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/ APPLICATION NOTE Monitoring Water Vapor in the Lithium-ion Battery Manufacturing Process The lithium-ion battery manufacturing process is sensitive to moisture. This challenging production environment demands a water vapor detection instrument with reliable performance and strong resistance to process byproducts that may be present in the atmosphere. Dry-air management is essential environment must be controlled resolution and accuracy necessary during the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery to preserve optimum production for meaningful measurement at manufacturing process for three conditions. The typical dew point this level. For example, when the reasons: first, to prevent unwanted temperature range of the processing dew point temperature is -50 °C, chemical reactions that can cause environment is from -50 °C to -40 °C. a 5 °C rise to -45 °C represents a hazards such as fires and explosions; Dew point is used to express water corresponding relative humidity second, to prevent product quality vapor concentration at this level change of only 0.1% – a value that is problems; third, to understand and because the corresponding relative difficult to distinguish from noise. control costs associated with drying humidity value is less than 1%. Most (Visit Vaisala's knowledge center and large volumes of air. Lithium-ion instruments used for measuring use or download our free humidity battery manufacturing processes relative humidity, even if they are carried out in dry rooms or convert the display and output values glove boxes where the local micro- to dew point temperature, lack the

Optimal location for Solutions for dew point measurement dew point sensors Dew point instruments can be used Common solutions for dew point Aluminum oxide and silicon oxide in a variety of ways to achieve the measurement include chilled mirror sensors can measure extremely low objectives outlined above. The hygrometers, oxidized aluminum dew point temperatures. Care should actual air dryer can be monitored or silicon sensors, and polymer be taken to monitor the calibration and controlled using dew point moisture sensors. Each has strengths of these devices, as any gas that measurement. In some cases, dryer contributes to continuing oxidation of performance can be improved and The chilled mirror hygrometer the sensor itself will cause a drift in energy consumption reduced by uses optical reflection to detect implementing dew point demand the condensation temperature on Polymer sensors can be formulated switching. Dew point instruments a reflective surface (the mirror). to resist a wide variety of chemical can also be installed at the inlet of These devices are very accurate in contaminants. Unfortunately, most each process on the supply gas line, laboratory conditions, but subject polymer sensors function exclusively either directly or by using a sampling to measurement error known as in the percent relative humidity range cell or ball valve. These instruments the Raoult effect when the sample and are therefore not suitable for use can detect problems quickly and gas contains solvents that go into when the relevant dew point values help determine whether the problem solution with the condensate on the are below -20 °C.
is localized or more general. Finally, mirror. Strong acids or bases may dew point instruments can be also damage the mirror surface. installed in the general work area and used as environmental monitors. Contamination issues Vaisala solution for dew point measurements Dew point sensors can be in Li-ion battery manufacturing contaminated in the production Vaisala offers a chemically resistant, the sensor briefly and observing environment by chemicals that high-polymer dew point sensor that the change in measured relative evaporate from electrolytes used is actively manipulated to achieve humidity, which is physically related in the process. Liquid electrolytes long-term reliability with very little to temperature. If the change is in a typical lithium-ion battery may measurement drift. not as expected, the algorithm consist of lithium salts such as LiPF6, The Vaisala DRYCAP® sensor uses corrects the sensitivity of the sensor, LiBF4, or LiClO4 in an organic solvent auto-calibration to monitor sensor thereby maintaining accuracy in dry – usually ethylene carbonate (EC), accuracy and any necessary measurement conditions, where it is dimethyl carbonate (DMC), or Methyl adjustments. The auto-calibration Ethyl Carbonate (MEC). All of these procedure is based on heating solvents have the potential to damage a dew point sensor. If the electrolyte is LiPF6, it is present as Li+ and PF6- ions. Reaction with H2O in the environment will create hydrofluoric (HF) acid. This is a strong acid that Thin-film polymer erodes the isolator film between the battery terminals, increasing the risk of short circuit and fire. It can also degrade the dew point sensor. The challenges are similar for different battery formulations.

Another vital feature of the DRYCAP® sensor is the purge function. In Li-ion manufacturing, The purge function the demanding chemical conditions briefly heats the cause diffusion of contaminants, sensor in order to mainly hydrocarbons from the remove any volatile used solvents, into the sensor contaminants from polymer. Sensor contamination may result in an irreversible change in the polymer.
sensitivity, which eventually cannot be compensated for by calibration and leads to sensor malfunction. Contaminants may decrease the sensor sensitivity over time. Vaisala DRYCAP® The purge function briefly heats the sensor has automatic purge function which restores the sensor performance by sensor in order to remove any volatile evaporating impurities away from the sensor element. contaminants from the polymer. The function can be initiated manually or options for Li-ion battery various options and accessories, automatically, and the purge interval manufacturing related measurements, all with different options for output can be adjusted to suit the operating with products ranging from small, and mounting. Compatibility with compact transmitters perfect for handheld devices allows for easy The Vaisala dew point measurement equipment manufacturers to rugged on-site spot-checking and calibration product family includes several industrial field instruments with Recommended products DMT242 Transmitter for Industrial Dryer Applications -60. +60 °C (-76.+140 °F) Td with ±2 °C (±3.6 °F) accuracy • Sensor options for desiccant and refrigeration dryers• Pressure up to 20 bar• DRYCAP® sensor technologyRead more or download the datasheet a The graphs above are derived from an ongoing test in which two Vaisala DRYCAP® DMT242 dewpoint transmitters were installed in a compressed air line ca 11 years ago and have not been recalibrated or adjusted. The line conditions are representative of instrument air. The x-axis represents years, the y-axis represents difference to the reference value at periodic checks.

Hand-Held DM70 Meter for Spot-Checking and Field Calibration-60. +60 °C (-76.+140 °F) Td with ±2 °C (±3.6 °F) accuracy• Fast response – just minutes• Easy-to-use • Multilingual menu (EN, CN, DE, FI, FR, JP, RU, SE, SP)• Data logging and transfer to a PC via MI70 Link software• Compatible with DMT132, DPT146, DMT143, DMT242, DMT152, DMT340 • DRYCAP® sensor technologyRead more a Configurable Fixed Mount DMT340 Transmitters-60. +45 °C (-76. +113 °F) Td with ±2 °C (±3.6 °F) accuracyConfigurable with various options • Display/keypad • Data logging and Relay module • Multiple probe option• Integrated data logging with over four years of measured history • Multilingual menu (EN, CN, DE, FI, FR, JP, RU, SE, SP)• Pressure up to 50 bar• DRYCAP® sensor technologyRead more DMT143 Miniature Dew Point Transmitter -60. +60 °C (-76. +140 °F) T with ±2 °C (±3.6 °F) accuracy • Small size for compact industrial dryer applications• Stable and cost-efficient• LED alarm for exceeded dew point level• Pressure up to 50 bar• DRYCAP® sensor technologyRead more a No single dew point sensor technology is suitable for all applications. However, Vaisala DRYCAP® technology has been tested and proven in a variety of applications, including dry-room monitoring, for more than ten years. Vaisala DRYCAP® instruments are available as low-cost transmitters or fully configurable field instruments. They are easy to install and use, and all models include probes with standard ISO or NPT threads. Vaisala sampling cells are available with threaded connections compatible with a wide variety of fittings, or with welded compression fittings to accommodate 6 mm or 1/4" tubing. A ball-valve installation allows the dew point probe to be installed in or removed from a process without process shutdown. Contact Vaisala for expert guidance on dew point measurement and to find out more about Vaisala DRYCAP® instruments.
Ref. B210915EN-B Vaisala 2014 This material is subject to copyright protection, with all copyrights retained by Vaisala and its individual partners. All rights reserved. Any logos and/or product names are trademarks of Vaisala or its individual partners. The reproduction, transfer, distribution or storage of information contained in this brochure in any form without the prior written consent of Vaisala is strictly prohibited. All specifications — technical included — are subject to change Scan the code for more information without notice.