Pain relief produces negative reinforcement throughactivation of mesolimbic reward–valuation circuitryEdita Navratilovaa,1, Jennifer Y. Xiea,1, Alec Okuna, Chaoling Qua, Nathan Eydea, Shuang Cia, Michael H. Ossipova,Tamara Kingb, Howard L. Fieldsc, and Frank Porrecaa,2 aDepartment of Pharmacology, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724; bDepartment of Physiology, University of NewEngland, Biddeford, ME 04005; and cErnest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California at San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608
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1562 vrla flyer_05-10A CLOSER ANALYSIS
OF THE ULTRABATTERY ®
What Is The UltraBattery®?
How Does The UltraBattery® Compare To
The UltraBattery is unique from a traditional lead-acid Traditional Automobile Batteries?
battery design. The UltraBattery combines the advantages Traditionally, lead-acid batteries for automotive use are of an Advanced VRLA (a carbon-enhanced Valve Regulated designed to provide power for cranking the engine. The vast Lead-Acid) battery with the advantages of an asymmetric majority of time the battery is maintained in a high state of supercapacitor. This enables the optimal balance of an charge so that it will have enough engine starting power. energy storing lead-acid battery with the quick charge However, as traditional vehicle designs evolve to rely on an acceptance, power discharge, and longevity of a capacitor.
electric motor to meet peak acceleration needs while While capacitors accept and deliver high levels of power, recapturing the energy from braking, the battery is required they can't store much energy, and therefore, are quickly to operate under different power demands and recharging depleted. They are often used in conjunction with batteries capabilities. Conventional lead-acid batteries, even those of to provide both power and energy. Using the two together an Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) or Gelled Electrolyte VRLA usually requires electronic controllers and complex design, will have limited longevity when operated under algorithms to balance power and energy between both these conditions. units. The UltraBattery eliminates the need for additional The UltraBattery is designed to operate at a Partial State of electronic control and multiple energy storage devices Charge (PSOC). From start-stop features to regenerative since both energy storage and capacitor functions are breaking and power assistance, the UltraBattery is required integrated into one battery unit.
to accept and deliver large current pulses in PSOCconditions. The UltraBattery enhanced design extends the battery'slongevity in a type of service that would severely shorten atraditional battery's life due to sulfation. Under laboratoryevaluation, the UltraBattery meets or exceeds the targets ofpower, available energy, cold cranking, and self-dischargeset by the US FreedomCar for both minimum and maximumpower-assist HEV systems. SANDIA TESTING - ULTRABATTERY®
6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000
HRPSOC CYCLE NUMBER
Figure 1. Shows the UltraBattery test vehicle when it went over 100K miles without
Figure 2. Shows East Penn's UltraBattery performance in simulated wind
a conditioning charge on January 15, 2008. The UltraBattery demonstrated better
application tests at Sandia National Laboratories. The UltraBattery lasts
cycle life performance than the replaced Ni-MH battery pack.
14,000 cycles longer than a standard VRLA battery and maintains a
higher capacity rating.
42- and 48- Volt
What Applications Benefit Most From The
The battery pack showed no performance degradation. In fact, the individual module voltages actually converged as they aged. Thisfurther proves UltraBattery technology can diminish the complexity The UltraBattery is ideal for HEVs which utilize regenerative energy and expense of other battery technologies and their battery breaking events to help recharge the battery and power assist monitoring systems.
functions to help conserve fuel consumption. The UltraBattery can East Penn is also developing other UltraBattery pack solutions for accept and deliver higher current pulses than an Advanced AGM 42- and 48-volt systems. This pack is being designed for easy VRLA battery product, and performs better under High-Rate Partial integration. Its Batte ry M an agem ent System is characterized for State of Charge (HRPSOC) conditions. optimiz ed use with the UltraBattery design. As a complete custom In fact, UltraBattery prototypes were tested by the Advanced Lead system integrator, East Penn has the experience and resources to Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) on the General Motors' Millbrook develop other types of special packs and voltage configurations for Proving Grounds in England (see figure 1). The battery pack of a customized needs. Moderate HEV, was replaced with an UltraBattery pack. The Renewa ble energy sources like wind and solar are currently being UltraBattery pack's volume was no greater than the Nickel-Metal tested w ith the UltraBattery product because of its ability to perform Hydride (Ni-MH) battery pack that was replaced. The UltraBattery well under a High-Rate Partial State of Charge (HRPSOC). Wind and pack performed exceptionally well with no maintenance or module lications ma y have constraints on p balancing. Measured fuel economy and CO2 emissions were generation including maximum generation levels and rates of essentially equal to the traditional Ni-MH battery pack.
change of power generation. The power storage management Two moderate hybrid UltraBattery cars with modified UltraBattery enabled by the UltraBattery helps to maximize the efficiency of its packs are also making significant inroads toward the hybrid electric energy generation. The UltraBattery has been under evaluation in a simulated wind application test at Sandia National Laboratories. It One of these UltraBattery cars, supported by the DOE and ALABC, performed exceptionally well in terms of extended cycle life and has reached over 100,000 miles in some of the country's hottest power capacity (see figure 2). More testing is currently being conditions in Phoenix, Arizona. Not only has it performed performed at Sandia National Laboratories showing promising result exceptionally well with an over 2-year old pack in high heat, but it is for the UltraBattery in other wind and photovoltaic applications.
also running in a fleet operation that creates extreme severe service The UltraBattery provides the most effective technology (cost and conditions with no significant loss in module capacity.
practicality) to build storage solutions to support electrical grid A second UltraBattery car undergoes consistent road testing and stabilization. The UltraBattery's superior performance under HRPSOC battery system analysis at East Penn's manufacturing complex in conditions is ideal for providing frequency regulation ancillary and Lyon Station, PA. The 3-year old battery pack, with over 75,000 demand management services to optimize grid efficiency.
miles, was recently evaluated during its milestone of 50,000 miles. SIMPLIFIED PROFILE DISCHARGE AND CHARGE TEST
EUCAR POWER-ASSIST TEST
Cut-off voltage of lead-acid
cell and battery
Cut-off voltage of lead-acid cell and battery
Cut-off voltage of Ni-MH cell
Cut-off voltage of Ni-MH cell
10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000
50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000
Standard VRLA Battery & Cell
Figure 3. Demonstrates the cycling performance of standard VRLA cells, the
Figure 4. Demonstrates the cycling performance of a standard VRLA cell, a
UltraBattery, and a Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) cell. The UltraBattery reaches
standard VRLA battery, an UltraBattery, and a Ni-MH cell. The voltage of a
the cut-off voltage at 75,000 cycles, which is about 5.8 times longer than that
standard VRLA cell decreases gradually until it reaches the cut-off voltage
of the VRLA control cells.
after 32,500 cycles. The voltage of the standard VRLA battery also decreases
gradually until it reaches the cut-off at 73,100 cycles. The Ni-MH cell reaches
The Ni-MH cell, like the one presently used in Moderate HEVs, reaches the cut-
the cut-off voltage of 0.95V after 180,000 cycles. The UltraBattery reaches
off voltage at about 72,000 cycles.
the cut-off voltage after 373,000 cycles. The results show that the cycling
performance of the UltraBattery is much longer than the Ni-MH cell.
Motive Power applications that rely on fast and opportunity The battery was subjected to each of the tests repetitively until the charging are another good example of batteries that undergo PSOC voltage reached the specified cut-off voltage. These screening tests conditions. The positive results found with the UltraBattery design give valuable insight into the UltraBattery's potential cycle life will improve the longevity of Motive Power batteries that are used under these higher current charging regimens for short durations. The UltraBattery technology is also one of the most cost effective and Why Use The UltraBattery® Over Other
safest solutions for larger battery installations (like those forrenewable wind and solar power generation) compared to alternative Alternative Battery Chemistries?
battery technologies. The charging and discharging of lead-acid The UltraBattery product is very "Green." Green in an environmental batteries at rates from a few milliamps to many thousands of amps is sense because it can be recycled the same way as any other lead- performed safely on a daily basis. Lead-acid batteries operate safely at acid battery product, and green in a monetary sense because it has wide ranging ambient temperatures and in every geographical location one of the lowest cost-per-power ratios. In fact, the cost is from hot desert conditions to cold arctic environments. These significantly less than Lithium Ion and Nickel-Metal Hydride attributes prove that lead-acid chemistry is an abuse tolerant, products. This allows one of the most cost effective solutions for versatile, and safe technology, which is especially critical when there many HEV, renewable wind and solar, electrical grid ancillary is a large amount of battery power in one location.
services, and Motive Power applications.
While East Penn continues to explore new alternative battery An innovative recycling infrastructure has been developed to technologies, the company also strongly believes there is an virtually recycle 100% of a lead-acid battery, and regulations ensure evolving role for lead-acid technology in a growing number of that these products are returned to appropriate locations. This applications. UltraBattery technology as well as other advancements applies for the UltraBattery as well. Other battery chemistries can't in new battery technology helps prove that East Penn's beliefs are come close to the recycling advances and developed infrastructure to reclaim the lead-acid product. The innovative processes for The company is excited to further explore the UltraBattery as it recycling lead-acid batteries and the facilities that support it have serves the HEVs of today, and the future Electric Vehicles of progressively advanced over the years to become one of the tomorrow. The UltraBattery's future role in smart electrical grid greatest recycling success stories in the global marketplace.
technology will be a significant asset to the efficiency of its The UltraBattery has proven itself test after test in terms of cycle life development as well as assimilation of wind and solar power. The performance over Ni-MH batteries. The cycling performance of the UltraBattery is an exciting new power solution that will have the UltraBattery was evaluated against Ni-MH cells using a simplified most immediate impact on cost effective energy conservation and discharge and charge profile to simulate HEV driving conditions environmental protection efforts.
(see figure 3). The EUCAR power-assist was used to simulateModerate HEV driving conditions (see figure 4). AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY PLANT A-3
SMELTER AND REFINERY
SPECIALTY BATTERY PLANT S-1
KELLER TECHNICAL CENTER
INJECTION MOLDING /
CABLE AND WIRE PLANT
INDUSTRIAL BATTERY PLANT
CORYDON, IA BATTERY PLANT A-5
World's Largest and Most Modern Single-Site Battery Manufacturing Facility
Since 1946, East Penn has been producing high quality batteries permitted lead smelter and refinery, a pilot plant, two water and battery accessories for the automotive, commercial, marine, purification plants, a fully equipped machine shop, two injection industrial, stationary, and specialty markets. A progressive company molding plants, a fleet repair and maintenance garage, plus dozens committed to the future, East Penn operates one of the largest of other support facilities. Just miles away, East Penn owns and single-site manufacturing facilities in the industry with vertical operates a wire, cable, and battery accessory plant and a large integration capabilities that encompass every stage of battery distribution center complex fully stocked with an extensive inventory production. The company also operates a manufacturing facility in of our high-quality products.
Corydon, IA to help accommodate the company's widespread The quality of East Penn's products is recognized worldwide and growth. To keep up with the increasing demand for high quality has met the global requirements of ISO 9001 and ISO/TS 16949 products, East Penn is pursuing an aggressive expansion plan. In certification standards. East Penn is also a leader in innovative fact, the new high-tech facilities and computer monitoring and recycling and has met global environmental requirements of ISO control systems have made the company the industry's most 14001 certification standards. technologically advanced battery manufacturer. Staffed with a long-term management team, East Penn is an Facilities at its 520-acre single-site manufacturing complex in Lyon independent company dedicated to producing high-class products Station, PA include four automotive battery plants, an industrial and service supported by East Penn's exclusive advantages to assure battery plant, a specialty battery plant, a state-of-the-art oxide facility, complete satisfaction and beyond to our partners and customers an acid reclamation plant, three modern technical centers, an EPA Lyon Station, PA 19536-0147 Phone: 610-682-6361 Fax: 610-682-4781 www.eastpenn-deka.com
All data subject to change without notice. No part of this document may be copied or E.P.M. Form No. 1562 9/13 2013 by EPM Printed in U.S.A.
reproduced, electronically or mechanically, without written permission from the company.
Volume 16Number 6 INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION & PROCESS CONTROL Emerson Global Users Exchange takes off in Germany, setting high standards, focusing on safety + wireless Emerson brought their Global Users Ex- meet the conference objective of "Exchang- "Make Emerson your change to Europe at the end of May: but ing ideas. Creating solutions." this was not just a satellite show for those