads to a lot of under-age employment, child prostitution, child labour, etc.
This paper seeks to study and analyze the dynamics gender plays in the field of migration in
this age of rampant globalization. The paper states the importance of gender-sensitive
migration laws to be followed and recommends for the scope of such a law to be widened to
cover the unregulated sector."

Diana Fernandes (Portugal)

Title: "Transition, organized crime and immigration: the criminogenic
characteristics of the economic transition in post-soviet countries and the
idiosyncrasies of criminal organizations."

Abstract: "This paper intends to offer a contribution to the debate on the connections
between immigration and criminality. The exercise is made by means of a conceptual
overview and consequent reflections on the criminogenic characteristics of the economic
transition in the former Soviet Union countries and its connection to the growth/means of
development of (transnational) criminal organizations within that space, as well as its impact
in the characteristics of such organizations. The analysis that is proposed by this work has, in
my opinion, its relevant role in the context of the European Union, not only due to the new
members-states and to the vast number of immigrants coming from post-Soviet countries
and the so-called satellite-countries, but moreover due to the assessed activity of the
referred criminal organizations within the Schengen space, affecting both immigrants and
Diana Milena Villegas (Colombia / Francia)
Title: "Migrants, citizens of non-droit or citizens without rights?"
"The immigrants have a polyvalent relation with the law, regardless of their
condition or status (undocumented immigrants, economic immigrants, refugee seekers,
temporary status, etc). This involves a very complex relationship with the law because that
can get them involved in situations of non-droit or in a different situation such as absence of
rights, as instrumental use of law. Also, this multiple relationship places the immigrant,
depending of his status and others criteria -i.e., age, sexe, religion, acculturation degree and
others- , in situations of legal pluralism which can show us several tensions between the
claiming of the citizenship and the redefinition of this one. In this way, the hypothesis of
non-droit and legal pluralism are going to be useful to rebuild the concept of citizenship
placed inside the immigrant populations and to guarantee the construction of a more
democratic model. The objective is to examine some of the legal pluralism and non- droit
cases to explore the conflicts in the host society and the possibilities of a new concept of
citizenship as well as the right guarantees. For this purpose, I propose to study the French
immigration context and some examples that can show us specific situations of law, culture
and migration collision in this complex and contemporary society."
Abstract: "Inmigrantes, ¿ciudadanos de non-droit o ciudadanos sin derechos? Los
inmigrantes, sin importar cual sea su situación frente al país de acogida, siempre tendrán
una relación polivalente frente al derecho. Esta condición implica una relación compleja con
el derecho en sí, en tanto pueden encontrarse en situaciones de non-droit como en
situaciones de ausencia de derecho y de usos instrumentales del mismo. Además, esta
múltiple situación relacional hace que el inmigrante, esta vez dependiendo de su estatuto -
entre otros criterios -, pueda encontrase en situaciones tanto de pluralismo normativo como
de pluralismo jurídico, dejando entrever así las tensiones que se presentan frente a la
reclamación de una ciudadanía y la redefinición de la misma. De esta manera, y partiendo de
las hipótesis de non-droit, pluralismo jurídico y pluralismo normativo, se intentará
profundizar en la construcción de la noción de ciudadanía desde el punto de vista de los
inmigrantes y la garantía un modelo democrático acorde con el reconocimiento de la
alteridad. El objetivo será el de examinar algunos de los casos de pluralismo jurídico y non-
droit, para así explorar los conflictos suscitados en la sociedad de acogida y las posibilidades
de un nuevo concepto de ciudadanía, al igual que la situación de la garantía de derechos.
Para este fin, se propone el estudio del contexto migratorio en Francia y algunos de los
ejemplos de esta sociedad compleja que puedan ilustrar situaciones específicas de colisión
entre derecho, cultura y migración."

Dicle Kogaciouglu (Turkey)
Title: "Law and Social Change in Turkey."
"The last twenty years of Turkey saw important changes in the Turkish socio-legal
scene. With the process of democratization that the EU accession process implied, the
'secular' nature of the Republic has become questionable for many in an environment where
both the non-Sunni minority as well as the Sunni Muslim majority started to voice dissent
against official policies on state-church relationship. Some changes have to do with the
judicial and political impact of European Court of Human Rights. Closer examination of the
rulings of the Turkish Constitutional Court and court of Cassation reveals a pattern of
resistance through inappropriate references. In the same era establishment of regulatory
boards meant the formulation of old legal problems in new terms. Simultaneously issues of
access to justice have gained a new prevalence. This panel is built on case studies of these
dynamics seeking to engage critically with some of the coordinates of the socio-legal changes
of recent years."

Eduardo Faria Silva (Brasil)

Title: "El derecho cooperativo y las políticas económicas dependientes en América

Abstract: "El trabajo tiene por objetivo el análisis de las legislaciones cooperativas como un
elemento clave para la implementación y consolidación de las políticas económicas en Brasil,
con variaciones, a partir de una posible matriz única, en la América Latina. El análisis que se
desarrollará se concentra, en un primer momento, en el tiempo cuando fue publicado, en
Brasil, la Ley de Cooperativas n º 5764/71, pues su contenido posibilitó la efectuación del
modelo de desarrollo agro-exportador y empresarial, que comenzó en el decenio de 1960 y
se consolidó en el decenio de 1970. La realidad política y la economía de América Latina
presentaba, en este período, identidad en relación con la transformación de la matriz
tecnológica aplicaba en la agricultura. La reestructuración de la política y de la economía en
el mundo, desencadenada el final de la década de 1970 y que se presenta en América Latina
(especialmente Brasil, Argentina, Chile y Mexico) a finales de 1980, deflagro, en un segundo
momento, una serie de cambios legislativos que, también, fueran articuladas en el campo del
cooperatismo, para reafirmar el modelo agro-exportador y empresarial, ahora estructurado
para la producción exclusiva de los "commodities". Esta situación plantea dos grandes
conjuntos de problemas teóricos. En primer lugar, entender los elementos históricos
existentes en la América Latina en los años 1960 y 1970 y que se tradujo, en el caso
brasileño, en la publicación de la Ley N º 5764/71 y, después, permitieron la permanencia
integral de sus efectos, mismo después de la promulgación, en 1988, de la Constitución de la
República Federativa de Brasil, manteniendo instituciones creadas para operar relaciones
entre las cooperativas y el Estado dictatorial y regulando relaciones dentro de las sociedades
cooperativas, y entre ellas, con la asistencia de las interpretaciones jurídicas que contradicen
las normas (principios y reglas) constitucional. En segundo lugar, entender la nueva matriz
política y económica que se llevaran a cabo en la América Latina, en el final de los años de
1980, para comprender cuál es su relación con las leyes y los proyectos de leyes que tienen
por objeto definir las nuevas políticas nacionales del cooperativismo, investigando, aún, si
hay alguna conexión entre los textos objeto de debate en varios países del continente."

Eduardo Luis Aguirre (Argentina)
Título: "RAC en cárceles: Del martirio cotidiano a las estrategias dialógicas de

Abstract: "La convivencia forzada de miles de personas en contextos de encierro, la
diversidad y el multiculturalismo de la población reclusa, la superpoblación y el
hacinamiento, las lógicas administrativas, unitarias y militarizadas de la agencia
penitenciaria, son actos que inciden objetivamente en la violencia cotidiana de las prisiones.
Los conflictos de intereses, la disputa permanente por la asignación de roles y jerarquías, la
lucha por la visibilización, son elementos que contribuyen a que los conflictos se salden
imponiendo visiones unilaterales y violentas. Por el contrario, la posibilidad de devolver esos
conflictos a los interesados, la dotación previa de insumos y capacidades para resolver la
conflictividad mediante el recurso a estrategias dialógicas, donde la justicia restaurativa, la
comprensión y la restauración sean los paradigmas fundamentales a partir e los cuales se
diriman las diferencias, supone un desafío tan original como complejo. Que intentará no sin
dificultades, romper con la dialéctica acción/reacción, de ordinario hegemónica, y sustituirla
por una nueva cultura que reivindique al conflicto como una potencialidad y no como un
Eduardo Luis Aguirre (Argentina)
Título: "Derecho y cambio social: discursos, prácticas y espacio público."
Abstract: "El cambio de relación de fuerzas políticas en América Latina, con gobiernos
populares que se diferencian marcadamente de las gestiones tributarias del Consenso de
Washington y el neoliberalismo de la década pasada, obliga a repensar el derecho, sus
narrativas y sus prácticas, las nuevas formas de impartir justicia y la resignificación de una
democracia que se manifiesta, con idéntica pretensión de legitimidad, en calles y rutas, en
escarches y marchas, en blogs y sitios virtuales donde coexisten tendencias a una
profundización de las formas democráticas con proclamas destituyentes y una cultura de la
enemistad que exigen una reinterpretación continua de las categorías jurídicas."
Elena Greco (Italy)
Título: "Búsqueda del Enemigo: posibles tendencias en el País Vasco."
Abstract: "Interpretación de la teoría del Derecho penal del Enemigo de G. Jakobs: el utilizo
del arma de la legalidad contra una específica categoría social en nombre de la defensa de
los valores comunes. Justificación de la perdida de garantias fundamentales en el
tratamiento procesual."
Eliana Patrícia Branco (Portugal) and João Pedroso (Portugal)
Title: "Law is not enough! The Portuguese system of access to family and child
"Confronted with new scenarios, moulded under the signs of flexibility, fluidity and
plurality, family and child law is called upon to answer to new questions, still indeterminate
and undefined, that manifest themselves inside a two-fold dynamics - privatization and
deinstitutionalization of family relations, on one hand, and (re)publicness, on the other.
These transformative velocities - one rapid and one more moderate, respectively family and
family regulation - are accompanied of a third one, moving at a slower pace - the system of
access to family and child law and justice, without which effectiveness of rights cannot be
guaranteed and citizenship cannot be fully exercised. It is, therefore, important to
understand what kind of mechanisms citizens can make use of in order to defend their
rights. What we find in this important social area is a plurality of mechanisms, public and
private, that perform their services in and out of the judicial system. This network of services
(complementary and interdisciplinary) offers a wide-ranging set of mechanisms that aim at
safeguarding and promoting universal principles and fundamental rights, especially those of
the more vulnerable families, the main beneficiaries of the legal aid public system. It has, as
well, the purpose of defending and promoting the rights of every family and child, which is
done by the Public Prosecution, by the Commissions for the Protection of children, by the
family mediation system or by the mechanisms offered either by the market or the
community. The 'map' we have elaborated and the insufficiencies we have encountered can
act as a research agenda to be developed in the near future, in order to recognize the
potentialities and the frailties of a law that is effective, accessible and promotes citizenship."

Elida de Oliveira Lauris dos Santos (Portugal)
Title: "Reform of the justice and social transformation: an overview of access to
justice and law in Sao Paulo."

Abstract: "Over the last century in different countries, programs of public access aspired to
universal provision of legal services with the aim of, first, to ensure equal legal assistance to
poor and, moreover, contribute to the guarantee of equality under the law and social change,
encouraging the use of justice to defend the interests of class, diffuse and collective.
However, it has consolidated the perception among the authors that the current phase of the
programs and strategies of the State of access to justice is the reduction of public financing,
limiting the guarantee of legal services by the State only to those in greatest need. The
debate on the optimal cost of justice reflected in the dynamics of the access programs has
deflected on proposals for the creation of alternative legal assistance and support (emphasis
on private assistance at the expense of support for construction of a career devoted to public
assistance, financing of legal assistance to insurance companies, investment in
empowerment of citizens, etc.). From the study of access to justice initiatives in the city of
Sao Paulo, this paper will be guided by two main questions: When the strategies for
universal access to justice are replaced by alternative models of legal aid and the reduction
of recipients of public access programs, can we still aim the guarantee of equality in law and
through it? What is the role being played by organized civil society in law mobilization in view
of the social transformation?"

Ferdinando Spina (Italy)

Title: "Italian environmental conflicts. A socio-legal perspective."
Abstract: "In Italy there are hundreds of environmental conflicts that are blamed for
blocking the economic and social development in the country. Given distinctive landscape,
urbanization, population density, the urban areas and environment concepts are quite
different in Italy from other countries. In this paper, I examine the legal disputes concerning
major Italian environmental conflicts of the last years. Firstly, I focus my attention on actors,
facilities and escalation of conflicts; secondly, I analyze the implementation of environmental
law, the enforcement style, the level of citizen participation, the political interference; finally,
I highlight the broad set of political, juridical and cultural belief about the environment, the
city, the urban and economic development."

Flora Di Donato (Italy)
Title: "The judicial narratives between cooperation and conflict."

Abstract: "Recent Anglo-American approaches to socio-legal theory have revived awareness
in the fact that the law directly affects the lives of the individuals to which it is directed, their
very own ‘stories'. A shift is occurring from the abstract nature of the law towards the facts,
the day-to-day happenings, aiming at a better understanding of just how these become legal
Empirical research is geared towards professional practices and contexts of law production,
taking its starting point from the conviction that the construction of judicial meanings comes
about not only from the decision of the judge but also within the activities which precede or
are, in any case, outside the official context, such as the lawyer's practice.
Following post-modern trends in the study of law, the research aims to take into
consideration the development of theoretical orientations merging sociological, psychological
and anthropological approaches with the observation of judicial practices.
In line with the theory of the "narrative construction of reality", the work focuses on "fact
finding" as the result of a joint interaction between social actors (client, lawyer and judge)
within the framework of the 'judicial proceeding'.
Thanks to a qualitative approach, the study intends to trace the birth and the evolution of
judicial narratives, as well as the different facets of the interaction between client, lawyer
(and judge) according to the roles they play in the construction of the legal story.
Concerning the social and cultural dimensions of the relationships between the judicial actors
the research could contribute to demonstrate that not only is the law intimately involved in
the constitution of social relations but also the law itself is constituted trough social relations.
The investigation will focus on labour law and family law cases through the analysis of their
relevant official documents and of the transcripts of interviews with clients and lawyers."

Florencia García Paz (Argentina)

Título: "Género, Trabajo y Derecho."
Abstract: "Los temas que puede abarcar la sesión incluyen desde la división sexual del
trabajo, entre trabajo de mercado y trabajo doméstico o cuidados, la estratificación del
trabajo remunerado con base en el gánero, la feminización del mercado laboral, la
flexibilización del mismo, etc. Desde un enfoque de género, teniendo en cuenta los roles y
desigualdades con base en el género, o desigualdades intra-género. Podrán tratarse los
temas desde el feminismo o desde los modelos masculinidad, etc."
Florencia García Paz (Argentina)
Título: "El trabajo a tiempo parcial y la vida familiar desde una perspectiva

Abstract: "En la presente ponencia se analiza la regulación del trabajo a tiempo parcial
desde un enfoque feminista, teniendo en cuenta que es una modalidad contractual
predominantemente femenina. Se plantea que el modelo de trabajador del derecho laboral,
como trabajador con contrato indefinido y jornada a tiempo completo, es masculino y no
considera a la vida familiar y los trabajos domésticos y de cuidado, históricamente asociados
al rol que las mujeres tienen en la sociedad. El análisis del trabajo a tiempo parcial será
descrito desde tres puntos de vista que están interrelacionados: como una modalidad
precaria de empleo, como una forma de conciliación entre la vida laboral y familiar y desde
su naturaleza de género. También se analizarán las distintas medidas de conciliación como
los permisos de maternidad y paternidad, la excedencia para cuidar niños, etc. Y se observa
que los servicios de cuidado brindados por el estado están en situación de precariedad.
Asimismo, estos servicios están diseñados fundamentalmente para que solo concilien las
mujeres y no buscan promover la participación masculina en el trabajo doméstico y de
cuidado. Se plantea que la poca intervención de los hombres y la precariedad de las medidas
de conciliación se vinculan con la feminización del trabajo a tiempo parcial ya que por su
jornada reducida permite dicha conciliación."
Francesca Scamardella (Italy)
Title: "The reflexive approach as a theoretical model in time of socio-legal crisis."
Abstract: "Starting from the crucial contemporary dilemma that is the crisis of 'formal
rationality'(Weber et alii: 1978), which consists in the inadequacy of law (and, in particular,
of the positive law) with respect to the complexity of the society, in terms of social structures
and systems interacting each other, I will try to analyze Teubner's model of the reflexive law
(Teubner: 1993) as a possible approach to the socio-legal crisis. The increase of social actors
(art, economy, transnational actors) looking for normative validity (Teubner: 2005) is
showing the incapacity of the substantive law, in terms of impossibility in regulating every
social demand. What we need is a mediation between formal law and rationality - i.e.
procedural mechanisms - that is able to legitimate political power and to generate
equilibrium among all political and social forces. This is the theoretical Teubnerian approach,
developed in his main thesis: the reflexive way whose main quality is to operate "by shaping
the organization of collective bargaining, defining procedural norms, and limiting or
expanding the competencies of the collective actors" (Teubner: 1983). The "reflexive"
character of the modern law emerges in terms of a new flexibility of law: it gives only the
external frame - static in its last borders but flexible inside - and, so doing, law gives only
"models for deciding about the decisions, regulating the regulations, establish structure
premises for the future decisions in terms of organizations, procedures and, competences".
(Ferrari: 1993). Could reflexive law become the theoretical model to approach the
contemporary socio-legal crisis?"
Françoise Vanhamme (Canada)
Title: "Sentencing. Telling in Law, telling the Law."
"La communication proposée présente certains développements d'une recherche
doctorale sur la détermination de la peine (Vanhamme, 2006). La perspective est
sociocognitive et appréhende le juge comme un acteur social qui puise le sens de la peine et
sa détermination dans le caractère macrostucturant de son contexte d'activité. Des
observations ont été menées durant 8 mois dans deux tribunaux correctionnels de Belgique.
La littérature sur le sentencing a montré les disparités dans les peines. Ce faisant, elle
souligne l'importance du pouvoir discrétionnaire, comme si c'était un effet de l'incapacité à
se limiter aux règles légales. Quelles sont les relations entre la règle de droit et le pouvoir
discrétionnaire dans le processus de détermination de la peine ? C'est ce que nous allons
discuter en partant de la gravité d'un acte, qui est toujours présentée comme le facteur légal
de poids dans la mesure de la peine. Notre recherche montre que c'est une interprétation,
une procédure « de sens commun » éloignée de la seule dimension légale objective et sur
laquelle viennent se greffer la forme juridique et la qualification de l'acte. Elle est donc
rétrospectivement légalisée. Le rôle du juge, en ce sens, est de « dire en droit ». Mais ce
faisant, il actualise le droit lui-même et par conséquent l'ordonnancement social par le droit
s'en voit reconduit. Le juge a alors aussi « dit le droit ». Le pouvoir discrétionnaire du juge
apparaît ainsi de façon importante mais il est toutefois modélisé par la force cognitive et
affiliative du droit."
Frédéric Schoenaers and and Cerfontaine Gaëtan (Belgium)
Title: "Therapeutic projects in Belgium mental health sector: a post-bureaucratic

Abstract: "Since the end of the 1980s, a new vision of mental health has been developed
under the influence of the Belgian "Psychiatry" permanent work group of the National Council
of Hospital Facilities. This new vision adopts a holistic perspective which takes into account
the diversity of factors at stake and aims to give a central place to the patient and his or her
needs. The principles on which this innovative vision lies fall within an international trend
(among other developed in the WHO declaration of Helsinki) which aims to put the patient at
the centre of the system but also in field actor practices. This vision is made concrete in a
restructuring of mental health care sector in terms of care circuits and networks, which
necessitates an "interinstitutional" and interdisciplinary cooperation. With this approach the
old bureaucratic model of organising a sector would be replaced by a post-bureaucratic one
marked by notions such as networking or negotiation. The "Therapeutic projects", organised
by a Royal Decree in 2006 after a long term decision making process, constitute the
experimental phase of this new mental health care concept. It is a wide ranging pilot project
which aims to achieve, by the end of the three-year experimental phase, the definition of
guidelines and the implementation of norms as regards mental health care circuits and
networks. The purpose of this contribution is to (1) give a presentation of the mechanisms
which have lead to the creation and implementation of the therapeutic project. Using a case
study method, we will also (2) analyse the functioning of a therapeutic project, showing at
the one hand the tensions between the philosophy of the project (network functioning and
flexibility) and the technocratic temptation developed by the administration which funds
them, and, at the other hand, we will also examine how the "traditional" psychiatric
rationality is able to maintain its central position in a context where other fields and actors
should emerge. Finally, (3) as the data that we present have been collected during a FP6
integrated research project which aims to analyse the links between (new forms of)
knowledge and policy making, we will develop a methodological discussion about the way
sociology (of law) can trace the place and role of knowledge in policy making."
Gary Wickham (Australia)
Title: "What is the role of 'society' in the law-society relation?"
"This paper begins with a refusal: 'society', or 'the social', cannot be taken for
granted as an object of academic study, not least by those interested in the intersection
between law and society. One cannot assume, for example, that the law is necessarily social,
thereby allowing it to be a seen-but-not-heard presence in socio-legal investigations. No, the
nature of society, as a separate domain, needs to be carefully examined, to determine in just
what way it might be thought of as an independent component of the law-society relation. I
have been investigating the nature of society for at least five years and have published a
number of articles on this question, particularly on the relation of society to law. In this
paper I will summarise three key findings from my investigations. First, the basic social-as-
interaction understanding of society - the interaction of two or more humans and the traces
in time and space of their interactions - is of limited value for socio-legal inquiries, though it
is not without its appeal. It struggles to establish a stand-alone domain of society, such that
it is not possible to distinguish society from morality, law, politics, culture, etc. Second, in
the face of this difficulty the majority of those who inquire into socio-legal matters are too
content to simply let morality take over society, usually under the influence of Kant or
Durkheim (or perhaps one of their followers, such as, Rawls, Dworkin, MacIntrye, or
Cotterrell). And third, not enough attention is being paid to the well-established politico-legal
account of society. By this account, developed, in different ways, by Hobbes, Pufendorf,
Thomasius, Weber, and a few others, society is not morality, but is a separate and distinct
sphere in which different moral projects can co-exist only because a combination of politics
and law - the combination that eventually produced modern sovereignty as a way of ending
the massive bloodshed in Europe born of competing moral and religious visions of the good
life - created it (society) as a sphere of relative safety and freedom. As such, society, in this
important 'civil peace' sense, is fragile and does not exist in all countries. It follows from this
that because society relies on law and politics (and on the uneasy equilibrium between them)
society cannot include the law and the law cannot include society."

Gavin Kendall (Australia)
Title: "From Cosmopolitan Law to Cosmopolitics: a Case Study in Medical Tourism."
"This paper discusses a variety of attempts to move between legal settings and
forms of cosmopolitan personhood. The law is commonly seen as a crucial resource in any
cosmopolitan project; but it is clear that a new type of law - cosmopolitan law - must be
invented to govern the mobile elite who easily move between countries, and potentially
escape legal and financial regulation. Having established the codependence of
cosmopolitanism and cosmopolitan law, the paper moves to a case study in medical tourism.
Two example of medical tourism - in which patients travel around the globe for
xenotransplants or for treatments involving human embryonic stem cells - are discussed,
with a focus on the demand for (but the impossibility of) the global regulation of dangerous
medical treatments. The paper concludes that these forms of 'cosmopolitan' medicine draw
our attention to the ways in which cosmopolitanism is extremely likely to morph into extreme
forms of selfish individualism."

Geoffrey Leane (New Zealand)

Title: "A New, Transnational Public for a New World Order? Possibilities for
transnational political discourse in the electronic age."

Abstract: "This paper considers the potential of the Internet for providing an alternative
political space through which a newly empowered transnational public may assert itself. The
internet offers enormous potential for empirical data gathering and dissemination, but also
for narrative exchange. There is potential for an accessible public space for open, reflective
and constructive conversations about pressing issues of the day. It may be that this new
communicative medium can empower a new critical public and thereby further the task of
deliberative democracy in narrowing the divide between the drives and motivations of
citizens (both national and cosmopolitan) and the political decisions made in their names.
There are, however, significant difficulties arising from the nature of the medium and its
ability to meet certain conditions in discourse theory. The paper will consider these problems
and suggest solutions using examples of issue-based information systems."
Germano Schwartz (Brasil)
Título: "The Law System in Brazil and it's De-differentiation."
"It is this paper's intent to analyse the way a communication could be identified
by the legal system as pertaining to its functional differentiation. In this sense, the notion of
an operational closure does not eliminate a cognitive openness. Thus, the obervation of the
question will follow two basic paths: (1) the set up of a red-light district will be observed
taking into account Brazil's social reality; (2) the answer given to this question by the theory
of autopoietic system wll be analysed from the pont of view of Brazilian law. This limitation is
justified by the fact that the autopoiesis of legal systems in peripheral countries is virtually
nonexistent. It is the reason for a symbolic constitutionalisation whose effect is a de-
juridicizing constitutional reality, highly damaging to the evolution of Brazilian law and

Grazyna Skapska (Poland)

Title: "Democratic Rule of Law, Economic Transformation and Corruption."
Abstract: "According to the famous argument of Max Weber, there is a strong an direct
connection between the rule f law and economic success: the establishment of the rule of law
facilitates the functioning of an efficient economy/Indeed, as Max Weber argued,
establishment of rationallegal order and formation of law-based political authority presented
important factors which explain rapid economic growth. However, recent developments in
Eastern an Central Europe (and elsewhere) especially privatization of state-owned property
challenge a simplistic understanding of the Weberian argument. The sheer amount of
property to be privatized, and the strong interests involved make the rule of law toothless,
especially if the state is weak. Moreover, the very principle of the rule of law becomes
questionalble if the law represents a product of dominating interests, in the context of
political capitalism. Thus, instead of the law controlled privatization of national property, one
observes growing corruption, nepotism and clientelism as important mechanisms of law-
making. Additionally, the weakness of government, above all the weakness of law-applying
and law-enforcing agencies. And the traditional, formalistic unerstanding of the rule of law
principle contribute to pathologies of economic transfromation and consequently, to
constitutional instability in Eastern and Central Europe."
Gursharan Singh Virk (India)
Title: "The Intermingled Labryinth: International law, Migration and Human

Abstract: "This paper reviews the actual and legal situation of international migrants in
relation to their enjoyment of human rights. It starts from the position that respect for
human rights, the rule of law and core labour standards are essential to political stability and
to social and economic development. Globalisation has encouraged the free movement of
goods, services and capital, but barriers to the cross-border movement, particularly of
unskilled workers, remain and globalisation of markets has not been accompanied by
globalisation of the work force. This has produced a discordance between the number of
individuals who migrate and the legal opportunities for them to do so. In many situations
there is a gap between the rights which migrants, both regular and irregular, enjoy under
international law, and the difficulties they experience in the countries where they live, work,
and across which they travel. This gap between the principles agreed by governments, and
the reality of individual lives, underscores the vulnerability of migrants in terms of dignity
and human rights. The paper examines the different ways in which international migration
and human rights intersect, both in countries of origin, transit and destination, and in
relation to particular socioeconomic groups. It then reviews the protection given to migrants'
rights under international law - human rights law, labour standards, criminal law and through
diplomatic protection - and their duties to host societies. It considers the role of human
rights as a policy tool in current migration discussions, suggests some elements of a rights
based approach to migration, and identifies 'good practices' at the national, regional and
international levels. The paper identifies as an over-riding priority the need to create a
situation in which migration can take place in conditions of dignity, and become an informed
choice, rather than a strategy of survival - even desperation - in an economically asymmetric
world, as it is today for many migrants."
Guy Osborn (UK) and Peter Robson (UK)
WG Law and Popular Culture
Title: "Developments in Law and Popular Culture."
Abstract: "Drawing upon the 2008 Worshop of the Working Group of Law and Popular
Culture, this session will cover areas of contemporary research within this broad field."

Heike Jung (Germany)

Title: "Rituals Forever?"
Abstract: "The revival of rituals is omnipresent in public and scientific discourse. The
„cultural turn" has sensitized us for the cultural embeddednesss of social life. Apparently,
rituals provide orientation and stability even in the world of rationality. In particular, „justice
and ritual" seems to be a never-ending story. Still, we don't step into the same river twice
(Heraclitus). This requires not only a modernisation of judicial rituals, but also a prudent
approach as to the dosage. It can only be an additive in a system which otherwise operates
on the basis of transparency, good reasoning, truth finding, and procedural justice."
Helenara Braga Avancini (Brazil)
Title: "The Complexity of protecting intellectual property within collaborative

Abstract: "The emergence of information and communication technologies and its
widespread use within the various human activities radically changed the way we sense and
perceive the world. This is particularly relevant in the business sector in which the
widespread use of computers and the internet changed forever the way people do business
and access information. As a consequence new business models were created which are
inherently dynamic and volatile. Collaborative networks are one of the most important
manifestations of this trend in business, which are characterised by highly dynamic systems
in which individuals or companies can join or leave depending on the available business
opportunities. However systems that change frequently, in which some of its components
can appear or disappear are natural grounds for complexity. This is particularly true for the
body of law that needs to be defined to govern relationships among individuals or groups. At
the same time that information and contents travel across the internet and are transformed
into other creations, the growing number of collaborative networks have more and more
difficulty in protecting the creations of their collective or individual members. One challenge
resides in the fact that these members could be members of full right at creation time but
eventually become outsiders to the collaborative structure. As the intellectual property right
confers to creators the exclusive right of exploiting their creations, the complexity of the
problem to be addressed within this paper is on understanding if it is possible or
recommendable to institute law mechanisms to hinder excess of ownership rights."

Herbert Kritzer (USA)
Title: "Resolution of Business and/or International Disputes."
"We will discuss on ways in which business disputes in domestic and international
settings are resolved and how lawyers are involved in them."

Hideki Tarumoto (Japan)
"Care Migrants, Immigration Policy and Human Rights in Japan."
"Under globalisation, all countries in the world struggle to regulate migration flows
and to deal with human rights issues. With facing the dilemma of migrant regulation and
human rights, Japan has been relatively successful in closing its border in post-war era.
Although Japan received some immigrants with underestimating human rights of them, it has
not welcomed unskilled immigrants but few skilled immigrants. There are some reasons for
Japanese success in closing its border. The main reason is the powerful ministry in charge,
the Ministry of Justice, which retains the dogma of immigration policy that Japan must not
introduce unskilled immigrants. I argue that the Ministry of Justice embodies "singular
bureaucratic sovereignty". However, the dilemma of immigration policy strongly attacks
Japan recently. Japan finally began to introduce care workers who are categorised into
"unskilled workers" by the Ministry, from Indonesia and the Philippines. This introduction will
lead to profound change not only in the public sphere but also in the private sphere such as
family relations. In addition, human rights of female care workers would come up as an
issue. Why did Japan launch the introducing programme of care workers? Did Japan throw
away its dogma of ban against unskilled workers? How should Japan consider human rights
of unskilled workers? Through the case of care immigrants to Japan, this paper discusses as
to how the state can deal with the dilemma of immigration policy and human rights."

Hsiaotan Wang (Taiwan)
Title: "Preliminary Investigation of Taiwan's Trial Culture."
"Taiwanese law has adopted (or transplanted from) plural legal systems
(Japanese, Continental, Chinese and Anglo-American) in the past 100 years. Today the
statutes and regulations are all in "modern" style and people are gradually willing to use law
to resolve their everyday conflicts. The question is the way people's legal minds change
along with the "modern" law in the context of wider East Asia legal experiences. This paper
attempts to inquire the features of legal culture in Taiwanese court, with special references
to the transformation of battered women's "self perception" in a macrodiscourse level. The
analysis is based on empirical records of conversations between judges, applicants and
respondents in 30 Protection Order trials. With this microdiscourse analysis, this paper
attempts to uncover the fetures of Taiwanese legal discourse and its cultural form of self-
transformation for battered women whose legal consciousness are mostly within the family
morality and group-oriented self-identity."

Iker Barbero (Bilbao)
Title: "When conflict redraws citizenship: notes about the struggles of
undocumented immigrants."

Abstract: "Modern citizenship has been traditionally presented as a legal and political
instrument for inclusion. However, facts have shown that the expansion of citizenship has
been a product of exclusion and a result of conflict. The aim of this paper is to analyze the
concept of citizenship that the sinpapeles movement in Barcelona reclaims through shut ups
(encierros), demonstrations and hunger strikes. The demand of free movement of people
across borders and universal rights point toward a redefinition of aliens' law. This case study
will some light to the expansion of citizenship through struggle."

Iker Barbero (Bilbao) and Chiara Calderoni (Italia)
Título: "Conflicts of citizenship and Migration in the 21st Century": Oñati
"Contemporary migrations have surfaced many social, legal and political
complexities around the category of nation-state, and especially around one of its principal
pillars, citizenship. Formal legal status of citizen or national is being shifted by double, or
even, multiple citizenships. Transnational social, political and legal bounds are created,
challenging the modern idea of identity or belonging. The concession of citizenship rights to
certain aliens is creating new categories "in between", that on the one hand is incorporating
newcomers to the host society, but at the same time, is resulting in some kind of "civic
stratification" where undocumented immigrants are trapped in a permanent limbo of non
existence. Riots, strikes and other mechanisms of struggle are some of the means that these
last ones remain to ensure that their voice is heard. The objective of this panel is to explore
which are some of these conflicts that arise, how are nation-states and migrant collectives
reacting or interacting, and whether the modern concept of citizenship is being redefined."

Irene Strazzeri (Italy)

Title: "The clash of rights: sexual violence and ethnic prejudice."
Abstract: "The global spread of the recent financial crisis reveals the crisis of the social
model at the base of Western societies. This can be seen from the increased social inequality
and poverty, linked to increasing rates of unemployment levels within the so-called advanced
capitalistic society. These societies, particularly the European ones, are interested at the
same time in the migration and acquire the status of multicultural society. The mixture of the
two phenomena, the economic and social crisis on the one hand, the increasing of migration
flows on the other, led to deep divisions in that societies, whose consequences are felt by the
most vulnerable groups: migrants and women. The associations complain of the increased
exploitation of migrants labor, which creates resentment in the population, the unions
complain the most violent fallout of the crisis of the labor market on women than men. In
the Italian context occur that the two forms of discrimination have been dramatically
intertwined: the public was captured by a sequence of shocking rapes of women by neo-
communitarian citizens. The panic induced by the media has prevented a proper reflection on
what was happening, crediting a model of criminalization of foreigners and increasing
perception of insecurity in women. The scenario problematic from a legal standpoint, to
which the project addresses, is a dangerous polarization between the protection of freedom
of women and the respect for the social dignity of migrants. In relation to this scenario
highly critical, which is erroneously included women as a minority in conflict with other
minorities, this paper aims to identify in a comparative way the best tools to prevent the
ethnicization of gender violence."

Isabel Cristina Mena Montealegre (Colombia)
Título: "Las sentencias de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos y su
Efectividad en el Ambito Jurídico Colombiano."

Abstract: "La Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos a lo largo del tiempo ha realizado
diferentes pronunciamientos respecto a Colombia; la mayoría de ellos por casos de masacres
que tiene como víctimas un número considerable de personas, incluso poblaciones enteras,
en estos pronunciamientos ha desarrollado varias condenas al Estado por violación a
Derechos Humanos, ordenando a la vez numerosas medidas de reparación. Las víctimas de
violaciones de Derechos Humanos después de obtener sentencia favorable de un tribunal
internacional queda a la espera del cumplimiento de la misma, tratándose no solamente de
reparaciones pecuniarias sino también medidas simbólicas; en muchas casos la ejecución de
estas sentencias demoran años excediendo significativamente los plazos otorgados. Incluso
hay reparaciones que nunca se cumplen. Este escrito hace un acercamiento a la
problemática que presenta la ejecución de una sentencia de la Corte Interamericana y así se
pretende consolidar un análisis en relación a la efectividad de estas sentencias en el ámbito
jurídico nacional. Los problemas que presenta la ejecución de una sentencia de la Corte
Interamericana para el contexto jurídico colombiano, radican básicamente en la falta de
instrumentos y procedimientos internacionales que hagan coercitivo el pronunciamiento de
un tribunal internacional, sumando a esto, la falta de voluntad política de los Estados en
escenarios internacionales, como la Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA), donde se
evita a máximo discutir profundamente estos temas; para subsanar esto, a nivel interno se
deben de buscar los mecanismos y acciones adecuadas para ejecutar las sentencias de un
tribunal internacional. Sin embargo, en lo que respecta al derecho interno nos encontramos
con dificultades prácticas, como el desconocimiento del sistema y de las características de los
pronunciamientos de la Corte IDH, incluso de los mismos órganos estatales."
Jan Winczorek (Poland)
Title: "Making law together? On some conditions of judicial cooperation."

Abstract: "The paper addresses the problem of contemporary lack of coordination of courts
on global and regional levels. Revolving around a metaphor of on-stage interaction of
musicians, it criticizes juridical discourses of judicial dialogue and multicentrism to offer
some insights on possible platforms of communication between courts. For this purpose,
systems theoretical conceptual framework is used."

Jayan Nayar (UK)
Title: "From Peoples Tribunals to Peoples Law."
"This paper examines the experience of transnational peoples' tribunals in the
context of resistance to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan from a counter-hegemonic
perspective on human rights and justice. It assesses the strategic choices regarding form,
language and communication of these initiatives. The paper claims that these reflect a latent
understanding of law as justice which in practice is betrayed by the irony of law's hegemonic
conditioning. The paper examines the scope for resolving such tensions through re-
imaginations of people's law."

Jayme Benvenuto (Brasil)

Title: "Politics and Human Rights in the Production of International Judgments."
Abstract: "The work is based on the idea that it is not possible to unlink Law and Politics.
Law is conditioned by politics in all levels of production and appliance. When someone
intends to isolate it in relation to politics would like to give it a purity that Law is unable to
possess. The work recognizes the recent production of judgments by regional international
courts of human rights as a process of expansion of the access of individuals to justice,
conditioned to the assumptions and method of operation of the politics at national and
international levels. Taking these ideas as background, the study aims to analyze certain
legal and political aspects that are hidden in the formal language of international judgments.
The criticism towards the sentences takes into account three bases of analysis: a)
normative-operational elements b) content of the sentences issued by international courts,
c) compliance with international sentences. The article examines, in comparative and critical
perspective, the answers of the international systems in four trials of the European and
Inter-American Courts of Human Rights: Lustig-Prean and Beckett versus United Kingdom;
Almeida Garrett, Mascarenhas Falcão and Others versus Portugal; Mayagna Awas Tingny
versus Guatemala, and The Last Temptation of Christ (against Chile). This approach
integrates a nationwide project selected by the National Program of Academic Cooperation –
CAPES (PROCAD 01 / 2007) Judicialization of politics: towards a delineation of the process of
domestication of the "politics" by the constitutional jurisdition in Brazil. Key words: 1. Policy
and Law, 2. Human Rights 3. International sentences."
Jo Goodie (Australia)
Title: "The legal conceptualisation of climate change."
"The philosopher Ian Hacking observes, "A style of thinking, it seems, cannot be
straightforwardly wrong, once it has achieved a status by which it fixes the sense of what it
investigates" (1990: 7). Over the last 30 tears the law and legal institutions have assimilated
a certain style of thinking about the environment. To some extent established environmental
law provides a principled framework, methodology and processes for the legal governance of
climate change, the most recent and arguably the most pressing manifestation of the
environmental problem. However, the legal response (of both courts and legislators) to
climate change has been equivocal. The equivocation of the law might be in part explained
by deference to the significant economic impact of any measure mandating action to mitigate
and abate greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the scientific difficulty of calculating the
extent and effect of climate change. It is a phenomenon that will have consequences not
only for environments and economies, but also for the security, well being and rights of
communities and people who have little capacity to exercise any form of control over climate
change or its effects. Just as the recognition of the environment as a subject of law required
a radical rethinking of established legal relationships and assumed legal rights, so to will
climate change. The legal conceptualisation of climate change involves more than simply
shifting the principles of environmental law sideways, it demands its own 'style of thinking'.
Towards developing an understanding of the legal conceptualisation of climate change, this
paper will consider how the law has engaged with and assimilated various discourses about
climate change."

João Paulo Dias (Portugal)
Title: "Itineraries of Public Prosecutors: professional (re)valorisatisation."
"Public Prosecutors in Portugal play an important role in the performance of
justice. Besides their position within the judicial system, related with the competencies and
its capacity to perform them with suitability and efficiency, Public Prosecutors seek to
legitimate its activity through the construction of an autonomous professional project. In this
sense, and having as a starting point the study of their role in the Labour and Family and
Minors' Courts (the social areas of their intervention), it is possible to understand some of
the professional strategies and itineraries developed, on the one hand, to ensure the socio-
professional statute and, on the other hand, to preserve, or even increase, their legal
competencies. In spite of this process have been developed, for a long time, through an
internal affirmation (within the judicial system), we can perceive, nowadays, the search for
another way for an external legitimation (with society and its citizens). The main argument
starts to question the actual collective professional itineraries, in a context of judicial
reforms, higher social complexity, bigger professional competition and the implementation of
new mechanisms of dispute resolution, trying to characterise the "structuring" place in the
system, through a new approach to the (re)valorisation project of Public Prosecutors in

Joël Ficet (Belgique)
Titre: "Managérialisation et territoires judiciaires : les cas français et belge."

Abstract: "Les systèmes judiciaires français et belges sont aujourd'hui soumis à un même
impératif de rationalisation managériale. Au nom de l'efficacité, les deux pays ont choisi de
reconfigurer la carte des juridictions et de déconcentrer la gestion des moyens humains,
matériels et financiers. Toutefois, la proximité apparente du discours et des programmes
masque des contextes et enjeux très différents. La stratégie hiérarchique et technocratique
de territorialisation de la gestion judiciaire adoptée en France révèle une volonté de contrôle
accru de l'exécutif sur le pouvoir judiciaire au détriment de l'indépendance de lui-ci. Elle
s'inscrit dans une entreprise de long terme d'alignement du fonctionnement de l'institution
judiciaire sur celui des autres segments de l'Etat. Les solutions étudiées en Belgique
préservent par contre les particularismes de la justice et l'autonomie de la magistrature. Ces
divergences sont significatives de deux modes antinomiques de gouvernance de la Justice,
ancrés des traditions politiques, des paysages institutionnels et des représentations du rôle
de l'Etat opposés."

Jörg Stippel (Francia)

Título: "Los Delegados-acerca de mecanismos de autogobierno en las cárceles

Abstract: "Desde la aprobación de la Ley de Ejecución Penal y Supervisión, la legislación
boliviana reconoce mecanismos de autogobierno de los presos al interior de los recintos
penitenciarios. El artículo analiza estos mecanismos y pregunta qué posibilidades y
problemas presenta esta forma de democracia carcelaria. Se indaga qué mecanismos
democráticos se pueden implementar en la institución total y como esta puede ser
José Atiles (Puerto Rico)
Title: "Colonialism, Stated of Exception and Resistances; The criminalization of the
"This paper aims at exposing how the law and the legal discourse has an effective
tool in the process of legitimating the violent practices asociated to the colonialism and the
political-hegemonic practices of the USA in "indistinction spaces" such as Puerto Rico. In this
context, we are interested in showing three fundamental aspects that characterize the
hegemonic and counter-hegemonic practices in this colonial space; Firstly, we will present
the practices and legal discourses that legitimated the construction of the state of exception
in Puerto Rico. Secondly, we will expose how the state of exception's juridical construction
and this analytical categories enabled the criminalization of the counter-hegemonic actor, or
those who opposed to the colonial status of the island, and particulary those actors who
exerted the armed contingency. In this second part, we will expose how the USA, through
the state of exception, categorized and identified theses actor as terrorists, rebels, among
others criminalization forms. Thirdly, we shall expose how the case of Puerto Rico served as
legal and political precedent for the legitimation of the USA's hegemonic practices throughout
the world, in particular in the detention camps in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Finally, we will
present how this legal practices and analytical categories, such as the state of exception,
have superpositioned the law above the Politics and how this has influenced the resistance
practices and in the discourses of the counter-hegemonic movement, such as the
puertorrican national revolutionary movement."

José Augusto Fontoura Costa (Brazil) y Marcos Wachowicz (Brazil)
Title: "Nuevas Fronteras del derecho de propiedad: informática y biotecnología."
"La sociedad dialoga con las transformaciones económicas y presentase como
espacio de tensiones distributivas, generadas y generadoras de conflictos. Por consiguiente,
la formulación jurídica de la propiedad intelectual de las innovaciones informáticas y
biotecnológicas es uno de los elementos esenciales para la comprensión y diseño de las
relaciones productivas y las transformaciones sociales en los nuevos espacios y límites de un
mundo donde las complejidades y conflictos se multiplican. La sociología de la economía
tiene como sus principios la aceptación de la acción económica como una forma de acción
social; la acción económica es socialmente situada o incrustada; y las instituciones
económicas son construidas socialmente [1]. Así, las concepciones jurídicas, teóricas y
positivas, de los derechos de propiedad intelectual se establecen en un campo de tensiones
en el que la opinión socio-política por una determinada distribución no sigue un concepto
"natural" de propiedad y tampoco una presuposición de mayor eficiencia, pero es el
resultado concreto de fuerzas en conflicto [2]. El objetivo del workshop es discutir las
relaciones entre sociología, economía y derecho en dos de los temas que desafían las
estructuras heredadas de los siglos XIX y XX: la expansión del ámbito de la actividad
humana mediada por la construcción de nuevos espacios virtuales de creación e intercambio
que transcienden el modelo de la fábrica y, a la vez, la disminución de los ámbitos de
expansión económica la cual resulta de la consciencia de los limites de la naturaleza. [1]
SWEDBERG, Richard; GRANOVETTER, Mark (2001) Introduction. In SWEDBERG and
GRANOVETTER (Ed.), The Sociology of Economic Life, 2nd Edition. Boulder: Westview. [2]
PICCIOTTO, Sol and CAMPBELL, David. (2003) Whose molecule is it anyway?: private and
social perspectives on intellectual property. In HUDSON, Alistair (Ed.). New perspectives on
property law, obligations and restitution. London: Routledge-Cavendish."

José Luis Bolzán de Morais (Brasil)
Título: "ESTADO SOCIAL: crisis, miedo e barbarie!."

Abstract: "En este trabajo se intenta discutir la incidencia de un (des)arreglo en las
estructuras, forma y fórmulas de la modernidad, implicando un proceso de desconstrucción
de muchos de los fundamentos de la "cultura" moderna. El dilema contemporáneo visto de
este prisma parece residir exactamente en la perdida de referencias de la modernidad,
referencias que se ven restringidas por la irrupción de mal – estares que parecen no
moldarse a los modelos clásicos de interdicción."

José Ramón Fragoso Cervón (México)

Título: "La Sacramentalidad del Derecho en la Transformación Social en America

Abstract: "El derecho en México ha compartido con la religión, la fascinación por lo sagrado
y la necesidad de estar en contacto con lo divino, ya sea en su inspiración creadora o como
forma de legitimación social. Los métodos de administración que la ciencia jurídica elaboro
para vivir en sociedad, han mantenido una estrecha relación con lo sagrado. Las normas
sacramentalizadas se han producido para el provecho de la sociedad precolombina, los
colonizadores, la república, para mantener o alcanzar el poder "democráticamente" y
satisfacer los intereses de determinada clase privilegiada o de determinados individuos.
Existen cosas supremas (sacramentalizadas) que han normado las relaciones en la
comunidad, como son las sagradas escrituras en la religión o las constituciones democráticas
en el mundo moderno, que los ciudadanos tienen que cumplir. En estas cosas supremas
encontramos actividades que no pueden ser ejecutadas por todos, solo por determinadas
personas (personas sacramentalizadas), por ejemplo: elaborar o ejecutar las leyes, presidir
los ritos en la religión o en un proceso jurídico (sacerdotes o jueces); hay leyes o normas
que obligan a determinados comportamientos sociales (comportamientos
sacramentalizados). Lo religioso ha sido históricamente un vínculo importante en la
transformación social en América Latina; proporcionó los símbolos de unidad, continuidad, e
identidad de la colectividad, pero principalmente de aceptación de la norma. El hombre
religioso en el Estado moderno es el buen ciudadano y a la inversa, por lo que la práctica
pública del derecho constituye un deber ser, y cualquier trasgresión a la norma
automáticamente se convierte en pecado o delito. En la historia encontramos un derecho con
tradición sacramental. En comunión con los dioses, la sociedad precolonial creó un derecho
consuetudinario buscando la armonía entre religión, pueblo y naturaleza para normar su
sociedad, los sacerdotes tenían gran influencia y gobernaron convertidos en Tlatoani o
persona sagrada. En la época colonial el nuevo mundo se unió con leyes bendecidas por el
Santo Papa al mandato de Reyes católicos, desde las Bulas alejandrinas pasando por las
leyes de Castilla, leyes de las Indias Orientales, las constituciones de Bayona y de Cádiz.
Después en la independencia las constituciones de los diferentes pueblos latinoamericanos se
fueron secularizando sin dejar de ser religiosas. Los pueblos de America Latina fueron muy
creyentes y respetuosos de sus líderes, siempre se le presentaron como algo divino. Desde la
etapa precolombina, encontramos que pueblos nativos eran guiados por personas sagradas,
cuyas facultades abarcaban lo jurídico político y también lo militar, lo económico, lo religioso,
y lo social. Con la llegada de los españoles y la conquista estas facultades, pasan a una
nueva forma de hombres sagrados, el anterior sacerdote-señor las va a delegar
religiosamente en manos de las personas de los reyes católicos como resultado de la
conquista y los tres siglos de dominación. Con la lucha de independencia y el Estado Nación
surge la actual imagen del señor presidente de la República. El derecho sacramentalizado
convirtió la herejía en un crimen de Estado y la insurrección en un pecado. El seguimiento de
las discusiones para la creación del Estado Nacional constituido (que no pocas veces
terminaron en guerras internas), nos da el panorama de un intento fallido por separar la
norma sacramentalizada del comportamiento social y de la administración de la justicia.
Históricamente el derecho en la transformación de América Latina ha sido un proceso que
sólo ha mertamorfoseado religiosamente las diferentes constituciones democráticas y sus
Josh Kaplan (USA)
Título: "Making Human Rights "Issues": NGO Claimsmaking and Agenda Setting."
Abstract: "Based on field research among human rights organizations, media and archival
research, and interpretation of legal materials, this paper traces factors contributing to the
emergence or inhibition of the perception of antisemitic acts as an issue worthy of human
rights concern both inside and out of human rights circles. The paper takes a broadly
sociological view of what human rights organizations, lawyers, philanthropists and other key
actors in the human rights movement do or do not do (e.g. choice of advocacy campaigns,
funding priorities), how they function, what decisions they make or do not make, and
fundamentally, how issues linked to antisemitism do or do not come to be seen as 'human
rights issues' and how human rights issues come to be perceived as 'antisemitism'."
Joxerramon Bengoetxea (Basque Country)
Title: "Faces and Rituals of Justice, Spheres of Jurisdiction and Aspects of Decision-
Making in a Complex Age."
"The analysis of judicial reasoning from the perspective of consequences is
approached from a two-fold interest: how consequences actually feature in judicial reasoning
and what happens when judicial reasoning is based on consequences. These studies are
appplied to the case-law of the Court of Justice of the ECJ."

Juliana Zapata Galvis (Colombia) y Alejandra María Domínguez

Título: "Diversidad biológica y cultural Vs. propiedad intelectual."
Abstract: "La ponencia abordará la problemática que se presenta con la autorización del uso
y comercialización de semillas transgénicas en Colombia, semillas que son protegidas por
patentes y derechos de obtentor, derechos que para el caso concreto se deben poner en una
balanza (principio de proporcionalidad), con los derechos a la diversidad biológica y cultural.
La biodiversidad es una riqueza de un valor social y económico incalculable, razón que debe
impulsar al Estado colombiano a su protección, de conformidad con lo establecido en el
artículo 8 de la Constitución Política colombiana. La biodiversidad comprende las múltiples
variedades en que se expresa la vida sobre la tierra, como resultado de miles de años de
evolución con gran influencia de las actividades del ser humano, lo que la constituye como
patrimonio biológico y cultural de las naciones. Por su parte las semillas transgénicas son
variedades obtenidas de la naturaleza, a través de procesos biotecnológicos donde se
manipulan genéticamente plantas, virus y bacterias, combinándolos en una misma
estructura, para la obtención de semillas que por procesos naturales no se conciben. Al
vincular recursos naturales a procesos científicos, se argumenta que es posible el
patentamiento de la vida misma, con lo que se transgrede la propiedad colectiva que se tiene
sobre la naturaleza, al ser esta patrimonio de la humanidad. Se propone, entonces, analizar
las normas vigentes que regulan el tema, confrontándolas con las propuestas que presentan
las comunidades indígenas y campesinas, con el fin de extraer posibles alternativas que
respondan a las verdaderas necesidades del campo colombiano."
Julieta Mira (Argentina)
Título: "La emergencia de una 'memoria jurídica'. El caso argentino."
"La realización de juicios penales por graves violaciones a los derechos humanos
en el pasado puede contribuir a edificar una "memoria jurídica" de los hechos. En paralelo la
justicia busca establecer una "verdad oficial" sobre la "violencia política" y establecer un
cierre al conflicto. Al mismo tiempo, el discurso jurídico genera desplazamientos y
ocultamientos que tienden a despolitizar los sucesos. En este marco, se abren una serie de
interrogantes: cuál es el rol que el Estado se arroga en la construcción de la memoria a
través de mecanismos como comisiones de la verdad, juicios penales y celebraciones
oficiales. Cómo se evidencian las posturas pendulares del Estado entre justicia e impunidad y
las tensiones que enfrenta con las demandas sociales del movimiento de derechos humanos.
Cuáles son las luchas entre Estado y sociedad por el sentido de la justicia y la historia de la
"violencia política". Se abordan estas preguntas a través del caso del "terrorismo de Estado"
en la Argentina. Se revisa el accionar en torno a la política de verdad y justicia tanto "desde
arriba" como "desde abajo": en los años ochenta; durante el período de impunidad desde las
leyes de amnistía e indultos; los juicios extraterritoriales (bajo "jurisdicción universal" y
"personalidad pasiva"); y la reapertura de los juicios penales en forma plena desde la
decisión de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación de la Argentina de declarar
inconstitucionales las leyes de amnistía."

Kaja Gadowska (Poland)
Title: "Law in Action. Political Patronage in Public Administration in Poland."
"An effective, transparent and accountable public administration is one of the key
aspects of rule of law. However, public administration in post-communist states is
particularly vulnerable to political patronage and cronyism, due to unequal statutes of
political and administrative spheres and underdevelopment of professional civil service.
Although the aim of public administration reform in Poland was to shape the civil service
corps in such a way as to allow an independent, objective, apolitical and competent group of
officers selected in open competition to carry out their tasks with respect to the management
and functioning of government administration bodies regardless of any political changes,
political parties try to limit the autonomy of civil service by extending their control of
personnel policy into the public administration. The aim of my paper is to assess to what
extent the actual relation between politics and administration reflects the principles
contained in the subsequent Acts on Civil Service. I will briefly discuss the cultural sources of
malfunction of politico-administrative relations and concentrate on the policy towards high-
rank posts in civil service, especially directors generals in ministries, other central institutions
and regional offices as these positions are critical to gain direct control over civil service by
politicians. Some systemic weaknesses that allow for pathologies to persist will be
pinpointed. Special attention will be dedicated to identifying the practices of subsequent
governments aimed at employing in senior positions in public administration political
appointees. Such analysis will allow to evaluate the practical effects of the respective acts on
civil service as well as to determine the institutional model that serves best the autonomy of
Polish public administration. Apart from the analysis of legal framework of civil service
functioning, the paper will be based on the empirical data gathered from a series of in-depth
interviews with public officials."

Katayoun Baghai (Canada)
Title: "Supreme Court and Fundamental Rights: A Socil Systems Perspective."
"This paper examines the fruitfulness of employing Niklas Luhmann's social
systems theory and his account of the multi-functionality of fundamental rights in empirical investigation of rights-based judicial review in the United States. Discussing the role of Supreme Court opinions in the autopoiesis of law and structuring of social communication, it raises sociologically relevant questions thus far absent in such investigations."

Kati Rantala (Finland)
Title: "The case of feminism, eviction order and severe consequences."

Abstract: "Branches of feminism exemplify a social movement that tends to transform social
issues and power conflicts into the language of rights in order to advocate legal reforms. One
of the aims is to enhance the use of legal means to address violence against women. As a
result, different types of restraining orders, for example, have been applied throughout the
western world. What easily happens, however, is that a simplistic solution is offered to a
complex problem, and for the sake of argumentation the parties involved become
homogenised, leading to unrealistic premises, means and goals for the legislators, and
finally, when the law is implemented, to severe consequences. This has all come true in the
case example of launching 'eviction orders' in Finland. According to the law, due to the
victim's right to stay at home, the violent person is required to move out from the common
household and is banned from returning for a predetermined length of time. In the law
drafting process, references to international human rights conventions, other countries'
similar legislation and onesided research are used as a means of justification. The neglect of
paying attention to contextual circumstances and obvious risks, and a highly undemocratic
law drafting process guided by political pressure have resulted in a poor law and severe
consequences, including hidden violence, social exclusion and suicides. The intervention was
designed to help suppressed victims of violence but it does a misservice for many of them
and produces new victims of the perpetrators. This paper is based on an evaluation research
on eviction orders in Finland. The data consist of law drafting documents, all court orders
from 2005 and 2006, police records of the parties involved as well as interviews with some of
the parties and state authorities involved."
Keywords: Immigration Policy; Human rights; Care workers; Japan

Larry Barnett (USA)
Title: "The Public-Private Dichotomy in Morality and Law."

Abstract: "The paper advances the thesis that the doctrines and concepts of law are
attributable to the properties of society and to the forces molding these properties. The
thesis, after being illustrated with the federal Investment Advisers Act, is assessed
quantitatively using data from the General Social Survey. The Survey interviews a national
sample of adults in U.S. households, and in 1991, it ascertained whether interviewees
classified morality as a private matter or as a public matter. Interviewee positions on this
issue were the dependent variable in a study that assumed (i) an activity is not explicitly
addressed by law, or is explicitly protected by law from regulation, when society designates
the activity as private, and (ii) law that is designed to regulate an activity embodies the
substance of prevailing morality.
Because social values on morality comprised the dependent variable, their antecedents are
likely to be factors that prevent or permit the existence of law regulating numerous socially
significant activities. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship to the
dependent variable of two sets of factors that potentially influence whether morality is
designated private or public. One set was factors that structure (e.g., stratify) a society and
that have important societal correlates and consequences; the other set was comprised of
modes of thought and conduct that are cultural dimensions of a society, e.g., level of
fatalism and of religiousness. Of the factors in the two sets, only gender had an
unconditional effect on social values defining morality as private or public; number of years
of schooling had an effect just among women, and frequency of praying had an effect just
among men. The paper suggests that the findings may help to explain U.S. Supreme Court
decisions that construed the federal Constitution to restrict government regulation of sexual
activity and its incidents."

Larry Barnett (USA), Cirus Rinaldi (Italy) and Pietro Saitta (Italy)
Title of the Session: "Empirical Research and Methods in the Sociology of Law."
"Presenters in the session will report on recent empirical studies they conducted
on topics relevant to the sociology of law. Presenters will describe the methods they used to
obtain and analyze their data, discuss the methodological issues they confronted, and review
the findings of their research."

Larry D. Barnett
* (USA)
Title: "The Financial Sector Upheaval of 2008: Sociological Antecedents and Their
Implications for Investment Company Regulation."
"In 2008, the United States experienced a severe contraction in the availability of
credit, a marked reduction in the price of common stocks, and an appreciable increase in
interest rates on debt instruments issued by business entities and by state and local
governments. The premise of the instant article is that, although this upheaval was
economic in form and sudden in occurrence, it stemmed from change that was sociological in
character and that started in prior decades. Specifically, the 2008 upheaval in finance is
traced to a shift in social values among Americans — namely, an increased prevalence of
hedonism and materialism in conjunction with an increased emphasis on short-term
considerations — and to the suboptimum intellectual skills of the population that resulted
from this shift. Quantitative evidence in support of the thesis is presented, and implications
of the thesis for provisions of the Investment Company Act are discussed."
*School of Law, Widener University, Wilmington, Delaware USA. Postal address: Post Office
Box 7474, Wilmington, DE 19803-0474 USA. E-mail address:
This abstract summarizes an article that will be published in the Hastings Business Law
. Copyright 2009 by University of California, Hastings College of the Law. All
rights reserved."

Lasha Bregvadze (Germany)
Title: "Constituting Constitutions beyond the State: Multiple Constitutionalism of
the World-Society."

Abtract: "Globalisation of modern society has provoked and initiated many productive
perturbations against conventional thinking, including orthodox jurisprudence. One of the
cornerstones of classical jurisprudence - the definition of constitution as the basic law of
state, can be questioned under increasing processes of globalisation and privatisation. Due to
the fact of functional differentiation of the world-society and formation of the global legal
sub-system, processes of internal fragmentation of the global law cannot be avoided:
functionally differentiated legal sub-system of the world-society is being internally
differentiated through the logic of segmental, territorial, spatial or sub-functional
rationalities. The essay represents an attempt to develop the argument of internal
fragmentation of the global legal system being characterised by individual constitutional
processes of different legal levels: the differentiation of local, national, international,
supranational and transnational legal fields implies the emergence of divergent processes of
constitutionalisation, based on the operational characteristics of the given legal levels.
Following the emerging debates within the current socio-legal studies, competing
perspectives of constitutional transformations can be observed. The most influential current
arguments about constitutional processes beyond the nation state - societal constitutionalism
(Sciulli), global private constitutions (Teubner), international constitutionalism (Habermas),
constitutional pluralism (Walker) will be reviewed in the essay in order to try and propose an
alternative argument about the multiple constitutionalism based on the parallel
constitutionalisation of different legal levels within the global legal sub-system: the
establishment and coexistence of local, national, international, supranational and
transnational legal levels are stimulated by specific constitutional processes, which, being
different from each-other, in sum reproduce the empirical fact of multiple constitutionalism in
the world-society. Paradoxically, the world-society constitutes the unity of its global legal
sub-system through the different, fragmented constitutional processes, developing
constitutional forms beyond control mechanisms of nation state and global polity."

Laura Lora (Argentina)
Title: "Society and institutions. The way of thinking the childhood."

Abstract: "The present work has the purpose to present advances of the Project UBACyT
"Society and institutions. The way of thinking the childhood ".
The Project tries to extend the disciplinary perspectives and the analysis of topics developed
in the doctoral thesis "The quality of life in the institute of adoption. Perspective social-
juridical " (Lora, Laura, 2006).
Quality of life is a wide concept. The international instruments considerate the expression
"sufficient standard of living", like for example the preamble of the UNCRC (International
Convention of Rights of the Child) and the art. 27 of the same instrument. To solve dilemmas
related to these concepts / rights, some topics are of interest: structures of family relations,
the way in which these promote or prevent aspects of the human activity; life expectations
of the childhood population; the freedom that the children have to lead their lives; their
social relations, etc.
On the other hand, the UNCRC refers to the "right to play" and to leisure of the child in the
article 31 and stipulated in paragraph 1: "States Parties recognize the right of the child to
rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the
child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts." Having approached the above
mentioned topics one tries to observe the application of the normative terms of reference
across the institutional implementation of projects and programs created to make the
mentioned rights effective.
Some of the aims of the research will be to determine the appropriateness of different
institutional programs under articles 27 and 31 of the ICRC (International Convention on the
Rights of the Child). To investigate the way in which children internalize the social values
arising from institutional "programs" that channel their actions into multiple processes.
To inquire about the importance that space and time for children to play have in the
construction of their identity. To identify which are the arguments, the reasoning that
professional use to know which form of life is better for the individual or familiar group. To
Know the perception of the different social participants involved in the subject under study
(judges, advisors, deputies, psychologists and children). Taking into account the aims of the
project, the methodology to be implemented will be a qualitative one. In some areas, it will
be exploratory and in others descriptive.
Doctora de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Área Derecho Social. Docente-investigadora.
Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas y Sociales Ambrosio L. Gioja. Facultad de Derecho.
Universidad de Buenos Aires. Especialista en Sociología Jurídica y de las Instituciones.
Especialista en Administración de Justicia. Dirección de correo electrónico:
[1] Lora, Laura Noemí, Director of the Proyect; Members: Sabrina Solnicki, Marina Vegh,
Mario Gerlero."

Leny Elisabeth de Groot-van Leeuwen (The Netherlands)

Title: "One or more judges in the courtroom?"
Abstract: "After decades of merely efficiency oriented reform of the judiciary, the
improvement of judicial quality has received much attention recently in the Netherlands The
shift to more collegial courts of three judges instead of one single judge is one of the quality
measures that are planned. However, no empirical or theoretical underpinning of this
measure exists. Against this background I will review the current practices and the literature
on individual versus collegial decision making in the court."
Libardo Ariza (Colombia) y Manuel Iturralde (Colombia)
Título: "Prisión / Prisons."

Abstract: "Pocas instituciones suscitan tanto interés social, político y académico como la
prisión. Provenientes de diversas perspectivas teóricas, los investigadores encuentran en ella
un lugar de análisis privilegiado. Desde los estudios fenomenológicos sobre las relaciones
sociales en las instituciones totales, pasando por las perspectivas históricas sobre las
relaciones entre el castigo y la formación disciplinaria del proletariado, hasta los debates
actuales en torno al significado del encarcelamiento masivo y la desproporción penitenciaria,
la prisión ha sido un objeto de análisis ineludible e inagotable. Pero también ha sido objeto
de crítica por parte de movimientos sociales y teóricos que se oponen a la segregación y al
manejo punitivo de la conflictividad social, la pobreza y la disidencia. En cualquiera de los
casos, resulta claro que la institución penitenciaria, así como el complejo que la rodea,
parece no haber perdido importancia en lo absoluto, ni desde el punto de vista académico y
mucho menos social. Este panel busca propiciar un espacio para la puesta en común de
trabajos provenientes de foros académicos y movimientos sociales que confluyen y a la vez
intentan sortear los muros de la prisión."
"Currently, few institutions, other than the prison, elicit such an intense social, political, and
academic interest. The prison is a privileged object of analysis, from several theoretical
perspectives, for researchers of the most varied disciplines. From phenomenological studies
on the social relationships that take place within prisons, to historical perspectives regarding
the rapport between punishment and the disciplinary training of the proletariat, and the
current debates on the function and meanings of massive imprisonment and penitentiary
disproportion, prisons are an unavoidable and inexhaustible subject of analysis of
contemporary societies. Prisons have also been subject to forceful criticism coming both from
social and theoretical movements, which oppose the segregation and punitive management
of social conflict, poverty and dissidence, which the prison entails. In any case, it seems clear
that the penitentiary institution, as well as the techniques and discourses that surround it,
are a pressing issue, both from an academic and a social point of view. This panel seeks to
join in a constructive and critical debate works and studies from academic circles and social
movements which seek to explain the workings of prisons and to overcome their walls."

Libardo José Ariza (Colombia)
"Reformando el infierno: Prisión e intervención judicial en Latinoamérica."
Abstract: "Frente a las terribles condiciones de las prisiones latinoamericanas, distintos
actores políticos y sociales han encontrado en los estrados judiciales un campo de lucha y
transformación. Además de las protestas adelantadas por las personas presas y sus familias
bajo la forma de huelgas de hambre, motines y encierros colectivos, la judicialización de la
vida carcelaria es uno de los principales campos donde se generan iniciativas de
transformación y crítica. En esta ponencia se analizan algunos de los principales casos de
intervención judicial en la vida penitenciaria en el contexto latinoamericano, tanto a nivel
nacional como internacional, para mostrar las tensiones al interior del discurso jurídico sobre
el significado histórico y social de la prisión. Estas tensiones determinan tanto el tipo de
respuesta judicial frente a la legitimidad del castigo, como el impacto de las decisiones sobre
el sistema penitenciario en general. La respuesta común es la reforma de la infraestructura
del sistema, lo que a la larga fortalece la institución penitenciaria y permite su inclusión en el
mercado global de la gestión punitiva."

Lidia Rodak (Belgium)
Title: "Law & Objectivity and false/double Legal Consciousness."

1. "In the paper I will deal with the following question: how lawyers understand the term
objectivity and how they are using it. I will do that trough analysis of the Polish courts'
2. I argue that lawyers making claims about objectivity like for example: objective
judgments, objective evaluations, objective opinions, objective decisions, objective legal
facts, general clauses in objective sense etc. built double understanding of objectivity.
3. Such reasoning is in contradiction with our common intuition what objectivity means.
The relationship between theoretical point of view and the practice presents a pictures which
could be grasped by the postmodern category of false or double consciousness, i.e. as
the condition of getting knowledge in the social reality.
4. I argue that legal mind is based on the ideology of objectivity and that double
understanding of objectivity
is one of the conditions making cognitive process possible,
what is more, it becomes one of the ways of expressing lawyers' own judgments. As modern
jurisprudence has shown the scientific ambitious of law are not possible to be realize, but as
practice of law shown it is still present there. Such a situation in its effects creates the
phenomena of legal schizophrenia."

Lucira Freire (Portugal)
Title: "Brazilian inmates: realities and myths."

Abstract: "Portuguese society has been struggling with growing social problems related to
crimes committed by foreigners in Portugal. The criminal panorama has been changing in
Portugal due both to new types of crimes and to the increasing participation of foreigners in
delinquent practices.
In the summer of 2008, the media revealed mounting evidence of the participation of
foreigners in violent crimes in Portugal. Robberies, assaults, and carjacking were some of the
crimes that the media associated mainly with Brazilian citizens making society believe that
the Portuguese are facing a new criminal reality with regard to the importation of violence
from other countries.
The number of foreign inmates in Portugal increased while the number of national inmates
In this presentation, we show data of criminality attributed to Brazilians living in Portugal in
the last 6 years in an attempt to try and discover if there were any changes in the
Portuguese criminal reality. We will attempt to question if there was a rise in violent crimes
in which Brazilian citizens were condemned, comparing this data with condemnations of
inmates from other nationalities and with data of condemnations of Brazilians in Brazil. We
will try to check if there was or not a transposition of the criminal panorama from Brazil to

Luis Alfonso Fajardo (Colombia)
Title: "El Impacto del IISJ de Oñati en América Latina y Colombia."

Abstract: "El presente ensayo intenta verificar el impacto del Instituto Internacional de
Sociología Jurídica en el desarrollo y la consolidación de la sociología Jurídica en nuestro país
a partir de tres momentos donde se discutieron aspectos teóricos y conceptuales
Las tendencias de las investigaciones Socio-jurídicas en América Latina reflejan algunos ejes
vertebrales temáticos desde sus comienzos como son: Teoría Socio-jurídica, Uso Alternativo
del Derecho, los servicios Legal Alternativos, Derechos Humanos, Formas de derecho propio,
Pluralismo Jurídico, la globalización, Mecanismos Alternativos de resolución de conflictos,
problemas de genero y la enseñanza jurídica. Las perspectivas con las que se han abordado
estos temas se han modificado a través del tiempo, sin embargo, se encuentra una
constante a través del tiempo: una trasformación social entorno a un derecho emancipatorio
Tomaremos para el presente ensayo, tres momentos:
1. Workshop en el IISJ ¿existe alguna especificidad en la sociología jurídica en América
Latina? 1990
2. Workshop en el IISJ. La Sociología Jurídica en América Latina. 2002
3. Congreso latinoamericano se Sociología Jurídica. derecho y liberación". IISJ 2007
Finalmente trataremos de caracterizar algunos estudios de sociología Jurídica realizados en
Colombia desde los siguientes ejes de investigación:
1. La Sociología Jurídica desde las trincheras
2. La defensa del pluralismo jurídico
3. Los desarrollos de la Justicia en equidad
Luis Alfonso Fajardo Sánchez. Avance de investigación realizada por el Grupo de
Investigaciones de Derecho y Sociedad de la Universidad Santo Tomas. Investigadora
Auxiliar Mg. Luisa Fernanda García Lozano. Julio de 2009."

Luis Alfonso Fajardo (Universidad Santo Tomás) y Germán Silva García (Instituto
de Altos Estudios Latinoamericanos – ILAE)
Título: "Estado del Arte de la Sociología Jurídica en Latinoamérica y el impacto del
IISJ en América latina."

Abstract: "El presente año cumple el IISJ 20 años de creado, aprovechando esta celebración
creemos que se hace necesario evaluar el impacto del IISJ en el desarrollo de la Sociología
Jurídica en Latinoamérica. Recordemos que la incorporación de esta disciplina es reciente en
los países de Nuestra América, sin embargo, los resultados son verdaderamente
sorprendentes, ya son pocas las universidades que no tienen incorporadas en sus facultades de derecho o incluso de sociología, los contenidos curriculares que dan fundamento a esta disciplina. Igualmente, el impulso y desarrollo de investigaciones y propuestas metodológicas que han dinamizado de manera importante el saber científico de la sociología jurídica en los centros educativos, ONG s, grupos de trabajo y de investigación, así como organizaciones sociales. Incontables son las reuniones, workshops, conferencias, paneles, reuniones científicas, conversatorios, congresos, publicaciones, etc., que el IISJ he realizado estos veinte (20) años relacionados con América latina. El IISJ se ha convertido desde su fundación en un foro de debate sobre aspectos relevantes de la Sociología Jurídica en Latinoamérica, donde han participado los más ilustres representantes de esta disciplina en el continente. Proponemos aprovechar esta celebración para que, desde los diferentes países de Nuestra América, se realice este balance que permita proyectar el trabajo en el futuro, pero sobre todo, para hacer un merecido reconocimiento a la labor del IISJ, especialmente desde nuestros respectivos países. Esta mesa de trabajo será coordinada por la Universidad Santo Tomas – USTA - y el Instituto Latinoamericano de Altos Estudios – ILAE, ambas entidades con sede en Colombia."

Mª Luisa Bartolomei (Sweden)
Title: "Empowerment and Rights-The role of gender and women's rights in
Argentina (1970-2009)."

Abstract: "Argentina was ruled by a succession of authoritarian "de facto" administrations,
during the second half of the 20th century. This reached its zenith in 1976, when a brutal
dictatorship carried out a policy of state terrorism that lasted for 7 years- until late 1983
(Barranco 2006; Bartolomei 2007). The subsequent restoration of democracy from 1983
onwards signalled a move by the feminist movement in Argentina towards a rights-based
discourse. This discourse was to place particular emphasis on the important issues of
women's empowerment and the meaning of citizenship (Craske & Molineux 2002).
The paper focuses on women in Argentina and their sexual rights, that is to say, sexual
reproduction – the right to abortion, the right to your own body and the right to self-
determination. It also focuses on political rights issues, in particular, political participation
and the rights of citizens, including some social rights. Theoretically the paper looks at
Intersectionality as a theoretical perspective; at IrisYoung's theory on justice, politics of
citizenship and differences in political mobilization; and at Nancy Fraser's approaches on
recognition, redistribution and identity. Santos's concept of interlegality and the conflict
between the three levels of law, i.e. trans-national, national and local, are also used to
highlight the significant impact in Argentina on women's rights."

Mª Susana Bonetto (Argentina)
Título: "El constitucionalismo liberal y sus limitaciones para las transformaciones
en América Latina."

Abstract: "En el presente trabajo planteamos la tensión existente en la democracia liberal,
entre las limitaciones impuestas por el Estado de Derecho a la soberanía popular, y la
posibilidad de la autodeterminación democrática. Esta tensión se refleja en los actuales
procesos de transformaciones que se están realizando en algunos países sudamericanos
como Venezuela y Bolivia. En estos casos los marcos constitucionales liberales que se
remontan al momento fundacional de los Estados, resultan limitantes de los procesos de
cambio. Por ello se discute críticamente sus limitaciones para la construcción de la
democracia en Latinoamérica en el marco del universalismo liberal (Habermas)
contraponiendo el enfoque contextualista de (Mouffe)."

Madalena Duarte (Portugal)

Title: "Women on waves: mobilizing human rights to legalize abortion."
Abstract: "This paper draws on partial results of the research project "Reconstructing
Human Rights through Transnational Legal Mobilization? Portugal and the European Court of
Human Rights,"carried out by the Center for Social Studies at the University of Coimbra.
Based on the case of Women on Waves v. Portugal, the paper examines the role of
transnational legal mobilization in the struggle to legalize abortion in the Portuguese context.
It discusses the discourses and strategies of the litigants and judges involved in the disputes
and the impact of the ECHR's decision in the reconstruction of human rights. Until 2007,
abortion in Portugal was under restrictive laws. In 2004, Women on Waves (WOW), a Dutch
NGO concerned with women's human rights, was invited to come to Portugal by four
Portuguese NGOs. WOW better known campaigns involve sea voyages to countries where
abortions are illegal, but they also engage in legal actions, give sexual education and medical
knowledge workshops, and help women with the course of their abortions via the internet.
The Portuguese Campaign, called "Making (Portuguese) Waves," had a major impact in
national and international settings, not only because of the predicted actions, but also due to
the Portuguese government's decision to prevent the WOW boat – Borndiep - to enter
Portuguese national waters using two war ships. Considering that this decision was a
violation of the international and European human rights norms, WOW and the Portuguese
NGOs resorted to national courts, which ruled in favour of the Portuguese government. The
case was then taken to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), which decided against
the Portuguese government."
Malgorzata Fuszara (Poland)
Title: "Parental custody and martial breakdown in Poland: gender perspective."

Abstract: "Statistical data are often cited to prove that after divorce, men are primary
carers of children less often than women, and they less often have full custody of children.
Statistics indeed confirm this. In 2007, in 61% of divorce cases courts ruled on child custody
(in the remaining 39%, the couples had no minor children). The following custody decisions
were made: custody assigned to women: 57%, to men: 4%, joint parental custody: 37% (
2% - other decisions).
The interviews show that often the parties actually wished the custody to be awarded to the
woman. Analyses of both the court files and the interviews demonstrate that most typically
the parties (both men and women) move for the child to remain with the mother after the
divorce. This occurs in two forms: either the mother is the only parent with full custody, or
both parents have full custody, but the child lives with the mother. A legal arrangement
where the primary care of the child switches between the parents is not an option in Poland.
Even if both parents have full custodial rights, one parent, with whom the child lives,
exercises everyday primary care of the child. Therefore, in over 90% of cases the child lives
with the mother.
Parental custody is rarely disputed in court. Conflicts – not very numerous, but often grave –
arise later with respect to the rules governing the contact between the child and the parent
with whom the child does not live, i.e. most often the father. Such conflicts are hardly ever
revealed at the time of the divorce. Research into cases where the fathers were awarded
custody shows that they rarely are conflict cases, and that the fathers rarely get the custody
as a result of having fought for it. These situations occur mostly when the mother leaves the
country for economic reasons and her prolonged absence leads to divorce; mother's illness;
mother's inability to cope with an adolescent child, usually a son; mother's moving out of the
house and starting a new family; child's clear preference for staying with the father,
supported by the parents. The interviews include sometimes information on disputes
concerning the father's contacts with the child, but statistically this does not happen often."

Manuel A. Gómez (USA)
Title: "Collective Redress in Latin America: The regulation of Class Actions and
other aggregative mechanisms."

Abstract: "This research explores the differences and similarities in procedural rules and
legal practices regarding the use of remedies against collective harms in Latin America. I
give special attention to those countries that have recently developed a legal framework for
the protection of individual and collective rights through different forms of aggregative
processes, with particular focus on the potential for and the obstacles that affect the various
forms of collective litigation in the region."

Manuel A. Gómez (USA)
Title: "The Influence of Social Change on the Intellectual Production of Legal

Abstract: "One of the main activities of legal scholars is the articulation and dissemination
of their knowledge through publications in specialized journals, books and other media
mainly geared to other members of their intellectual community. Legal scholars also write for
other audiences such as government officials, policy makers (Rubin, 1988), judges, and even
for the general public (Chemerinsky, 2009). The nature of the academic output produced by
legal scholars also varies greatly, from abstract, theoretical or doctrinal writings, to empirical
studies, policy-oriented research, historical accounts, biographies, novels, political writing,
and newspaper op-eds. Previous research has tried to explore the reasons why legal scholars
engage in a particular type of writing (Edwards, 1992; Posner, 1993), or choose to address a
specific audience instead of another (Chemerinsky, 2009). There has been also an attempt to
identify trends in different types of legal scholarship across various periods of time (Gordon,
1993). However, the geographical scope of these studies has been limited to the United
States (Id.). The goal of this research is to expand this query to another society in order to
assess which types of publications have been more commonly produced by legal scholars
within a particular time period, and try to identify whether certain occurrences, such as
political events, institutional, social or economic changes, might have played a role in
influencing what scholars write about. This presentation will offer the preliminary results of
an ongoing empirical investigation about the intellectual production of Venezuelan legal
scholars during the last 20 years (1988-2008). The dramatic social, political and economic
changes that have taken place in Venezuela during the selected period makes that country
an adequate setting to explore our query, and to learn more about the impact of external
social forces on the work of legal scholars."

Manuel A. Iturralde (Colombia)
Título: "Prisiones en Colombia: la cultura del miedo y el Estado punitivo."

Abstract: "Durante las últimas dos décadas Colombia ha experimentado un aumento
drástico y sostenido de las tasas de encarcelamiento. Este incremento ha empeorado la de
por sí precaria situación de las personas a las que el Estado colombiano ha privado de la
libertad. El problema carcelario en Colombia no es ocasional ni se limita al interior de los
muros de las prisiones. Este recorre a la misma sociedad colombiana pues no es más que un
reflejo de sus problemas y luchas estructurales. Las cárceles resaltan de manera dramática
la marginalización de vastos sectores de una sociedad excluyente y desigual que son
estigmatizados y temidos como peligrosos delincuentes. Éstas también ponen de relieve la
tendencia de buena parte de las sociedades contemporáneas de afrontar los problemas
estructurales y la inestabilidad social principalmente a través de mecanismos represivos
plasmados en la política criminal. La sensación de miedo e inseguridad que reina en este tipo
de sociedades es canalizada por los gobiernos por medio del aumento e intensificación de los
aparatos y técnicas de control y seguridad. La combinación de estos elementos ha dado lugar
a una cultura del control que afecta la vida de todos los ciudadanos y que inspira las políticas
de los gobiernos de los países más variados, tanto los centrales como los semiperiféricos y
los periféricos. El problema carcelario en Colombia es, entonces, un ejemplo más de la
expansión global de dicha cultura en las sociedades globalizadas contemporáneas.
Por estas razones el estudio de las prisiones en Colombia no puede abordarse desde un
enfoque reduccionista –que trate de explicarla en sus propios términos- sino que debe
realizarse desde una perspectiva más amplia que lleve al estudio del sistema penal
entendido, de manera básica, como la forma en que el Estado y la sociedad conciben el
crimen y sus respectivas formas de castigo. Esta ponencia sostiene que el análisis del
funcionamiento de las cárceles y del sistema penal colombianos constituye una herramienta
clave para entender a la sociedad colombiana, junto con sus sobresaltos, durante las últimas
dos décadas, así como a las relaciones sociales y de poder que han permitido a los diversos
gobiernos marginalizar, aun más, a un extenso sector de la población con el argumento de
que se está protegiendo a la sociedad."

Marcia Ribeiro (Brasil) y Giovani Alves (Brasil)

Title: "Nuevas tecnologías, propiedad intelectual y las empresas públicas en

Abstract: "Las nuevas tecnologías puestas a disposición de las empresas promueven una
alteración importante en el rol de los empresarios, quienes son los actores responsables por
organizar los medios de producción. Hace poco tiempo, las empresas se preocupaban mucho
con la acumulación de bienes de capital, lo que se relacionaba con la estructuración de las
sedes materiales y la acumulación de activos inmovilizados. Hoy en día, el elevado potencial
de una empresa está en el conocimiento que esa detiene, sobre todo en la producción de ese
conocimiento, lo que presupone inversiones. En Brasil, empresas muy importantes se
constituyen como resultado de la confluencia de capitales públicos y privados, resultando en
las llamadas "sociedades de economía mixta". La presencia de inversiones públicas hace
necesario que las sociedades de economía mixta establezcan sus fines sociales con arreglo a
políticas públicas, lo que justifica su creación y deben ser tomados en cuenta por ocasión de
la toma de decisiones y deliberaciones de carácter empresarial. La oferta de acciones a los
inversores privados, por su turno, crea expectativas de distribución de los resultados, las
cuales deben de ser evaluadas, bajo la pena de abandono, en la práctica, de los capitales
privados. El estudio de caso de la Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), una
importante empresa con sede en el estado de Paraná, es posible evaluar los niveles de
inversión en tecnología y, asimismo, el rumbo que vienen tomando las decisiones societarias
en faz del carácter de bienestar social enganchado a las actividades de la empresa, lo que es
un resultado de la opción estatal en la utilización de recursos públicos. La importancia en
términos de bienestar social que tiene el mismo objeto de la sociedad - suplir energía -
además de las políticas públicas relacionadas a ese servicio público y el creciente destaque
de la elección por las inversiones en tecnología juegan un rol especial en las sociedades de
economía mixta en un país en desarrollo y con amplia demanda social a ser suplida."
Marcos Wachowicz (Brazil)
Title: "Digital Challenges for Copyright Protection in Brazil."

Abstract: "The undergoing technological revolution has already had deep impacts on the
most different aspects of daily life, including human reproduction, working requirements and
social interactions. At its core are the information technologies, with effects not only on the
way we communicate, but on the structure of the economic production as well. This is a
revolutionary period in the sense that it changes the material basis of economic, social and
cultural structures, causing a historical discontinuity in such processes that can be readily
observed. At the same time the technological changes spreads through society, intellectual
property regimes have been expanded to grant longer terms of protection to right holders, to
include new subject matter and to restrict unconditioned uses. Copyright has been a
particularly sensitive field to the effects of digitalization of the works, since it may diminish
the control over the uses made of protected works by individuals. As a result, copyright
holders pushed their governments to set up internationally binding agreements to counteract
the potentially devastating effects of the spread of digital technologies, which allow for new
ways of producing, transforming and distributing copyrighted works without consent to do so
or payment for it. TRIPS, WIPO Copyright Treaty and the Information Society Directive are
examples of such endeavor. Many countries have amended their copyright legislation to
adapt to the demands of the rightholders and to adapt to the new international instruments
put in place. However, for the most part, it has been proved unsuccessful to bar
unauthorized uses of protected works. New strategies are needed and the broad
criminalization of users is not an option. In Brazil, the 1998 Copyright Act, still in force,
expanded rightholders legal control of their works, restricted free-use possibilities, allowed
for DRMs, implemented high reparation fees and, in a different act, heightened the criminal
enforcement penalties. But, as expected, it has not been able to achieve the goal of stopping
mass digitalization, distribution and exchange of the works. On the other hand, the Brazilian
Copyright Act has made excessive restrictions that collide with other fundamental rights -
such as education and culture - as well as brought up matters involving consumer rights and
competition policies. For such reasons, the Government, through the Ministry of Culture, has
promoted in 2008 a series of Seminars to tackle the problem in search of solutions that
appraise to the reasonable needs of all players, which will lead to an Amendment proposal.
Considering the digital challenge, this paper proposes to discuss and evaluate the
possibilities of adjustment of copyright protection to the demands of the information society
in Brazil."

Mari Hirayama (Japan)

Title: "Crime Policy for Sex Offenders inJapan- Exclusion or Reintegration, Which
Direction Will We Take?"

Abstract: "Mari HIRAYAMA (Hakuoh University) In Nara Case in 2004, a seven years old girl
was kidnapped and killed by the offender who lived in same prefecture. After the offender
was arrested, it turned out that he had committed sex crimes against children twice before,
which made Japanese society furious. It eventually urged the Ministry of Justice in Japan to
operate various new crime policy for sex offenders. Many people believed that recidivism of
sex offenders is much higher than that of other crimes. The hatred and the stereo type for
sex offenders often leads to sex crime policy which put emphasis not on their rehabilitation
or re-integration but on tough-on crime or excluding them from communities. After the Nara
Case, the Ministry of Justice decided to release information on where sex offenders would
live after their being released from prisons to the police from June 2005. Under this system,
police can track those sex offenders for 5-10 years depend on their conviction histories. In
my presentation, I am going to analyze this supervision and tracking system operated by the
police for sex offenders, in terms of how this system can effect to re-integration of them into
community. It is true that supervising released offenders in community is important in order
to prevent their re-offending especially when their possibility to re-offend is not low, but we
also need to try to re-integrate them into society. Therefore, I am going to discuss how we
can build community support for released sex offenders along with supervision. Also, I am
going to discuss why most Japanese people support this system even though information on
sex offender can only be released to the police, not to people in community such as under
Meganfs Law in the U.S. In order to analyze that, I am going to compare how people put
their trust on the law enforcement agencies among Japan and the U.S. Furthermore, by
comparing sex crime provisions in Japanese Criminal Code and those in some western
countries, I am going to discuss whether Japanese society is more lenient for sex crimes, or
more difficult for sex offenders to be re-integrated."
María Alejandra Salazar Rojas (Colombia)
Título: "La ciudadanía de los Apátridas en la UE: Una perspectiva utópica actual."
Abstract: "En el mundo la condición de apátrida se categoriza como una constante de
transgresión a los derechos humanos, aún así, el número de apátridas en la actualidad
supera los 15 millones de personas. Esta situación permite diferenciar las categorías de
nacionalidad y apatridia pues de ellas depende la protección, derechos y garantías
transnacionales de acceso al hombre. Sin embargo, las protecciones humanitarias están en
gran manera referidas a quienes tienen la calidad de ciudadanos de un Estado. Ello se
manifiesta en los criterios legales de beneficios y limitaciones que prepondera la ciudadanía,
es así como en este período de la globalización, o del neoliberalismo, o la era del
conocimiento, ésta calidad, proyecta la condición de persona erróneamente. Lo que ha sido
reflejado en la falta de acceso a amparos que atraviesan quienes tienen la calidad de
apátridas, pues no pueden ejercer derechos adquiridos en relación a los principios pro-
homine; situación fáctica que se ve reflejada al no poder oficializar sus matrimonios,
tampoco el nacimiento de sus hijos, tener acceso a la sanidad gratuita, a estudiar en colegios
públicos y mucho menos a adherirse a un trabajo legal, pues estos, obedecen de
documentos de identidad los cuales no pueden obtener, e incluso en muchos casos ha
adquirir el derecho de asilo, entre otros derechos limitados. De lo cual quien tiene
legalmente una nacionalidad puede hacer referencia a requerimientos, amparos y beneficios
otorgados mediante leyes o normas del Estado- nación e incluso de los que estén ratificados
en los rangos internacionales, y que a contrario sen-su; los apátridas se sumergen en la era
de los sin potestad a ejercer sus derechos."
Maria João Guia (Portugal)
Título: "Immigration, Crime and Justice."

Abstract: "With the goal of globalisation, industrialised countries have become richer, while
the Third World ones have experienced more inequalities. In consequence, a big
displacement of communities have been happening, looking for better conditions of life.
Some countries of destiny are still not prepared to receive such a big number of immigrants
and to deal with new sort of crimes that appear as a result of this new reality. Criminality
related with immigration has been lately studied deeply. Crimes like smuggling, human
trafficking, aiding & abetting illegal immigration, illegal work, sex industry and human
exploitation, extortion, faking documents are, apparently, increasing among ethnic minorities
and they are related to avulted profits, threatening national security of the countries of
destiny. Many of these crimes are attributed to immigrants. Nevertheless, immigrants are
also the major victims of these crimes. Immigrants have been also charged of the late wave
of violent crimes in some south European countries. This is a problem which concerns every
European country, especially within the Schengen space, where circulation became free. In
our workshop we show different features of criminality attributed to immigrants and to
foreigners in different countries. We analyse some type of crimes committed by main
nationality of origin of the foreign population (in the Portuguese prisons) compared with
other countries. We will expose cases of violent and organised international crimes between
Brazil and Europe and other countries. We will also try to show if it's possible that the
criminal panorama of some countries can be/was displaced to other immigrant receiving
countries. Furthermore, we try to analyse the problems of immigrants inmates /illegal
immigrants accessing to justice."

Maria Letizia Zanier (Italy)
Title: "Functional Alternatives to Compulsory Prosecution in Italy."

Abstract: "In this paper I will discuss functional alternatives to the legality principle in the
Italian criminal justice system. The aim is to analyse prosecutorial and judicial practice rather
than the 'black letter' legal rules. In so doing I will present empirical data. This analysis
intends to cast light upon specialisation within prosecution offices and courts, the use of the
so-called "riti alternativi" (short proceedings) and the impact limitation of actions (i.e.
prescrizione). All these aspects are relevant to a better understanding of the relationship
between law and practice in enforcing law. In the shadow of the legality principle, Italian
legal actors have extensive discretionary powers. The existence of "good" and "bad"
practices emerges from the interviews conducted. The crucial question concerns the risks
linked to such forms of subjective discretion and the potential ways to regulate them."

Marijke ter Voert (Netherlands)
Title: "Comparing Disputing Behaviour between countries; (un)common findings."
"This paper compares empirical results of studies into justiciable problems from
different countries. The paper shows some common findings in the incidence of disputes and
disputing behaviour. Divorce cases are compared in more detail."

Marina Kurkchiyan (United Kingdom)
Título: "WG Comparative Legal Culture. Legal Culture Approach: Critical

Abstract: "At this session we will examine current debates about legal cultures and the
merits of the concept for studing law in different socio-cultral settings. Methodological issues
will also be raised for examination and assessment on the potential of using qualitative and
quantitative methods to gather research data on legal cultures and rule of law in society."

Marina Pessoa Henriques (Portugal)

Título: "Labour human rights: ILO and the case of Portugal."
Abstract: "The transnational dimension of labour disputes partake an increasingly
complementary role within and beyond the national systems, especially in the current
context of labour relations' globalisation in which the States face growing challenges.
According to the perspective of the sociology of law, this paper develops a theoretical and
analytical analysis on the tension between the paradigms of labour human rights and labour
governance. The relevance of the International Labour Office (ILO) as an international forum
for the promotion and protection of labour rights - including procedures for complaints,
framed in the traditional legal system in which the ILO - has its grounds in its function of
monitor before the effectiveness of international labour standards. The paper thus aims to
analyse exogenous influences on Portuguese labour relations, taking as main indicators the
role of the ILO's special control system in the field of international labour human rights'
adjudication. In this work, the effectiveness of national standards is studied by using the ILO
system of complaints as an indicator of ineffective labour human rights in Portugal. The
international adjudication is also faced as a solution to access to labour justice, so that the
control system is perceived as a transnational remedy to labour disputes arising within the
national space."
Marta Vignola (Italy)
Title: "A National Way to International Justice? International courts vs. National

Abstract: "I am about to reconstruct these cases, being completely aware that I will ask for
symbolic punishment, symbolic justice for the second time .assuming that justice is symbolic
.but I think that it is not symbolic .because, even if it is only limited, is translated into the
assertion of criminal liability, and not followed by the serving of the sentence, I believe that,
before humanity, it is worth saying: "This person is guilty "." From the closing speech of
Public Prosecutor Dr. Caporale, 28 February 2007 In our Segunda Patria - Argentina -the
dictatorial militaristic regime, established on 24 March 1976 by means of a coup d'état
according to the standard practice, committed the genocide of an entire generation. 30,000
young people passed away. Many were Italians among them. Tanos. In 1983, in the bunker
courtroom of Rebibbia, in the Court of Assizes in Rome, the first proceedings against some
military of the Argentinean junta started. A national court without universal jurisdiction had
to judge eight cases of people coming from other countries, accused with crimes against
Italian citizens who suffered gross violations of their human rights in Argentina. Several
witnesses were called to give evidence on circumstances and individuals they knew at that
time, and induced to recall horrendous facts occurred under the dictatorial regime. The
proceedings ended on 6 December 2000. The judges of the Court of Assizes sentenced, in
the name of the Italian people, those who were liable for the death of their co-nationals. The
second proceedings, started in 2003, ended on 14 March 2007, with life sentence for five
Argentinean military liable for the death of three Italian citizens. The result of these
proceedings has great significance, not only because it confirms - for the first time at the
legal stage - the practice of kidnapping, torture, and illegal suppression of thousands of
people under the regime of military juntas, but also because it reaffirms the competence of a
national jurisdiction for crimes prejudicial to fundamental rights of citizens abroad,
legitimizing the possibility to prosecute crimes against humanity at the international stage."
Masayuki Murayama (Japan)
Title: "Disputing Behaviour Survey and Its Problems."

Abstract: "We compare findings of survey in different countries and discuss on
methodological problems to improve the research."

Masayuki Murayama (Japan)

Title: "Alternative Dispute Resolution in Context."
Abstract: "Interests in Alternative Dispute Resolution are still widely shared and spreading.
We will discuss on the viability of ADR in different socio-cultural and polkiticall contexts."

Matxalen Legarreta Iza (Leioa)

Título: "El tiempo donado en el ámbito doméstico: Tiempo moralizado, tiempo

Abstract: "El tiempo donado en el ámbito doméstico: Tiempo moralizado, tiempo politizado
y tiempo encarnado La ponencia tiene como objetivo realizar un análisis del ámbito
doméstico a partir de una perspectiva de la sociología del tiempo. Para ello se toma como
punto de partida una investigación cualitativa realizada por la autora en la Comunidad
Autónoma de Euskadi con la ayuda económica del Instituto Vasco de la Mujer-Emakunde. La
propuesta apuesta por conceptualizar el tiempo de trabajo doméstico y de cuidados como un
tiempo donado: un tiempo que no se vende ni se regala y que opera de una forma distinta
(no opuesta) a la cuantificación y a la mercantilización. El don funciona en base a una lógica
que supone unas pautas que permanecen tácitas y que conllevan una relación de
reciprocidad; descansa sobre la obligatoriedad de dar, recibir y devolver. Una aproximación a
lo doméstico desde la noción de tiempo donado permite extender su análisis más allá de los
aspectos materiales (que pueden ser estudiados a través de los datos de las Encuestas de
Usos del Tiempo), para profundizar en la dimensión moral (moralización del tiempo) y
relacional (reciprocidad), así como en las relaciones de poder que subyacen a ellas
(politización del tiempo). En el ámbito doméstico además, es el ciclo vital el que determina
cuándo es tiempo de dar, recibir y devolver tiempo de trabajo doméstico y de cuidados y,
por lo tanto, entra en juego otra acepción, el tiempo encarnado, un tiempo que ya no es
constitutivo de la relación, sino de los sujetos que forman parte de ella."
Mavis Maclean (United Kingdom)
Title: "Parenting and marital breakdown: an international comparison of judicial
decisions and social interventions from a gender perpective."

Abstract: "Marital breakdown and the reorganisation that it requires are powerful indicators
of changes in the norms that apply to men and women in their parental roles. At the judicial
level how are decisions made concerning the future role of the parents? is equality an ideal
or a reality? is mother dominant? are fathers expectations realistic? what other interventions
are brought in? we seek an international comparative discussion of the these issues, using
empirical data."

Megherbi Salim, Christophe Dubois, Frédéric Schoenaers et David Delvaux

Titre: "Action publique en détention : régulation des activités pédagogiques dans
les prisons belges."

Abstract: "Depuis quelques années, de nouvelles attentes pèsent sur le monde
pénitentiaire, comme l'indique l'emploi de plus en plus fréquent du concept de « peine utile
». Ainsi, en Belgique, la loi de principes adoptée en 2005 organise la détention à l'aide de
grandes orientations et réaffirme l'objectif de réinsertion assigné à la peine, et complété par
ceux de réparation et de réhabilitation. Ce texte met également l'accent sur les droits des
détenus et, notamment, sur leur droit à l'éducation et à la formation professionnelle,
désignés comme les moyens privilégiés pour atteindre ces nouveaux objectifs de la peine.
L'objectif de cette communication vise tout d'abord à décrire l'organisation concrète des
activités de formation et d'enseignement à destination des détenus dans les établissements
francophones et néerlandophones. Ensuite, après avoir identifié ces différentes activités et
les divers acteurs concernés par leur organisation, il s'agira de rendre compte de
l'éclatement des modes de coordination locale. Enfin, deux modèles de régulation externe
seront proposés afin de rendre compte des mécanismes d'action publique par lesquels
acteurs politiques, administratifs et associatifs interagissent au quotidien pour enseigner et
former en prison. Ces deux modèles permettent d'éclairer les jeux d'action organisée offrant
aux détenus la capacité de bénéficier effectivement des droits que leur reconnaît la loi. Cette
communication s'appuiera sur une méthode (qualitative) et une grille d'analyse empruntées
à la sociologie de l'action organisée (Crozier et Friedberg, 1977) et visera à étayer
empiriquement le concept de « droits-capacités » (Sen, 2004) dans le champ pénitentiaire."
Michael González-Cruz (Puerto Rico)
Title: "Puerto Rico y los EEUU: Espiral de Violencia y Represion."

Abstract: "Guibernau (1999) proposed that nationalist movements develop both cultural
resistance and armed struggle according to their historical context, the activism of the
diaspora, and the support they receive from the public. Puerto Rican revolutionary nationalist
organizations have developed both forms of struggle. The Macheteros, in particular, continue
their militancy and participate in the mass struggle. According to Fine (1999), violent political
activism directly promotes the incorporation of sympathizers into the militant movement.
Fine argues that the press tends to legitimate violent actions by allowing a dialogue about
means and ends. From the beginning, the actions of the Macheteros have had an inherent
political meaning that has been able to capture the attention of the masses through the mass
media. According to Addison (2002), revolutionary nationalism does not need to terrorize the
population or militarily defeat the colonial regime but rather has to demonstrate that the
regime is vulnerable by weakening its political forces while the nationalist movement creates
parallel structures of organization and power. The armed propaganda of the clandestine
nationalist organizations in Puerto Rico has begun to weaken the annexation effort and
strengthen the militancy of the entire nationalist movement by demonstrating that the
regime does not have absolute control of the population."

Mihaela Vancea (Pompeu Fabra University)
Title: "Immigrants' Transnational Political Engagement: The Case of Immigrant
Associations in Barcelona."

Abstract: "This study addresses two fundamental questions in the transnational migration
research field: whether or not all immigrants engage in political transnationalism? And which
are the main determinants of their transnational political activism? To answer the first
research question, I specifically compare different degrees of transnational political
engagement of various national/ethnic origin immigrant associations in Barcelona. To answer
the second research question, I focus on meso- and macro- levels determinants. The study
demonstrates that transnational political engagement is not generalised among all immigrant
associations in Barcelona, presents a relatively low level of regularity, and is generally
nationally based. It also demonstrates the importance of studying the effect of the exit
context and, in particular, of the political opportunity structure in home country on the
political transnationalism of immigrant associations. Meso- level determinants like social
networks and sources of funds also seem to explain the variance in immigrant associations'
transnational political engagement."

Mikael Madsen (Denmark)
Title: "'Legal Diplomacy': Law, Politics and European Human Rights."

Abstract: "The history of the negotiation and institutionalization of the European Convention
on Human Rights offers a striking account of the innovation of a new legal subject and
practice - European human rights - that went along with, but also beyond, the political and
legal genesis of Europe following World War II. When analysed in-depth, the rise of the
European human rights institutions shows also how law and lawyers played key roles in the
early politics of European integration, as well as how the subtle combination of law and
politics - as both national and international strategies - continued to play a decisive part in
the making of European human rights. It is on the basis of such a detailed empirical analysis,
that the paper suggests the overall argument of European integration as a multi-level and
pluralistic process in which the rise of European human rights forms and important, yet often
overlooked, component."

Mikael Rask Madsen (Denmark)
Title: "In Defence of Social - in Sociology of Law."

Abstract: "By the success of the work of Bruno Latour and others pursuing Actor-Network-
Theory (ANT), the question of what is the social in sociology has once again become
disputed. While the critique formulated by Latour is not directly aimed at the sociology of
law, the implications for sociology of law are considerable. This presentation seeks, by the
help of Bourdieusian sociology, to establish a way of examining the social in law. It draws on
the idea of law being subject not only of its own logics but perhaps particularly social logics
and, thus, a key area of sociological investigation."

Minna Viuhko (Finland)

Title: "Studying human trafficking in Finland: methodological and conceptual

Abstract: "A joint Finnish-Swedish-Estonian study completed in 2008 analysed the
connections between organised crime and human trafficking for the purpose of sexual
exploitation. The aim of the study was to map the trafficking process and to study criminal
actors and organisations involved in human trafficking. This paper deals with the Finnish part
of the study and discusses prostitution-related human trafficking and organised procuring in
Finland in the 2000s. Finland was studied as a destination country to which foreign women
mainly coming from eastern and southern adjacent region are brought to sell sexual
services. The study focuses i.a. on the different means of control that the traffickers and
procurers impose on the procured women. Strict rules and long days, fines and debt
bondage, force, threats and lack of right to choose when to give up prostitution are common
ways of controlling the women. The study is qualitative in its approach. The data consists of
1) interviews, 2) pre-trial investigation and court documents and 3) media material. The
presentation focuses particularly on methodological issues. It is quite challenging to collect
and analyse data on issue that is such a new phenomenon as human trafficking (or at least
offence of human trafficking) in Finland. The lack of concrete cases and legal praxis makes it
difficult to study the phenomenon. Also the context (organised crime) and related terms are
ambiguous. In Finland, the distinction between human trafficking and procuring is neither
very clear, and this causes also methodological problems, e.g. when selecting the cases for
the analysis."
Mónica Zapico Barbeito (A Coruña)
Título: "El papel de la CPI en la lucha contra la impunidad en el 'nuevo orden

Abstract: "Ya desde su creación la Corte Penal Internacional (CPI) presentaba sustanciales
limitaciones que dificultaban a priori que pudiese ser un instrumento eficaz en la lucha contra
la impunidad. Importantes delitos internacionales no fueron introducidos en su Estatuto de
creación; se permitieron cláusulas que limitaban las competencias temporales y personales;
su autonomía quedó puesta en duda por el papel que juega en su funcionamiento el Consejo
de Seguridad de la ONU, etc. Por si fuera poco, EEUU no sólo no ha ratificado su Estatuto
sino que desde su creación sabotea directa e indirectamente su actividad. No obstante, lo
más significativo es el papel que la CPI ocupa dentro del nuevo contexto global basado en un
"sistema dualista" de justicia internacional. Existe así una justicia para los vencedores, las
grandes potencias que permanecen impunes por sus delitos de agresión enmascarados en
guerras humanitarias, por sus delitos contra la humanidad calificados como daños colaterales
o males necesarios en la lucha contra el terrorismo. Ante estos crímenes la CPI permanece
impotente, con una inercia cómplice e incapaz de garantizar ya no la justicia sino tan
siquiera disuadir mínimamente a las grandes potencias del uso de su fuerza descomunal. Por
otro lado está la justicia de los vencedores, las superpotencias encabezadas por los EEUU
que se ponen por encima del derecho internacional e imparten una nueva justicia que sólo
sirve a sus intereses particulares y que busca la venganza retributiva, ejemplar, no la
justicia. Y para impartir esa nueva justicia la CPI asume un papel limitado o inexistente. Los
encargados serán los Tribunales ad hoc o Tribunales nacionales creados para el caso
concreto y manipulados por los vencedores, Tribunales que vulneran los principios penales
más básicos (prohibición de irretroactividad, principio de legalidad.) y absolutamente
parciales y dependientes de quien los creó para así poder cumplir eficazmente y sin
limitaciones los fines de quién los creó."

Natalia Alvarez Molinero (UK)

Title: "The politics of human rights and the development of democracy."
Abstract: "Non-democratic regimes have been perceived as a threat to international peace
and security, not because they were involved in violations of human rights in their own
territories, but because their regimes were conceived as more prompt to violence and
terrorism. Bush Administration made this link very clear, but is Obama following the same
line? The question I will like to explore in this paper is in which sense international human
rights can make a contribution to develop democracy ( as Obama seems to proposed) or
rather the contrary, we should disregard any sort of imperialistic proposal that is forcing and
imposing democracy all over the world."
Pablo Glanc (Barcelona)
Título: "Justicia Transicional en la República Argentina. Los juicios en 2009."
Abstract: "El presente trabajo se propone analizar los procesos penales que en la actualidad
se sustancian en la República Argentina contra las fuerzas militares que hubieron participado
en la Dictadura perpetrada entre los años 1976 y 1983, desde una perspectiva sociológico-
jurídica. En primer lugar, se examinarán las distintas fuentes de derecho que deben observar
tales procesos, teniendo especialmente en cuenta los principios emanados del Derecho
Internacional Público; aquí se intentará determinar si, en base a las circunstancias
coyunturales de la época, puede entenderse que los mismos se encontraban ya en vigencia,
concluyendo que tal rama del derecho otorga sin más las herramientas necesarias para
sostener y desarrollar los juicios mencionados. Por otro lado, se examinará también el
paradójico y paradigmático rol que juegan los diversos Organismos de Derechos Humanos,
estableciendo una relación con los conceptos criminológicos de selectividad (y
contraselectividad) del poder punitivo, a la vez que se desarrollará el significado actual del
denominado derecho penal del enemigo. En este punto se arribará a la conclusión de que la
petición de punición de tales organizaciones es sumamente concordante con sus históricos
emblemas que les dieron origen."
Pablo Leandro Ciocchini (Madrid) y José Atiles Osoria (Puerto Rico)
Título: "Prisión, política y resistencia."

Abstract: "Este trabajo presenta la prisión como espacio de lucha entre la imposición de
biopolíticas hegemónicas y prácticas contra-hegemónicas de resistencia. Nos proponemos
presentar tres aspectos fundamentales que muestran esta construcción paradigmática de la
prisión. En primer lugar, plantearemos cómo la prisión nacida como "la fabrica perfecta" e
inmersa en una lógica de producción capitalista y "ortopedia social" consolidó una
construcción espacio-temporal novedosa. En términos espaciales la prisión se convirtió en un
lugar de exclusión/inclusión, mientras que en términos temporales impuso tiempo ultra-
regulado. La prisión que se inició con la doble función de producir bienes y obreros, quedo
con el tiempo convertida en un mero depósito de sujetos, sin pasado y sin futuro. Entrada la
posmodernidad, pese a la modificación de las lógicas espacio-temporales exteriores
(aceleración de la vida social y la virtualización del espacio), la prisión mantuvo su lógica
espacio-temporal pre-industrial. Este no-cambio implicó un viraje en su funcionalidad hacia
una lógica de marginalización total. En segundo lugar, presentaremos a la prisión en su
función política más específica: la de neutralización por vía de la desaparición de la vida
social de los movimientos políticos contra-hegemónicos, particularmente aquellos que al
ejercer la contingencia armada amenazan al poder hegemónico. Mediante las narrativas de
expresos pertenecientes a los movimientos independentistas vascos y puertorriqueños se
busca identificar el tipo de bio-política que se les aplica y cómo estos sujetos pierden todo
tipo de garantía social, jurídica y política y se transforman en vida nuda. Finalmente
discutiremos las prácticas de resistencia, desarrolladas por estos prisioneros políticos y de
guerra en el interior de las prisiones."

Patrice Melé (France)
Title: "Conflictos ambientales y localización del orden jurídico."

Abstract: "El derecho juega un papel importante en los conflictos ambientales: constituye
no solamente un recurso pero también un marco cognitivo. Aún fuera de toda denuncia, de
todo acto contencioso, el derecho contribuye a construir expectativas, a determinar
posiciones y conforma un recurso argumentativo. Los grupos movilizados presentan a
menudo sus acciones como un pedido de efectividad de las normas jurídicas y aspiran a una
adaptación local del orden jurídico. A veces, pelean para el reconocimiento de nuevos
derechos o para une juridificación mas fina de los impactos de las actividades cuestionadas.
Se multiplican instancias locales que negocian la aplicación de las reglas e integran la
vigilancia de los vecinos organizados. Acuerdos y contratos parecen instaurar la posibilidad
de una producción jurídica local. Los vecinos hacen la experiencia que el derecho no se aplica
solo, para que exista localmente, ciertos actores deben tomar a su cargo su movilización en
la situación local. Para adquirir un papel en una situación, el orden jurídico debe ser
actualizado localmente en el seno de procesos locales de regulación. Esta ponencia desarrolla
el aporte de este enfoque que constituye una de las hipótesis de un proyecto internacional
(Canada, France, Mexique): CONFURB: Conflits de proximité et dynamiques urbaines,
financé par l'Agence Nationale de la Recherche française."

Paula Pérez Morgado (Chile)
Título: "Reforma a la Justicia Juvenil en Chile: Un análisis del proceso."

Abstract: "En su historia reciente Chile ha vivido una serie de reformas a su sistema de
justicia. Entre estas reformas destacan por su importancia la reforma al proceso penal
(implementada gradualmente entre 2000 y 2005) y recientemente la reforma a la justicia
penal para adolescentes. Esta reforma fue discutida y planeada por largo tiempo (desde la
firma de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Derechos del Niño hasta su
implementación a mediados del 2007) y los énfasis cambiaron desde la necesidad de
proteger a los adolescentes frente al poder ilimitado del Estado sobre ellos a la necesidad de
defender a la sociedad del peligro que supuestamente constituyen los menores de edad
acusados de cometer faltas o delitos contra la ley penal. Este paper discute cómo se forjaron
las decisiones -en distintos niveles- que llevaron a pensar en la necesidad de modificar la
justicia juvenil y cómo esas decisiones se reflejan en las políticas públicas finalmente
llevadas a cabo. La metodología incluye análisis de prensa, documentos de trabajo y públicos
y principalmente el análisis de contenidos de la discusiones parlamentarias de la nueva ley
de responsabilidad penal adolescente."

Paulina Sepúlveda Bazaes (Chile / Madrid)

Título: "Los beneficios intrapenitenciarios en Chile: Su estado a 19 años de

Abstract: "En el presente articulo se hace una revisión del estado actual de los beneficios
intrapenitenciarios en Chile, estudiando su evolución a 19 años del retorno a la democracia y
a ocho años de la puesta en marcha del nuevo sistema penal. Se analizarán los cambios en
la entrega de estos beneficios, en relación a la Reforma Procesal Penal y a las modificaciones
a ésta que han ocurrido en los últimos años, analizándose en profundidad los cambios en la
frecuencia y el carácter de su entrega, en tanto son considerados por la ley chilena como
parte fundamental del proceso de reinserción a la sociedad de quienes cumplen una condena
privativa de libertad."
Paulina Sepúlveda Bazaes (Chile / Madrid)
Título: "Reforma Procesal Penal en Chile: Hacia una sociedad más democrática."
Abstract: "En el presente articulo se trata la Reforma Procesal Penal en Chile y la creación
de la Defensoría Penal Pública como puntos de inflexión en la cultura legal chilena, en tanto
hay un paso de una cultura legal inquisitiva (perseguidora) a una acusatoria (deliberativa).
En este sentido a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas se estudian las actitudes de
miembros y usuarios del sistema penal con respecto a la Reforma Procesal Penal y se indaga
en los valores democraticos que esta reforma intenta instaurar en las instituciones y en la
sociedad chilena en general."
Pedro Arellán Zurita (Venezuela)
Título: "Importancia de la Sociología Jurídica en el Estudiante de Derecho UCV-

Abstract: "El presente es un estudio que indaga acerca de la apreciación que tienen los
estudiantes de derecho de la UCV y cual es el rol que le otorgan en la formación del
profesional del derecho. Sus debilidades y fortalezas y los retos de esta disciplina la luz de
las nuevas tendencias jurídicas en aplicación del nuevo modelo socialista del siglo XXI en

Pietro Saitta (Italy)
Title: "A New Order for the Streets: Prostitutes, the Poor and Irregular Migrants in
an Italy Obsessed with Security."

Abstract: "This article presents the results of ethnographic research on Romanian
heterosexual prostitution carried out in the city of Messina (Sicily). Using different sources of
information, the author describes local and national levels and claims that current policies
implemented by the Italian authorities do not (really) combat prostitution but rather are
policies ‘of order' aimed at controlling illegal migrations. The paper highlights the failure of
measures intended to support exploited people and suggests that Italy is witnessing the
instrumental and paradoxical employment of human rights to conduct a struggle against
women, marginal people and the poor.
The author also discusses the methodological problems related to the analysis of sex market
and poses the problem of reliability of the collected data. The problem is valid in general as
most of the existing studies on this topic, especially if quantitative, have no solid ground.
Lack of accuracy is particularly evident with investigations which try to estimate, e.g., the
size of the illegal markets or the trajectories of the trafficked people; but also qualitative
studies conducted by means of in-depth interviews or participant observation face similar
problems. Elements such as: (a) the gender of the investigator, (b) the time the researcher
is allowed to spend together with the studied people, (c) the setting of the study, (d) the
interferences coming from the environment and (e) the way the actors present their Self
hinder the process of knowledge in a way that exceeds other fields of investigation.
Moreover, workplaces and institutions, which are at the two ends of the career of a sex-
worker, for different reasons are not good places where to conduct research on commercial
sex; notwithstanding that, most of the existing studies keep employing these settings for
their analyses. The result is that most of the data deployed for defining policies on this topic
are insufficient, and the undertaken measures result more from the ideology of the legislator
rather than from a satisfactory knowledge of the considered phenomena.
The paper is also intended to be a contribution to the cause of "self-ethnography" and
"reflexivity" and it will show limits and biases of the logic employed by the author himself."

Ralf Rogowski (UK)
Title: "Reflexive Coordination of European Governance."

Abstract: "The paper introduces the concept of reflexive coordination in European law and
policy making. It develops its systemtheoretical underpinnings and demonstrates its use as a
conceptual tool in the FP7 Collaborative Project "Meeting the challenges of economic
uncertainty and sustainability through employment, industrial relations, social and
environmental policies in European countries" (GUSTO) that started in March 2009. A central
topic is an assessment of the limits of European coordination policies as regulatory
instruments in the current economic and employment crisis situation. The paper
demonstrates the need for second-order "coordination of coordination" in reforming EU policy

Rashmi Jain (India)
Título: "WG Law and Migration. Law, Human Rights and Migrants."

Abstract: "International Sociological Association Annual Conference of the Research
Committee of Sociology of Law Working Group On Law and Migration Law, Human Rights and
Migrants ONATI, July 2009 Dr Arvind Agrawal (,Head,
Department of Sociology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, and Convener, Ad Hoc group of
Sociology of Law, Indian Sociological Society, India. Abstract Within the existing framework
of International Law, is there any scope for the host state to create conditions for a more
meaningful and dignified way of enforcing the human rights of migrants from the countries
and the communities outside? The Rights and Law discourse delineates such a facilitation
process with which the citizens must get around them for regulating the process of living
cohesively. To this enforceability, the means of legal regime is an anchoring point. As for the
case of migrants (both internal and international migrants), displaced persons, refugees and
asylum seekers, there is a need for going beyond the rights accorded by citizens among
themselves to the issue of Constitutionality, State as system of rights called as Human
Rights. In this regard, the legal norms as human rights provide the capacity for the Migrants
to have the rights as a political will and as a medium of regulating the state and society to
respect the human dignity of these social groups in the host society. Law, thus provides
intersubjective recognition for the migrants as a class of people along with the natives in a
given society and community. The functionality, validity of law to regulate the human rights
of the migrants in the host society/migrated place and state of affairs of migrants in a host
state will be captured with a set of papers among the sessions proposed."

Rashmi Jain (India)
Título: "Women Migrants and Human Rights: A Socio-legal Analysis."

Abstract: "Traditional societies did not witness large scale migration as compared to modern
societies. Earlier studies have shown migration being heavily dominated by males in India.
But in last two decades, these trends are showing a dramatic change. According to 1991
Census data, women migrants have outnumbered male migrants. The size of female
migrants in urban areas was found to exceed 31.39 million by around two million from male
migrants approximating 29.5 million. Similarly, the Census results of 2001 show an upward
swing. In another survey of six cities Bangalore, Lucknow, Vishakhapatnam, Faridabad,
Trichur and Puri by the National Institute on Urban Affairs (NUIA) in 1988, the work
participation rates for women in low income households, majority of them were migrant
households. It was as high as 46.51 percent in Bangalore and Vishakhapatnam.
Migration of females in middle class is caused by spread of education and economic
independence and in lower classes due to economic misery and unemployment. There are
various laws and legal issues that concern migrants, especially women in the perspective of
Human Rights.
This paper seeks to examine the case of female migration and Human Rights in a socio-legal

Raúl Ruiz Callado (Alicante)
Título: "Las políticas migratorias en la Unión Europea. Análisis sociológico/Red

Abstract: "En esta investigación se ha pretendido analizar el estado actual de las políticas
de inmigración en el seno de la Unión Europea (UE), con especial referencia a las
aportaciones normativas españolas, ya que en los últimos años estamos asistiendo al
despertar de un destacado interés mediático, ciudadano y académico a propósito del diseño
de una política migratoria que sea capaz de afrontar el reto que supone que España actúe
como la frontera sur de la UE, teniendo que controlar y regular los flujos migratorios
extracomunitarios. En la actualidad los desplazamientos son más transnacionales de lo que
eran años atrás. Asimismo, son más globales, sobrepasando los límites geográficos y
económicos de muchas zonas. Estos movimientos migratorios responden a la idea de
civilización tal como la definiera Castles (1998): es decir, ciudadano sería aquel que accede a
la condición de tal a través del trabajo. Ante esta situación, dos son los modelos de política
de integración que facilitan el establecimiento permanente de los inmigrantes: la
regularización y la naturalización. Ambas deberían llevar al acceso de la condición de
ciudadanía de la población inmigrante con el pleno disfrute de sus derechos políticos, sociales
y culturales. El problema es que en la UE no existe, tal como ha quedado evidenciado en esta
investigación, una política uniforme de integración por la persistencia del Estado-nación
como unidad política en la toma de decisiones y a la identificación de los ciudadanos
europeos como ciudadanos de su Estado-nación."

Renata Almeida da Costa (Brasil)

Title: "Ruptura comunicacional, punitivismo e transformação social no Brasil."
Abstract: "O Direito no Brasil, a partir da Constituição Federal de 1988, assume um papel
de desenvolvimento e de melhoria das condições de vida dos cidadãos via proteção e
promoção das garantias fundamentais nela previstas. É fato, contudo, que em alguns
espaços, o sentido constitucional foi sendo subvertido, prevalecendo uma comunicação
distinta daquela originariamente pretendida. As instituições destinadas à execução penal são
um grande exemplo dessa ruptura comunicacional. Tanto a população intramuros como a
extramuros concordam na existência de um senso de direito não-oficial contrário à carta
constitucional. O propósito do artigo está na reafirmação do sentido comunicacional das
garantias fundamentais aos custodiados como forma de transformação social da realidade
criminal brasileira."
Keywords: Direito penal; garantias constitucionais; prisões; transformação social.
Reza Banakar (UK)
Title: "Power, Culture and Method in Comparative Law."
Reza Banakar

University of Westminster - School of Law
International Journal of Law in Context, 2009
Hart Publishing, 2007

Abstract: "This review essay draws on a recently edited handbook by Esin Orucu and David
Nelken to reflect on the methodological concerns and challenges of comparative law and
socio-legal research. It argues that the contextualisation of laws should be regarded as the
indispensable methodological characteristic of all comparative studies of law that aspire to
transcend the understanding of law as a body of rules and doctrine. It further argues that
although the cultural perspective facilitates contextualisation of the law, a cultural
understanding is neither a precondition for undertaking comparative legal research nor
necessarily the correct approach under all circumstances; for certain aspects of law and legal
behaviour need not be conceptualised in cultural terms. The essay concludes by proposing
that the combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches could provide a meta-
methodological framework within which specific comparative techniques can be employed.
Such a framework will enable comparatists and socio-legal researchers to account for how
law interacts with, and simultaneously manifests itself at, the macro, micro and the
intermediary meso levels of society over time."
Keywords: Contextualisation, comparative law, socio-legal research, power, legal culture,
pluralism, legal traditions, methodology, harmonisation, unification, interdiscipliniarity.

Reza Banakar (UK)
Title: "The Elephant in the Courtroom: Rights, Race and Religion in the Age of

Abstract: "The aim of this paper is to explore the interaction between the counter-terrorism
policy and legislation, on the one hand, and the public political discourse on the roots of
terrorism, on the other. It will employ three interrelated perspectives in order to examine the
law in its various discursive contexts. The paper starts by briefly describing and examining
the development of the UK anti-terrorism legislation. Then it will go beyond the legal context
of anti-terror laws by focusing on the clashes and disagreement between the government
and the judiciary on human rights issues emerging out of the introduction of draconian anti-
terrorism laws. It will also view counter-terrorism legislation in the broader context of the
UK's criminal policy. This second perspective places the law in its political context. Finally,
this paper will examine the socio-cultural context in law, i.e. how law constructs and
communicates the socio-cultural values related to terrorism through its internal operations
and external interactions with other socio-political forces."

Ricardo León Pastor (Perú)
Título: "Análisis argumentativo del juicio a Fujimori y consecuencias políticas en

Abstract: "El juicio al ex presidente peruano Alberto FUJIMORI por delitos de lesa
humanidad ha conmocionado el entorno político latinoamericano, al ser la primera vez que
un ex mandatario ha sido sometido a la acción de la justicia ordinaria en estado de
detención. Las estrategias de argumentación y el uso de diversos tipos de argumentos,
además de un análisis de las consecuencias políticas que formadores de opinión han
propalado en medios de comunicación, serán el objeto de estudio de la ponencia."

Robert Rosen (USA)
Title: "Outsourced Legal Work and Regional General Counsels."

Abstract: "The division of legal labor is being elaborated as clients and lawyers seek cost
minimization by transnational contracting out. This provision of professional services
minimizes the worker's span of control. Concepts of "legal process" depict an organic
division of labor in which power is hierarchically embedded. By contrast, corporations
implement their own legal power by a mechanical division of labor, in which different legal
departments are formed for each country (or region) in which the company operates.
Although the home office has formal hierarchical power, national legal processes contest this
division of labor. In legal outsourcing, the subaltern lawyer is without power. In multi-
national corporations, the subaltern lawyer escapes the span of control of the home country.
This paper examines these two divisions of legal labor and how they construct and are
constructed by legal disputes."

Rogelio Pérez Perdomo (Venezuela)
Title of the Panel: "Legal Scholars."

Abstract: "Legal scholars ("juristas académicos" in Spanish) are an important part of the
legal profession. They are the people of knowledge: their mission is the production, diffusion
or critique of legal knowledge. In spite of their importance in the legal and political systems
there are not many studies of them and few analyses were done with a social sciences
This panel invites studies on legal scholars broadly understood. This includes the doctrinally
oriented legal scholars as well as interdisciplinary scholars with focus on the law (law and
economics, law and society and philosophy of law scholars). The eventual purpose would be
to produce a collective volume in which we will analyze the education, type of production,
public and impact of their scholarship.
Sociologists of science can serve as models for our inquiries. They have studied questions
such as who become a scientist; what are the educational backgrounds, values and attitudes
of scientists; what are the organizations where they develop their work; what do they
produce and to whom is it addressed. In general terms, the sociologists of science address
the question of the place of scientists in society.
The role and importance of legal scholars had changed over time. For this reason this panel
welcomes people interested in historical periods as well as present day scholars and
scholarship. Those interested in institutions of scholarship such as research institutes,
academies, law schools and journals, are also welcome.
Papers can be written in the Institute working languages (English, Spanish, French). The
panel organizer is Rogelio Pérez-Perdomo. Inquiries about the panel are very welcome
(, o "

Rogelio Pérez Perdomo (Venezuela)
Título: "Investigadores e investigación jurídica en Venezuela contemporánea."

Abstract: "El paper es un adelanto de la investigación en curso sobre juristas académicos,
es decir sobre los productores del conocimiento jurídico y las instituciones que enmarcan
esta producción. Venezuela contemporánea está dividida en dos subperíodos principales que
denominamos la democracia de partidos o "cuarta república" (1958-1998) y propiamente el
presente, que puede llamarse tiempos de revolución o de chavismo (1999-2009). Los
períodos son construidos atendiendo a la periodización política usual de la historia
contemporánea de Venezuela. Para cada uno de estos períodos se analiza quiénes son las
personas con el prestigio de creadores del conocimiento jurídico y socio-jurídico.
Conforme a la metodología utilizada para períodos más temprano de la historia de
Venezuela, se seleccionan quiénes son los juristas académicos de mayor prestigio para
construir un grupo de tamaño manejable, se trabaja con la técnica de biografía colectiva, se
analizan los cuadros institucionales en los cuales han desarrollado su labor y el lugar que han
tenido en la vida social y política."

Rogelio Pérez Perdomo (Venezuela)
Título: "Los Juristas Académicos en la Independencia de Venezuela."

Abstract: "Consideramos "Juristas académicos" a los profesores de derecho o los autores de
obras jurídicas. Venezuela se declaró independiente en 1811, pero el período analizado
incluye la maduración o crisis de la sociedad colonial y los tiempos inciertos del inicio
republicano (1750-1842). Se localizaron 15 biografías (incluyendo 10 profesores) y se
analizó la formación académica, la producción intelectual y el papel político, utilizando la
técnica de biografía colectiva. El grupo incluye cinco sacerdotes, todos profesores, que
tuvieron un papel importante en la Iglesia Católica, estrechamente vinculada al estado en la
primera parte del período. Los demás tuvieron una actuación política de primera magnitud.
Sólo tres son conocidos por la abundancia e importancia de sus escritos: Juan Germán
Roscio, Francisco Javier Yanes y Andrés Bello. Otros tres escribieron menos pero sus
publicaciones fueron importantes. El trabajo analiza el tipo de producción intelectual y la
calidad de la participación política de esta reducida elite intelectual. Ellos fueron muy
importantes imaginando y definiendo el estado venezolano y la calidad de ciudadano. A
pesar de trabajar con líderes político-militares muy fuertes (Miranda, Bolívar, Páez)
mostraron completa independencia frente a ellos y fueron muy respetados por ellos. "
Title: "Legal Scholars in the Venezuelan Independence."
"Legal scholars" are the law professors and the authors of law books or articles.
The analyzed period is 1750-1842. Fifteen biographies were located and using the technique
of collective biography we analyzed intellectual formation, intellectual production and political
roles. In the group there were five priests-professors with very important roles in the
Catholic Church, closely associated with the state in the first part of the period. 11 jurists
(including one of the five priests) were important in the political arena or in the constitution
of the state. Three laic jurists are recognized for the abundant and important writings: Juan
Germán Roscio, Francisco Javier Yanes and Andrés Bello. Other four (including one priest)
wrote less but their writings were politically influential. The paper analyzes the type of
intellectual production and the quality of political participation of this top of the intellectual
elite. They were very important imagining the Venezuelan state and defining the quality of
citizens. They were highly independently minded, given the strong political and military
leaders they had to deal with (Miranda, Bolívar and Páez)."
Keywords: 1. Legal scholars. 2. Venezuelan independence. 3. Collective biography.

Sandra Araujo (Portugal)
Title: "Solving disputes outside judicial courts in Maputo city center."

Abstract: "The liberal conception that State has and should have the monopoly of
production and administration of law and justice has been questioned by both Anthropology
and Sociology of Law, but also by the difficulties the judicial courts have been facing when it
comes to guaranteeing citizens' access to justice. All over the world the weaknesses of the
liberal model of justice are increasingly evident as well as the need to resort to other forms
of justice. From the last decades of the 20th century, the obstacles to justice are obliging
societies to a plurality of reforms which include the concepts of alternative or informal
justice. Although they are designated as ‘alternative' and seen many times as new models of
justice they resume to formulas that have always existed. What is now new is that they are
stimulated by the State in the search of a better justice system.
In Maputo we find a huge diversity of extra-judicial instances solving disputes. Some of them
are old local institutions and have their origins mainly in the community; others were created
or recreated by State initiative; others are new and suffered different kinds of international
impulses (from global NGOs, from globalized churches or from the private capitalist sector).
All of them try to look for legitimacy in their proximity to community, but combine it in
different ways with other legitimacy factors like global or State support. In this paper, based
on a field work conducted from November 2008 to March 2009, I analyse the diversity of
dispute resolution forums in Maputo urban centre showing the complexity of what I
designate by community justices and the role they play in promoting citizen's access to

Sandrasegaram Paralingam (UK)

Title: "Enforcing Entitlements of non- State peoples in International Law -- Aiming

Abstract: "The contemporary international law recognises the state as primary and non –
state actors as secondary subjects. These two categories of entities retain legal personalities
and are entitled to enjoy rights and duties in the international legal order. This development
and evolution of international law has its inherent conflict which is reflected in many
contemporary intra-state conflicts which are often identified as challenge to regional and
international peace and security.
This proposed paper is intended to focus and concentrate on the legal complexities of
evolution of rights and duties of state and non-state actors particularly non –state people
and how the trend is transformed as either challenges to sovereignty or international legal
order or both. The out comes of internal conflicts namely Bangladesh, East Timor, Kosovo,
Quebec and Scotland which may teach lessons to be learned for achieving Justice will be
given consideration. While tracing the legal jurisprudence of the settlements of the above
conflicts , discussion will be made to argue the need for recognising the principal of
universality of international law to deliver justice to the claimants of rights under
international and UN regimes and any failure to recognise the principle may jeopardise and
deny justice while continue to allow causes of internal conflicts in many parts of the world
particularly most vulnerable regions.
In the light of the above outlined legal background, it is proposed to deal with the
international legal dimensions of the sovereignty claim of the Tamil nation of SriLanka and
its international legal status which is experiencing impediments in enforcing recognition
due to contamination of geo – political interest , neo – colonial strategies, market for
arms sale , self interest of prominent members of international community and action under
the pretext of counter – terrorism.
In short this paper aims to conduct a legal inquiry on the obstacles of enforcements of
rights which are causes of internal conflicts."
Sasha Baglay (Canada)
Title: "Transformation of Migration Law: A Case of Economic Migration."
Abstract: "This paper explores the theoretical debates on the nature of migration regulation
in the context of globalization. While many areas of regulation started to develop through
non-hierarchical networks and out of multiple, often non-state, sources of normativity,
migration law is traditionally considered to remain highly state-centered, hierarchical and
centralized. In fact, some authors consider that migration law is the "last bastion" of state
sovereignty that allows exercising control over population and territory (Dauvergne, 2004).
This paper challenges the presumption that migration law continues to be a matter of
centralized state control and suggest that "disaggregation" of state sovereignty is happening
in the area of economic migration. Using examples of recently established Canada's
Provincial Nominee Programs (PNPs) and similar programs in other jurisdictions, the paper
demonstrates the emergence of provinces, territories and municipalities as actors in
migration regulation and policy-making. PNPs, which give a province the power to select a
certain number of economic migrants and nominate them for immigration into that province,
signify a change in Canada's century-old immigration practice under which the selection and
admission of immigrants (except for Quebec) has been exercised almost exclusively through
the federal immigration program. The development of PNPs has led to the creation of a two-
level immigration system where economic immigrants may immigrate through either federal
or provincial programs. The paper discusses the implications of PNPs and similar programs
for opportunities for migration, rights of non-citizens as well as de-centralization of migration
regulation and 'disaggregation' of state sovereignty in migration law. While offering potential
extended opportunities for economic migrants, the development of PNPs also raises concerns
about growing marketization of immigration and gender and racial impact on the immigration
pool. In addition to Canadian examples, the paper considers similar developments in
Australia as well as immigration-related legislation passed by some towns in the US."

Seda Kalem (Turkey)
Title: "Understanding the Making of a Juridical Field: The Practice and Institution of
Mediation in Turkey."

Abstract: "The draft bill on mediation in civil disputes is currently the subject matter of
controversies among various actors within the juridical field in Turkey. Some of these are
professional in nature. The controversy around whether and to what extent can mediation
provide an alternative to law and judicial processes deploy legal and juridical terminology.
Other disputes and polarizations have a more political and social character. Some actors see
mediation as a maneuver to overthrow the Republic's judicial system; while others note that
it is incompatible with the social fabric etc. In this paper, I discuss the preliminary findings of
my ongoing research focusing on how actors of mediation position themselves within these
debates and how they justify these positions in relation to their notions of law, how they talk
to and about the actors on "opposite" corners and how- if at all- mediation emerges as a
particular field of law. Using a Bourdieusian perspective I see practices, institutionalization
and relative autonomy of law an effect of social relations. By examining how these actors
think and talk about law and how they position themselves within both this world and
outside, I aim to develop an understanding of the social struggles and hierarchies that go
into the making of the practice and the institution of mediation in Turkey."
Stefania Pellegrini (Italy)
Title: "Civil Justice: bettween organization and co-operation."
Abstract: "The crisis of civil justice is a social problem that creates dangerous conseguences
in the relation between the sistem of justice, as social service, and the citizens. After a deep
analysis in Italy, it seems that one of the principle obstacle of the efficiency and of the
efficacy of civil justice is the lack of a real organization of the work of the cortes and a lack of
collaboration between the two protagonist of the process: the judges and the lawyer."
Stefanie Khoury (France)
Title: "Locating the Barriers to Corporate Accountability for Human Rights

Abstract: "There is a growing body of evidence that attests to both the direct and indirect
role of private corporations in the production of human rights abuses. In recent years,
scholars, lawyers and NGO activists have been working to develop the law towards corporate
human rights responsibilities. However, there has been no systematic empirical inquiry that
assesses the juridical barriers that might hold back the development of international/regional
law in its application to corporations. What is proposed, therefore, is a detailed empirical
inquiry that will assess the practicalities of developing human rights responsibilities for

Stefanie Khoury (France) and Pablo Ciocchini (Madrid)

Title: "Perceptions of the State of Exception From Within the Basque Country."
Abstract: "The conflict in the Basque Country between the separatist sectors and the
Spanish government has a long history. A formal state of exception was declared in the
Basque Country several times under Franco's dictatorship, although never since the
"Transition" to democracy in 1978; the Transition also witnessed the derogation of the
special anti-terrorist laws. Over the past thirty years, the Spanish government has claimed to
fight against terrorism using the rule of law and the respect of human rights. Recently,
however, the Spanish government was challenged at the European Court of Human Rights
for its use of the Ley de Partidos to ban political parties in the Basque Country. This has led
to the critique that fundamental rights are being obscured under the rhetoric of homeland
security. The Basque radical Left claim to be excluded from political life and claim to be
under a permanent 'State of Exception'. The discourse of a 'State of Exception' is popularly
and overtly used in Leftist propaganda, although it is undefined. How does the Basque
radical Left define the term 'State of Exception'? Is the radical Left challenging the concept of
democracy in Spain? What role does the European Court of Human Rights play in
constructing "democracy", and by the same token in the legitimation of regional
governments? This paper seeks to investigate these questions, exploring the possibilities of
reaching a coherent definition of what is understood as the 'State of Exception' from the
viewpoint of Basque radical Left groups. It will also scrutinize the role of the rule of law in
the demands upon the Spanish government for the respect of fundamental rights.
This paper relies seeks to understand the Basque radical Left perspective though a series of
semi-structured interviews with members of this sector together with the analysis of their
propaganda and communiqués. These perspectives will be considered alongside the current
Spanish legal framework in the fight against terrorism. Finally, Court jurisprudence will allow
for an understanding of the possible outcomes of the complaints filed by the Basque radical
Susan Silbey (USA) and Marc Hertogh (The Netherlands)
Title: "Comparative Studies of Legal Consciousness."

Abstract: "This session will be the kick-off meeting for a new project aimed at the
comparative study of legal consciousness. In this project, which ideally will include
researchers from many different countries, we are hoping to use a common set of data
collection instruments, modes of analysis, and sampling frames. We want to build on
previous studies using conversational interviews but also test some of the findings of
At the session, we plan to present a preliminary paper which will outline our first ideas for
the project. Moreover, we would like to (a) see if we can set up an informal research network
of interested scholars; as well as discuss (b) sampling strategies; (c) the topics/events to
inquire about in a common protocol; and (d) funding opportunities."

Susanne Karstedt (Germany)

Title: "Democratic Values and state violence: A cross-national study."
Abstract: "Democratic societies are built on the protection of the physical integrity of their
citizens from government use of force. Human rights regimes guarantee the physical
integrity, but the nation state as its guarantor is also the behemoth against which it has to
be defended. Violence by the state that threatens the physical integrity of citizens is rarely
directed indiscriminately against all citizens. Laws must be embedded in values that are
shared by the citizenry. The comparative study analyses for more than forty countries,
mature as well as transitional democracies the difference that democratic values make. The
results show that state violence is significantly higher where values support difference and
Swati Upadhyay and Trayosha Darapuneni (India)
Title: "Lok Adalats in India, a derivative form of conciliation."
Abstract: "Conciliation as a method of Alternative Dispute Resolution has become popular in
India. The Traditional Indian method of Dispute Resolution has been for the village elders to
congregate at the centre of the village and resolve the disputes of the villages. Features of
both have been combined to come up with the unique concept known as Lok Adalats in
Lok Adalat (literally translated to mean People's Courts) are organized sporadically by the
government at a location. Judges are often respectable members of the community who are
well versed with matters. They hear the matters, and try to bring about a settlement
between the parties. This settlement is a decree binding under law.
These Lok Adalats have been especially successful for the poorer sections of the population,
and in matters of maintenance and insurance.
This Paper shall look at the procedure, working and the success of the Lok Adalats in India."
Swati Upadhyay and Trayosha Darapuneni (India)
Title: "Migrant Woman's Reproductive Rights and International Law."
Abstract: "Women who migrate across national boundaries are typically non-nationals and
are unaccounted for by national rights frameworks and national health care systems. The
legal protection of migrant woman's reproductive health has never mattered more. The
central concern underlying this article is the reproductive health of migrant women. This
article addresses migrant woman's reproductive rights under international law, the barriers
they face in exercising those rights, and the international legal standards national
governments must uphold to ensure migrant woman's enjoyment of these inalienable rights.
These legal standards include ensuring access to information about pregnancy and sexually
transmitted disease, access to reproductive health services, and protection from sexual
violence, abuse, and trafficking Reproductive rights may also be understood to include
education about contraception and sexually transmitted infections, and freedom from
coerced sterilization and contraception, protection from gender-based practices such as
female genital cutting (FGC) and male genital mutilation. In December 1996, the UN
Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) signed an
agreement to pursue joint efforts to combat sexual violence, particularly against migrant
women and girls, as well as enhanced reproductive health programmes for migrants. The
agreement also calls for close cooperation in advocacy, research, and technical cooperation
between the two agencies. The situation still calls for the strengthening of international
jurisprudence regarding migrants' rights and increasing the pressure on national
governments to attend to the reproductive health of persons within their borders. Therefore
this article examines the principal international legal instruments available to migrant
woman's advocates and the reproductive rights those instruments guard. International
human rights law is a principal line of defense for migrant woman's reproductive rights."
Teresa Maneca Lima (Portugal)
Title: "Portugal and the European Court of Human Rights: 30 years of Interaction."

Abstract: "This paper draws on partial results of the research project titled "Reconstructing
human rights through transnational legal mobilization? Portugal and the European Court of
Human Rights," which has been conducted at the Centre for Social Studies at the University
of Coimbra. Funded by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT), this
project was initiated in October 2007 and will end in April 2010. The major objective is to
investigate the type of legal mobilization and the socio-legal significance of the cases against
Portugal in the ECHR and the motivations of the complainants. Since there is little knowledge
on the Portuguese experience with the ECHR, the project aims to add some value to socio-
legal studies on the legal mobilization of human rights in the Portuguese context. This paper
discusses the interaction between Portugal and the ECHR. Portugal became a member of the
Europe Council in 1976 and in 1978 ratified the European Convention on Human Rights. In
the last 30 years Portugal has not presented a pattern of heavy litigation. To demonstrate
the level and type of this legal mobilization of the ECHR, I focus on the last 10 years (from
1997 to 2007) and present a robot portrait of all decisions, including information on: type of
the complaint; type of legal cases; type of users of the ECHR; type of social conflicts behind
the legal disputes, both at the national and at the European Courts. This data shows that
moroseness of the courts has been the main cause of transnational legal mobilization in the
Portuguese context, and that the large majority of complainants are individuals, as opposed
to associations and corporations."

Thais Luzia Colaço (Brazil)

Title: "Os Direitos Das Populações Tradicionais Na Ordem Constitucional Brasileira
E Sua Relação Com O Acesso Aos Recursos Genéticos."

Abstract: "This text addresses the traditional populations in the Brazilian constitutional
order and its relation to access to genetic resources. Introduced the concept of traditional
communities, their importance to the protection of biodiversity. Also studied are the
Convention on Biological Diversity and its pervasive with the international agreement on
trade related intellectual rights of the WTO, better known by the acronym TRIPS.
Keywords: Traditional Populations, Brazil, Biodiversity."
"Este texto aborda as populações tradicionais na ordem constitucional brasileira e
sua relação com o acesso aos recursos genéticos. Apresenta o conceito de comunidades
tradicionais, sua importância para a proteção da biodiversidade. Também são estudados a
Convenção sobre Diversidade Biológica e sua transversalidade com o Acordo internacional
sobre direitos intelectuais relativos ao comércio da OMC, mais conhecido pela sigla TRIPS.
Palavras-chave: Populações Tradicionais, Brasil, Biodiversidade."
Texto elaborado como resultado do projeto e pesquisa Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento: a
proteção da biodiversidade e dos direitos culturais do indígena para a sustentabilidade,
financiado pelo CNPq e pela Fapergs. Grupo de pesquisa no CNPq – Direito, Meio Ambiente e
Doutora em Direito. Professora dos programas de Mestrado Stricto Sensu em
Desenvolvimento da Unijuí e Direito Ambiental da UCS. Pesquisador do grupo de pesquisa do
CNPq – Direito, Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento.
Doutora em Direito. Professora dos Cursos de Graduação e Pós-Graduação da Universidade
Federal de Santa Catarina. Coordenadora do grupo de pesquisa do CNPq em Antropologia
Jurídica – GPAJU, pesquisadora do CNPq."
Thamy Pogrebinschi (Brazil)
Title: "Law, Politics, and Pragmatism in Brazil."

Abstract: "The paper focuses on the relation of pragmatism and law-making, relying on an
empirical approach to some decisions of the Brazilian Supreme Court on relevant political
issues, and the consequences engendered by those in the country's institutional setting."

Ulrike Schultz (Germany)
Title: "WG Legal Profession. Women/Gender in the Legal Profession."

Abstract: "This subgroup of the legal profession group has been meeting regularly since it
was set up in 1991 and has produced several publications. It deals with gender questions in
the legal profession as well as in the judiciary and other fields of work for (women) lawyers."

Uta Stippel (Germany)
Title: "La orientación socioeducativa del régimen penitenciario juvenil en Chile: El
caso de la "Comunidad Tiempo Joven."

Abstract: "Con la entrada en vigencia de la Ley N° 20.084 sobre Responsabilidad penal
juvenil (LRPA) el 8 de Junio de 2007, por primera vez en la historia chilena se implementó un
sistema especial de responsabilidad penal juvenil para adolescentes entre 14 y 18 años.
La diferencia fundamental con el antiguo sistema punitivo y tutelar - que era fuente de
vulneraciones de normas jurídicas permanentes e inconstitucionales- es la norma de la LRPA
que dispone el alojamiento segregado de jóvenes y adultos en régimen de privación de
Además, por primera vez, se les garantiza por ley a los jóvenes en régimen de privación de
libertad, el acceso a actividades de formación escolar formal, a actividades prelaborales y
actividades de recreación. A través de este lineamiento de desarrollo socioeducativo
contemplado durante su permanencia en el recinto penitenciario, se debe promover el objeto
explícito, que es la reinserción del joven en la sociedad.
Esta ponencia se centrará en la pregunta por el impacto práctico que tuvo la LRPA tres
meses después de su puesta en vigencia, específicamente en cuanto a la orientación
pedagógica del régimen cerrado para jóvenes infractores en Chile.
Para abordarla, se presentarán los resultados del trabajo realizado a partir del año 2007 en
Santiago de Chile, que contó con la realización de una pasantía durante el mes de octubre en
el Centro de Internación Provisoria (CIP) y de Régimen Cerrado (CRC) "Tiempo Joven" en la
comuna de San Bernardo. Junto con desarrollar esta pasantía-observación en el CRC, se
realizaron 20 entrevistas dirigidas con jóvenes encarcelados. El objetivo era recibir
respuestas sobre el impacto práctico de la entrada en vigencia de la LRPA, a partir de la
mirada de sus afectados directos: los propios jóvenes encarcelados.
Las normativas jurídicas que regulan el régimen de estadía en centros cerrados, la propia
observación participante en "Tiempo Joven" y las percepciones de los jóvenes entrevistados
sirven como fundamento para responder la pregunta acerca de la existencia o no de una real
implementación, en la práctica cotidiana, de la normativa socioeducativa que contempla el
régimen penitenciario juvenil.
Se tratará entonces de contraponer la legalidad con la realidad."

Valeria Verdolini (Italy)
Title: "The words of law and War: collateral effects of International Criminal
"Starting from the changes of International Criminal Law that have characterized
the second half of the XXth Century and the beginning of this one, the intervention will
analyze the effects of this changes on the relations between law and war, and the effects of
this hybridization on Criminal Law tout court. The theoretical framework is given by the
works of Carl Schmitt and Foucault's lessons "Society must be defended", and we will focus
on the relations between politics and law, what Schmitt's call the "political" and the
"juridical". The judgments on the cruelty of war, and the use of war as an instrument of
justice, are the two most evident effects of this phenomenon, but not the only ones. New
forms of control of political violence, Gunther Jakobs' theory of the Criminal Law of the
enemy are two backfired effects of this "collapse" of the lexicons that we are going to
analyze in this paper."

Vittorio Olgiati (Italy)
Title: "Out of order? Constitutional instability of social and legal systems."

Abstract: "In the last decades under the labels "global economy" and "active citizenship" a
variety of legal arrangements have been enforced to reset traditional patterns of welfare-
state models and traditional forms of democratic participation. In the meanwhile the move
from the established logic of "government" to quite undefined practices of "governance"
widely changed political, cultural and institutional approaches to basic structural-functional
pillars of contemporary social dynamic. Given the above, today we are experiencing - along
with a serious financial crisis - a rising unbalance within and among those social and legal
systems whose specific mandate is the assessment and promotion of primary issues, such
as education, cohesion, identity, defence and control. As empirical evidence shows, such a
state of affairs openly question the stability of the constitutional architecture of the same
systems as well as that of the whole Word-system order. A socio-legal analysis on the matter
is therefore needed to help to envisage new paths and different solutions."

Vladimir Llano (Colombia)
Título: "Relaciones entre la sociología y la antropología jurídica en Latinoamérica."

Abstract: "Las especialidades de la ciencia jurídica como la sociología y la antropología
jurídica en el contexto académico latinoamericano han venido avanzando paulatinamente de
forma reciente tanto en las facultades y programas de derecho como en los mismos espacios
disciplinarios de la sociología y la antropología. Esta diferencia entre los contextos
académicos centrales, semiperiféricos y periféricos sobre el saber jurídico especializado e
interdisciplinario ha llevado a que se adelanten interesantes reflexiones teóricas y prácticas
que aportan desde la mirada latinoamericana a los debates globales; por parte de la
sociología jurídica los estudios sobre la profesión jurídica en distintos países son innovadores,
la crítica desde las mismas facultades de derecho sobre la poca relación del Derecho con lo
social son expuestas constantemente, el derecho como instrumento de las élites para la
dominación y la hegemonía en Latinoamérica son debates recurrentes, entre otras temáticas
que comienzan a interesar abogados y sociólogos; por su parte, la antropología jurídica
dedica sus esfuerzos reflexivos e investigativos a la diversidad cultural en estrecha relación
con la variedad y multiplicidad jurídica que se produce por las distintas tradiciones,
costumbres e interacciones interculturales que se plasman de forma cotidiana en los distintos
países latinoamericanos, análisis que incorporan desde los colectivos indígenas que se ubican
en las entrañas selváticas, los campesinos y comunidades negras en los espacios rurales
como los pobladores de los sectores urbanos marginados, sin desconocer otras
investigaciones como el papel de las transnacionales en las relaciones socioculturales locales,
la propiedad intelectual, la biodiversidad, las alianzas y movimientos transculturales, como
otros estudios que se encuentran al orden del día en la ciencia jurídica. Pero los límites de
una y otra especialidad son difusos al encontrarse en problemáticas comunes como el
pluralismo jurídico."

Vladimir Vitovsky (Brazil)
Title: "Is that possible to imagine a third way for federal courts in Brazil?"

Abstract: "Beyond the crisis the judicial system in Brazil, how can we take a real reform,
specially in the brazilian Federal Justice? In the context of sociology of law, and through the
lenses of the studies of administration of justice, as in Boaventura de Sousa Santos, the aim
of this paper is to critically analyse the theories of justice administration and its application in
the brazilian case, specially in Federal courts. Boaventura distinguishes three broad thematic
groups: access to justice, administration of justice as a political institution and organization,
directed the production of specialized services; and the social litigousity and mechanisms of
its resolution in society. Despite federal courts in brazil are a very political institution,
because of the constant judicial review, we would like to concentrate in its litigious
mechanisms of resolution. We can draw two ways of judicial actuation: a normativist, in
which the judges just apply the law, and nothing more; and alternative, in which the judges
have a social consciencious. But there is a trird way: the "justice de proximitÃ". But not in
the same europeen sense because in Brazil it has already the â?ojuizados federaisâ?, but in a
court really near to the citizens, a participative justice. Which are the ways to have a real
participative federal justice in Brazil?"

Vladimir Vitovsky (Portugal)
Title: "May the federal judge be considered as responsible for social changes in

Abstract: "May the federal judge be considered as responsible for political, economical and
social changes in Brazil? What is the role of brazilian Federal Justice in the process of
redemocratization? The purpose of this communication is analyze, from the origins, its
ruptures and continuities of the history of brazilian federal justice, its function of
guaranteeing citizens rights and mediate their conflict in the face of the federation. The
federal justice in Brazil is a special court of conflict resolution in which the state (called
federation) is envolved. So, we can discuss whether the federal justice plays a role of judicial
activism or a routine; whether the federal judges are neutral ou political actors."

Willis Santiago Guerra Filho (Brasil)
Title: "The Place of Constitutional Courts between Law and Politics. A Systems
Theoretical Proposal."

Abstract: "In the world society in which we live in, with its hyper complexity and
multicentrality, as it is described by Luhmann´s autopoietical social theory, there is a need
to investigate the differentiation of systems in such a society. One of those systems is the
legal one, which is at the same time separated and articulated with the others, so that
mutual irritations are absorbed through the so called "structural coupling" between the
center and periphery of one another, in order to maintain their stability and simultaneously
growth in their environment, autonomously. Legal system and political system are so
connected through a particular media of operative closedness, there is the legal constitution
of the State. Constitutional Supreme Courts, as far as they emerge from the very core of
legal systems, where we find the judicial unity, belong to the center of this systems, but we
may very well postulate that they are passing through a sort of migration to its periphery
with a strong tendency to occupy the center of political systems, and so becoming co-
responsible with the operation of the binary code of both systems, there is to say, the legal
or not-legal code in the case of legal system and the disposal of power or not-power in the
case of political system. This is so due to the centrality of the definitions about
constitutionality of legal norms both to legal and political systems. The paper raises the
question of the risks that such a development might bring about to the maintenance of the
autopoíesis in the social system, especially there where it already faces severe problems,
namely, in geopolitical regions such as Latin America, where we will give emphasis to

Yasmine Debarge (France)
Title: "You must understand that your ex is the parent of your child", when the
Hungarian State intervenes in marital breakdown through mediation."
"Used by parents in serious conflict with each other after a separation, child
access services or contact centers are places where a guardian parent leaves the child so
that the other parent can practice his or her visitation right for a certain time. The visitation
is eventually supervised by a third person not related to the couple. The use of child access
services can be an initiative of the parents, but more often, the parents are sent by judges.
This presentation will describe the circumstances in which Child Access Services were created
in Hungary, and how it introduced family mediation in the country. A specific attention will be
given to the 2005 legislation. Part of the child protection institutions reform which was
initiated by international lobbying groups for children rights, this law introduced the
obligation for local authorities to provide this service. A new change in the law will render
obligatory the use of mediation in case of conflict. The aim is to show how laws and ideas
which tend to answer to a "globalization" of family law (most specifically the notion of
equality between both parents), are interpreted within a national institutional and economical
context, fitting the culture receiving it while modifying it towards the new norms and always
"for the best of children."

Yifat Holzman-Gazit (Israel)
Title: "Critical Commissions: The Impact of Independence on the Perceived
Trustworthiness of Investigatory Commissions - A Panel Study from Israel."

Abstract: "Does institutional independence increase the credibility of investigatory
commissions (ICs) that are set up in the midst of national crises? The case under
examination is the 2007 interim report of the IC that was appointed to inquire into the
traumatic failure of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) to stop the Hezbollah rocket attacks into
Israel in 2006. Israeli law prescribes two procedures for the establishment of ICs. The more
independent IC is composed of members nominated by the Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court and chaired by a retired Supreme Justice or District Court Judge. The IC is granted
powers of inquiry similar to those of a court in civil proceedings and has the authority to
decide on the publication of its interim and final reports. The less independent IC has to
submit its reports to the appointing authority who decides on their publication. Members of
the less independent IC are appointed by the Government or by the minister in charge; the
chairperson can be any qualified figure; and the IC does not necessarily have the powers of
inquiry of a civil court. The IC under examination was established according to the procedure
of a less independent IC, although its chairperson was a retired District Judge.
We conducted two representative surveys of the Israeli population to examine the
relationship between forms of institutional independence and public confidence in the
findings of the interim report that the Israeli IC published on May 2007. We also examined
the impact of the interim report on public opinion regarding the causes of the failure and the
attribution of responsibility. Our results do not support the assumption that ICs' reports
affect public opinion. Furthermore, we did not find support for the hypothesis that the degree
of institutional independence that the IC is granted affects the public's confidence in its
conclusions. Rather, the content of the IC report—and specifically the extent and severity of
its criticism of Israel's military and political leadership—was strongly associated with public
trust in the report. The more the IC report was regarded as critical, the more the public
trusted it. These results show change in the traditional way of thinking about trustworthiness
of ICs and indicate the need in further study of these institutions and the complexity of their
roles in the contemporary era."

Yohei Katano (Japan)
Title: "Environmental Policies in an Administrative Zone In Case of Tokyo."

Abstract: "While it is well known that social characteristics, such as regional networks and
interaction density, intervene in the relationship between a legal regulation and its effective
enforcement, just how much of intervention such social characteristics would exercise is not
well studied. Especially in the field of daily environmental regulations on waste disposals
(and also energy omission and green consumption), accumulation of knowledge on the social
aspects of pro-environmental behavior has been scarce, leaving numerous environmental
policy makers wonder about the ways for effective regulation. This research takes up this
question, and, using quantitative methods, explores the social mechanisms through which
societal properties determine the extent of effectiveness in legal regulations on pro-
environmental behavior on everyday disposables."


Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older

The new england journal of medicine established in 1812 Treatment of Hypertension in Patients 80 Years Nigel S. Beckett, M.B., Ch.B., Ruth Peters, Ph.D., Astrid E. Fletcher, Ph.D., Jan A. Staessen, M.D., Ph.D., Lisheng Liu, M.D., Dan Dumitrascu, M.D., Vassil Stoyanovsky, M.D., Riitta L. Antikainen, M.D., Ph.D., Yuri Nikitin, M.D., Craig Anderson, M.D., Ph.D., Alli Belhani, M.D., Françoise Forette, M.D.,

Living with an inflammatory arthritis Ankylosing SpondylitisInformation for patients, families and carers Table of contents Chapter 1 What is Ankylosing Spondylitis This booklet has been designed to help people with AS, their families and carers. It deals with some of the key chal enges for people who have AS.