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Contact dermatitis: a practice parameter-update 2015

Practice Parameter Contact Dermatitis: A Practice ParametereUpdate 2015 Luz Fonacier, MD, David I. Bernstein, MD, Karin Pacheco, MD, D. Linn Holness, MD, Joann Blessing-Moore, MD, David Khan, MD, David Lang, MD, Richard Nicklas, MD, John Oppenheimer, MD, Jay Portnoy, MD, Christopher Randolph, MD, Diane Schuller, MD, Sheldon Spector, MD, Stephen Tilles, MD, and Dana Wallace, MD This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Allergy & Immunology are available at or Practice Parameters, which represents the American Academy of Ó 2015 American Academy Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (J Allergy Clin Immunol of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Pract 2015;3:S1-S39) Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the Key words: Allergic contact dermatitis; patch testing; allergen; ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing" parameter; guideline; contact dermatitis; occupational; sensitizer Contact Dermatitis: A Practice ParametereUpdate 2015." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time.
The medical environment is changing and not all recommendations will be appropriate or applicable to all The Practice Parameter on Contact Dermatitis (CD) was last patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many updated in 2006, and focused primarily on the basics of CD and participants, no single individual, including members serving on patch testing for the allergist. In the ensuing years, there has been the Joint Task Force, are authorized to provide an official AAAAI considerable interest by the allergist in allergic skin diseases due or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any to increasing numbers of referrals for CD. With the ease of request for information or interpretation of this practice application, the use of the preloaded commercially available parameter by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the T.R.U.E. Test patch testing method has increased among aller- Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint gists, as has the use of patch testing with individually loaded Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters chambers. The T.R.U.E. Test has also been expanded to include are not designed for use by the pharmaceutical industry in drug 35 antigens and a negative control, improving their sensitivity to development or promotion. Previously published practice detect inclusive allergens. There have also been advances in the parameters of the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters for field in many areas including our basic understanding of type IVhypersensitivity reactions, emerging contact allergens, irritantcontact dermatitis (ICD), systemic contact dermatitis (SCD),patch testing in children, occupational dermatitis, and reactions See for members of the Joint Task Force Contact Dermatitis Parameter to biomedical devices. Improved diagnosis and management of Workgroup, reviewers of this Practice Parameter, and members of the Joint Task CD and availability of more comprehensive databases of causa- Force on Practice Parameters.
Disclosure of potential conflict of interest: L. Fonacier has received research and tive contact allergens enable physicians to manage allergic contact educational grants (made to Winthrop University Hospital) from Genentech, dermatitis (ACD) with avoidance of allergens the patient is Merck, and Baxter; is in the Speaker's Bureau/Honoraria of Baxter; and is on the sensitized to and availability of lists of safe products that do not Board of Directors, Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (JCAAI) contain these allergens. Given the many advances in the field, the 2012-2015. D. Bernstein is the consultant in Merck, Genentech, Proctor andGamble, Sano Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters (JTF) appointed a fi, and TEVA; and has received research grants from Amgen, GlaxoSmithKline, Greer, Johnson & Johnson, Merck, Teva, Pfizer, Genentech, working group to review and update the standing practice Array, Cephalon, Novartis, Boeringer Ingelheim, and Medimmune. The rest of the authors declare that they have no relevant conflicts of interest.
The Contact Dermatitis: A Practice ParametereUpdate 2015 The Joint Task Force recognizes that experts in a field are likely to have interests that workgroup was commissioned by the JTF to develop a practice could come into conflict with the development of a completely unbiased andobjective practice parameter. To take advantage of that expertise, a process has parameter that addresses recent advances in the field of CD and been developed to prevent potential conflicts from influencing the final document the optimal methods of diagnosis and management based on an in a negative way.
assessment of the most current literature. The Chair (Luz At the workgroup level, members who have a potential conflict of interest either do Fonacier, MD) invited workgroup members to participate in the not participate in discussions concerning topics related to the potential conflict orif they do write a section on that topic, the workgroup completely rewrites it parameter development who are considered to be experts in the without their involvement to remove potential bias. In addition, the entire docu- field of CD. Workgroup members have been vetted for conflict ment is then reviewed by the Joint Task Force and any apparent bias is removed at of interest (COI) by the JTF and their COIs have been listed in that level. Finally, the practice parameter is sent for review both by invited re- this document and are posted on the JTF web site at viewers and by anyone with an interest in the topic by posting the document on the web sites of the ACAAI and the AAAAI.
Corresponding author: Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, 59 N Brockway St, The charge of the workgroup was to develop current practice #304, Palatine, IL 60067. E-mail: .
guidelines based on an up-to-date systematic literature review.
Received for publication February 25, 2015; accepted for publication February 26, Consensus expert opinion and workgroup-identified supplementary documents were utilized when published evidence was lacking.
A search of the medical literature on PubMed was performed Ó 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology for a variety of terms that were considered to be relevant to this J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT practice parameter. All reference types were included in the re- Abbreviations used sults. References identified as being relevant were searched for other relevant references. Published clinical studies were rated by AAAAI- American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology category of evidence and utilized to establish the strength of the ACAAI- American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology recommendations (see The parameter was subse- ACC- Allergic contact cheilitis quently appraised by reviewers designated by the AAAAI and ACD- Allergic contact dermatitis ACAAI. Based on this process, this parameter represents an ev- ACDS- American Contact Dermatitis Society AD- Atopic dermatitis idence-based, broadly accepted consensus document.
AGEP- Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis Search terms include contact dermatitis, eczema, cosmetic APT- Atopy patch test allergy, contact allergen, patch testing, and each of the specific BOP- Balsam of Peru conditions reviewed in this parameter.
BTM- Betamethasone CAMP- Contact Allergen Management Program CAPB- Cocoamidopropyl betaine CARD- Contact Allergen Replacement Database "Angry back" syndrome or "excited skin" syndrome: defined CD- Contact dermatitis as false-positive patch test (PT) reactions usually adjacent to large true-positive reactions that induce contiguous skin inflammation COI- Conflict of interest and irritability.
CS- Corticosteroid Ectopic allergic contact dermatitis: contact allergy lesions CU- Contact urticaria manifested in locations distant from or indirectly in contact with the original skin sites directly exposed to allergens due to inad- DRESS- Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms ELISA- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay vertent transfer by the patient (eg, transfer of sensitizers in nail EliSPOT- Enzyme-linked immunospot polish to the eyelids) or others (eg, mother transferring allergen ENDA- European Network on Drug Allergy to the child or a partner transferring the allergen by contact).
ESCD- European Society of Contact Dermatitis Contact sensitization: evidence of sensitization such as pos- FDA- Food and Drug Administration itive PT reaction is not definitive of an "allergy" but simply a FM- Fragrance mix confirmation of immunologic sensitization that must then be FM I- Fragrance mix I confirmed as clinically relevant by history and clinical findings FM II- Fragrance mix II GCDG- German Contact Dermatitis Group Contact urticaria: defined as the development of a wheal- HC- Hydrocortisone and-flare reaction at a site where an external agent contacts the ICD- Irritant contact dermatitis IM- Intramuscular skin or mucosa.
Late patch test reading: late PT reading is performed at or IUDs- Intrauterine devices after 7 days after application of a PT as opposed to the standard of care reading that is performed between day 3 and 7.
LPTs- Lymphocyte proliferation tests Photo-allergic contact dermatitis: it is a delayed contact hypersensitivity reaction to an allergen activated by exposure to MELISA- Memory Lymphocyte Immuno Stimulation Assay UV radiation.
Repeated open application test (ROAT): several open PT MPL- Methylprednisolone techniques have been used to test substances with the potential for MSDS- Material safety data sheets irritation, and are especially suitable for cosmetics and other per- NACDG- North American Contact Dermatitis Group NHIS- National Health Interview Survey sonal care products such as makeup foundation and skin lotions.
The more commonly used provocative open use test involves the NSAIDs- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs repeated application of a suspected allergen to the antecubital fossa OCD- Occupational contact dermatitis twice daily for up to 1 to 2 weeks, and observation for the local OHS- Occupational health supplement development of dermatitis at the application site.
PABA- Para-aminobenzoic acid Usage test: use of a product highly suspected of containing a sensitizer under real world conditions to prove causation. An example is for a patient to use eye mascara daily on 1 eye and not PTDS- Para-toluenediamine sulfate the other to observe for the development of local dermatitis at the ROAT- Repeated open application test exposed site. This is often used when PT with suspected com- SCD- Systemic contact dermatitis SJS- Stevens Johnson syndrome mercial allergens is negative but the suspicion of ACD is high.
TCI- Topical calcineurin inhibitors Systemic allergic contact dermatitis: a generalized ACD rash TCL- Triamcinolone from systemic administration of a drug, chemical, or food to TCS- Topical corticosteroids which the patient previously experienced ACD.
TEN- Toxic epidermal necrolysis UK- United Kingdom UVA- Ultraviolet A UVB- Ultraviolet B Contact dermatitis (CD) is defined as any skin disorder caused by contact with an exogenous substance that elicits an allergic J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S and/or irritant response. The vast majority of cases are attribut- evidence is impossible to obtain, and the anticipated benefits able to irritant ICD. CD is also a significant cause of workplace strongly outweigh the harms.
Overall, this is a practical, clinically pertinent, and user- Contact urticaria (CU) is defined as the development of a wheal- friendly parameter that has attempted to address important and-flare reaction, or hives, at a site where an external agent contacts clinical questions pertaining to the evaluation and management the skin or mucosa. CU can be divided in 2 broad categories: of ACD. This document, although not intended to replace an nonimmunologic CU and immunologic CU (caused by an IgE- authoritative textbook, is a valuable updated evidence-based mediated hypersensitivity reaction). Symptoms of CU range from resource for the practicing allergist.
pruritic, localized wheal-and-flare reactions to generalized urticariaand anaphylaxis. Aside from the need to differentiate between ACDand CU, this parameter will not discuss CU in detail.
COMPILATION OF SUMMARY STATEMENTS This CD practice parameter, updated from the original docu- Summary Statement 1: Consider ACD in the differential ment published in 2006, is intended as a useful guide for the diagnosis of patients with chronic eczematous or noneczematous practicing allergist in the evaluation and management of ACD in dermatitis. [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; C Evidence] adults and children. This updated parameter has been restructured Summary Statement 2: In patients suspected of ACD, patch around action-based and patient-centered summary statements that testing is the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis. [Strength of provide specific evidence-based recommendations for assessing and Recommendation: Strong; C Evidence] treating ACD. In contrast to the original 2006 parameter, the Summary Statement 3: In addition to personal products used pathophysiology, susceptibility, and clinical background are not by a patient suspected of ACD, review the home and workplace reviewed here. The evidence-based summary statements in this for other sources of contact allergens. [Strength of Recommen- document provide specific recommendations pertaining to the dation: Moderate; D Evidence] approach to medical history, physical examination, patch testing, Summary Statement 4: Evaluate patients for both irritant and and management of patients suspected of ACD.
allergic causes, especially in those presenting with hand derma- As in the 2006 parameter, action-based summary statements titis. [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; C Evidence] provide guidance for identification of potential causative sensi- Summary Statement 5: Allergic CD should be suspected and tizers based on clinical presentation in specific geographical skin evaluated in the patient with both generalized and anatomically locations. Patch testing is emphasized in this updated parameter, localized skin eruptions (such as the hands, face, eyelids) that with action-based statements that address selection of PT anti- come in contact with the substances in the environment.
gens; testing to personal products when necessary; different patch [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] testing devices; timing of readings; late PT reactions; false-posi- Summary Statement 6: In a patient with a facial rash involving tive, false-negative, and true-negative responses; and photo-patch the periorbital areas (eg, eyelids), evaluate for ACD caused by testing. Lists of sensitizers encountered in different settings or in components of cosmetics, such as fragrances, preservatives, and specific types of products (eg, cosmetics, sunscreens, joint pros- excipients, because these are common sensitizers of the facial theses) are presented as tables in the appendices.
skin. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] Since the publication of the original parameter, new questions Summary Statement 7: Evaluate patients presenting with lip have been addressed in summary statements related to emerging dermatitis (cheilitis) and perioral dermatitis for both irritant and clinical problems including preoperative screening for and post- allergic causes of contact dermatitis. [Strength of Recommen- implantation patch testing for metal allergy in patients who have dation: Moderate; C Evidence] undergone joint replacement surgery. In this updated practice Summary Statement 8: Evaluate patients with chronic oral parameter, summary statements have been added that more mucosal inflammatory conditions for disorders other than ACD.
comprehensively address evaluation and management of occupa- [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] tional contact dermatitis (OCD). The potential benefits and limi- Summary Statement 9: In patients presenting with dermatitis tations of drug patch testing in patients with maculopapular rashes, that involves the scalp and neck, consider patch testing for erythroderma, and nonimmediate cutaneous reactions are addressed common causative sensitizers in cosmetics, hair products, and in a summary statement. New summary statements have been jewelry. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] included that make recommendations pertaining to the overall Summary Statement 10: Consider irritant and ACD in all management of CD, focusing on avoidance and prevention.
patients presenting with acute or chronic hand eczema. All such The majority of summary statements in this document are patients suspected of CD should undergo patch testing.
based on descriptive and retrospective studies, representative [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] of the current published CD literature. Because the treat- Summary Statement 11: Evaluate patients with axillary ment of choice for CD is avoidance, there are limited dermatitis for ACD caused by local contact sensitivity to allergens numbers of published placebo-controlled studies of other in topically applied products found in deodorants and textiles. In therapeutic interventions (eg, drugs). The absence of a vali- some cases, axillary dermatitis could be a manifestation of systemic dated positive control to confirm a diagnosis of ACD is a contact dermatitis (SCD) (ie, "the baboon syndrome"). [Strength major limitation of studies reporting patch testing data. For of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] these reasons, the categories of evidence supporting the Summary Statement 12: Evaluate patients presenting with summary statements in this document are relatively low.
anogenital dermatitis for possible ACD to antigens contained in Therefore, the strength of recommendation for most of the topically applied products. [Strength of Recommendation: statements in this parameter is "Moderate" even if in some Moderate; C Evidence] clearly identified circumstances, "Strong" recommendations Summary Statement 13: Consider a diagnosis of SCD may be made based on lesser evidence because high-quality following systemic exposure (eg, ingestion, infusion, or J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT transcutaneous exposure) to a known contact sensitizer in a pa- Summary Statement 23: Determine the relevance of a PT result tient who presents with generalized dermatitis, intertriginous and based on the clinical and exposure history when interpreting the flexural exanthema (Baboon syndrome), and/or a flare at previ- PT. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; D Evidence] ous cutaneous sites of exposure [Strength of Recommendation: Summary Statement 24: Consult physicians with expertise in Moderate; C Evidence].
patch testing to household cleaning or industrial products if Summary Statement 14: Consider PT to rubber chemicals, testing to the actual product suspected of containing the relevant adhesives, and leather components of footwear in patients pre- allergen(s) is necessary, because false-positive and severe irritant senting with unexplained chronic dermatitis involving the lower reactions can occur. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C extremities, feet and/or soles. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] Summary Statement 25: Consult physicians with expertise in Summary Statement 15: In addition to avoiding irritants in UV radiation and photo-patch testing to confirm a suspected patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), evaluate for ACD, if sus- diagnosis of photo-allergic CD. [Strength of Recommendation: pected, as the 2 dermatologic conditions often coexist in the Strong; C Evidence] same patient. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Summary Statement 26: Although in vitro tests for delayed hypersensitivity to contact allergens (ie, metals and bone cement)are available, routine use of such assays is not currently recom- Patch testing recommendations mended as their sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing ACD Summary Statement 16: Avoid or reduce doses of immuno- has not been determined and should be considered investiga- suppressant medications such as systemic corticosteroids (CS) tional. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] and systemic immunosuppressants before patch testing. Avoid Summary Statement 27: Use the repeated open application application of topical corticosteroids (TCS), topical calcineurin test (ROAT) to further evaluate a patient suspected of ACD who inhibitors (TCI), or ultraviolet radiation to the PT site, because exhibits doubtful or negative PT responses, to confirm that the these may reduce allergic PT responses. [Strength of Recom- patient is reacting to that particular product or to determine mendation: Moderate; C Evidence] clinical tolerability to new cosmetic products. [Strength of Summary Statement 17: In addition to using a core or base- Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] line series of PT allergens in evaluating ACD, consider usingsupplemental series of PT allergens based on specific patient Sources of exposure to clinically relevant allergens exposures, and the patient's personal products to increase the Summary Statement 28: Evaluate patients who present with probability of identifying relevant sensitizers. [Strength of recurrent dermatitis on exposed skin surfaces during airborne Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] pollen seasons for contact sensitization to seasonal pollen aller- Summary Statement 18: Patch testing can be performed either gens. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] using a preloaded thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous testing kit of Summary Statement 29: The clinician should consider cos- 36 chambers or with a panel of antigens loaded individually in a metics and personal hygiene products that are directly applied to chamber system recommended by the North American Contact involved skin or ectopically transferred from uninvolved skin as Dermatitis Group (NACDG) Research Group or the American potential sources of allergens in patients with ACD. [Strength of Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS). [Strength of Recommen- Recommendation: Strong; C Evidence] dation: Moderate; C Evidence] Summary Statement 30: When evaluating ACD from cos- Summary Statement 19: Read and interpret PT conforming to metics and personal care products that contain many different the scoring system developed by the International Contact chemical ingredients, consider that the most common causes are Dermatitis Research Group. [Strength of Recommendation: due to a few important chemical classes, including fragrances, Moderate; D Evidence] preservatives, excipients, nickel, and sun screening agents.
Summary Statement 20: Remove and read PT at approxi- [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] mately 48 hours after application. A second reading should be Summary Statement 31: Patients suspected to have allergy to done between 3 and 7 days after application. [Strength of hair products should be evaluated for PT reactions to cocoami- Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] dopropyl betaine (CAPB), para-phenylenediamine (PPD), fra- Summary Statement 21: Consider that a possible false-positive grances, preservatives, and glycerol thioglycolate. [Strength of reaction can result with the use of irritants or allergic substances Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] at potentially irritating higher concentrations, pressure reaction Summary Statement 32: Suspect allergy to nail products when from the filling chamber, an "angry back syndrome," or patch the dermatitis presents locally at the distal digit or ectopically on testing on skin with active dermatitis. [Strength of Recommen- the eyelids and face. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C dation: Moderate; D Evidence] Summary statement 22: Recognize the possibility that Summary Statement 33: Suspect the diagnosis of photo- false-negative reactions could be due to inadequate allergen allergic CD to cosmetics when eczema occurs in a light-exposed concentration needed to elicit a response; inability of the distribution following the use of a skin care product or cosmetic, vehicle to release sufficient allergen; reduced skin respon- including sunscreens. [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; C siveness because of prior ultraviolet light exposure (ie, sun, tanning bed); concomitant immunosuppressive therapies; ormethodological testing errors such as insufficient occlusion, Topical medicinal CD failure to perform delayed readings, and failure to perform a Summary Statement 34: If an eruption worsens, rather than photo PT. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C improves, after the topical application of certain medications, or fails to respond to TCS, PT should be performed to the J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S suspected product and/or ingredients known to be contact sen- these should be considered in the differential diagnosis. The sitizers. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] suspicion of ACD is the first step in making the diagnosis. Patch Summary Statement 35: The clinician may use the drug PT testing is indicated in any patient with acute or chronic, often for the diagnosis of some drug hypersensitivity reactions, recog- pruritic, dermatitis if underlying or secondary ACD is suspected.
nizing that there is no standardized approach to define the The history is important for the diagnosis and subsequent population, clinical manifestation, drug to PT, and PT materials management of this disease. Although medical history can to make patch testing to drugs a standard of care. [Strength of strongly suggest the cause of ACD, it has moderate sensitivity Recommendation: Weak; D Evidence] (76%) and specificity (76%) in establishing the diagnosis. In Summary statement 36: Consider preoperative patch testing for addition, the occupational, avocational, and environmental his- metal sensitization in patients with a significant history of metal tory must all be carefully reviewed. Chronologic exposure his- allergy. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] tories that include hobbies and specific activities relative to onset Summary Statement 37: In patients with joint replacement of the dermatitis should be obtained. Because the worker may be failure, patch testing to components of the implant may be unaware of specific chemicals to which he or she is exposed, helpful after infection and biomechanical causes have been material safety data sheets (MSDS) obtained from the manu- excluded. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] facturer may be helpful. Hobbies and nonwork activity such asgardening, macramé, painting, ceramic work, carpentry, and Special populations photography may be sources of exposure to culprit contactants.
Contact dermatitis in children. Summary Statement 38: In addition to exposure to a single agent, simultaneous exposure ACD and ICD are significant clinical problems in children.
to multiple irritants and contact allergens may produce additive, Patch testing should be performed and remains the gold standard synergistic, or antagonistic responses. Simultaneous exposure to for the diagnosis of ACD in children. [Strength of Recommen- both an irritant and a contact allergen or 2 contact allergens can dation: Strong; C Evidence] reduce the clinical threshold concentration for elicitation ofresponse to a given allergen due to irritant disruption of the skin Occupational contact dermatitis. Summary Statement barrier and immunologic activation of the skin.
39: In a patient who presents with dermatitis associated with There is conflicting evidence as to whether patients with AD workplace exposures (ie, OCD), consider ICD as well as ACD.
are at heightened overall risk of contact sensitization compared [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; C Evidence] with nonatopic individuals. Because AD is associated with an Summary Statement 40: In patients with suspected occupa- impaired skin barrier, it is plausible that this impairment is likely tion-related CD, the examining physician should verify the to increase absorption of topically applied chemicals and enhance diagnosis by confirming that the dermatitis was caused or the risk of subsequent sensitization, resulting in ACD and aggravated by workplace exposures. [Strength of Recommenda- worsening of the underlying dermatitis. In children with severe tion: Moderate; C Evidence] recalcitrant AD and concomitant ACD, avoidance of offending Summary Statement 41: Consider botanical-related ACD in allergens in topically applied products can result in marked outdoor workers, or others exposed to plants, including florists, improvement of eczema.
gardeners, landscapers, maintenance workers, park, and wildlife The latest NACDG lists the top 3 most common body lo- officials. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] cations of contact dermatitis as scattered and/or generalizeddistribution, the hands, and the face. In addition, attention Treatment of contact dermatitis. Summary Statement should be given to specific anatomical sites, particularly the 42: Once the allergen or irritant has been identified, the patient eyelids, neck, scalp, axillae, lower extremities, and anogenital should be counseled on avoidance of contact with the offending area. Facial ACD may present as a generalized facial eruption or agent and informed of any cross-reactivity concerns. [Strength of in specific regions such as the forehead, periorbital, or perioral Recommendation: Strong; B Evidence] areas. Sensitizers in commercial facial products that are in direct Summary Statement 43: In addition to avoidance of exposure, skin contact are the most common causes of facial ACD.
the physician should prescribe appropriate adjunct medical Patients presenting with acute or chronic hand eczema should treatment. [Strength of recommendation: Strong; B Evidence] undergo patch testing. Although most cases of CD involving the Summary Statement 44: To prevent CD, avoid exposure to hands are caused by irritants, allergic contact sensitization is a irritants and allergens and use appropriate skin protection.
common cause of chronic hand dermatitis. The prevalence of [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; B Evidence] ACD in patients presenting with hand dermatitis or hand eczema Summary Statement 45: Education of the workers with ACD varies according to exposure history and occupation. Thus, it is or ICD should include prognosis, and information that their strongly recommended to evaluate all patients with chronic hand disease may persist and need long-term management even after eczema for ACD by obtaining a medical history of contact allergy treatment and workplace modifications. [Strength of Recom- and performing patch testing.
mendation: Moderate; C Evidence] Acute or chronic inflammation of the lips manifested as eczematous cheilitis can be characterized by itching, burning, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY redness, edema, and fissuring. This is most commonly caused by Contact dermatitis may be suspected on the basis of the physical (eg, cold, dryness, wind) or chemical irritants (eg, saliva, clinical appearance of the cutaneous lesions, the distribution of lip cosmetics, or other oral products). Fragrance mix (FM), the dermatitis, and the absence of other etiologies. Acute CD is balsam of Peru (BOP, Myroxylon pereirae), and nickel are the characterized by erythematous papules, vesicles, and crusted le- most common positive allergens on PT. Sources of fragrances sions. There are other dermatological conditions that may include oral hygiene products (eg, toothpastes, mouthwashes, resemble the clinical and/or histological appearance of CD, and flavorings, compounds used for dental impressions), cosmetics, J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT and lip products (including lipsticks, glosses, and lip balms). Oral Patch testing is indicated in any patient suspected of ACD.
contact sensitization is considered to be uncommon. Persistent Patch testing can be performed using either a preloaded thin- oral complaints or gingivitis has been associated with positive PT layer rapid use epicutaneous testing kit of 36 chambers or with a reactions to allergens in dental components, including mercury, panel of antigens individually loaded in a chamber system rec- methacrylate, and beryllium. Chemical and traumatic injury may ommended by the NACDG Research Group or the ACDS. The be the most common causes of contact reactions involving mu- T.R.U.E. Test (panel of 35 antigens and a negative control) (see cous membranes. Other conditions that should be considered in is standardized across lot numbers and is highly patients with oral mucosal inflammation include burning mouth reproducible. Depending on the test antigen, the T.R.U.E. Test syndrome, lichenoid tissue reactions, stomatitis, gingivitis, oro- method has moderate concordance (62% to 63%) with indi- facial granulomatosis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, precancer- vidually loaded chamber systems (eg, Finn chamber system).
ous and cancerous lesions, viral and fungal infections and lichen Reliance on a core or baseline series of PT antigens such as those used by the NACDG Research Group or in the T.R.U.E. Test In patients presenting for patch testing for evaluation of CD, panel for assessing all patients is likely to lead to underdiagnoses nickel remains the most common contact sensitizer and is found of ACD. Selection of allergens to be patch tested will be more more frequently in women than it is in men. The gender dif- accurate when selection is based on the clinical history. One can ference is likely due to greater exposure of the neck, hands, and use PT panels based on the specific industry or exposure group.
ears to nickel in jewelry and body piercing practices. Females are Frequently, especially in the eyelid, lip, and facial dermatitis, it twice as likely as males to have ACD involving the head and neck may be necessary to include personal products and substances due to cosmetics. Among patients with cosmetic allergies, fra- specific to the patient's exposure history.
grances, preservatives, and emulsifiers are the most common Commercially available panels of supplemental allergens that causative allergens. In addition to the most common hair dye are constituents of personal care products or encountered in sensitizer, PPD, there are sensitizers in shampoos, including specific occupational environments are listed in the fragrances, CAPB, and preservatives. ACD involving the scalp is frequently caused by allergens in personal hygiene and medical The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group's products (eg, neomycin, benzocaine), hair tint and/or dyes, hair scoring system listed below is widely used: cleansing products, and bleaches.
(-) Negative reaction ACD involving the axillary region is often due to contact (?þ) Doubtful reaction with faint erythema only sensitivity to fragrance chemicals in deodorants; antiperspirant (1þ) Weak positive reaction with nonvesicular erythema, chemicals are uncommon causes of ACD. Allergic CD due to infiltration, possibly papules disperse dyes in clothing can elicit eczematous eruptions in the (2þ) Strong positive reaction with vesicular erythema, infil- axillae, feet, and groin. Axillary dermatitis may be a manifestation tration, and papules of SCD, specifically the "baboon syndrome," a diffuse eruption (3þ) Extreme positive reaction with intense erythema and involving flexural and intertriginous areas following oral, infiltration, coalescing vesicles, bullous reaction intravenous, or transcutaneous exposure to the allergen in a (IR) Irritant reaction contact-sensitized individual. Three groups of allergens are most common causes of SCD: (i) metals such as mercury, nickel, and In the evaluation of delayed hypersensitivity reactions, the gold; (ii) medications including aminoglycoside antibacterials, initial reading of PT should be done approximately 48 hours CS, and aminophylline; and (iii) plants and herbal products after their application following patch removal. Tests may need including Compositae and Anacardiaceae families and BOP (also to be read 30 minutes after removal of the patches to allow er- known as Myroxylon pereirae).
ythema from the occluding pressure of the tape and/or chamber Patients presenting with anogenital dermatoses have been to resolve. A second reading must be done; this is often done at diagnosed with confirmed ACD to allergens contained in topi- day 3 to 7 after the initial application. A collaborative study cally applied products such as cosmetics, medications, feminine demonstrated that 30% of relevant allergens were positive at 96 hygiene and contraceptive products. The most common sources hours and were negative at the 48-hour reading, which suggests of antigens were topical medications, including TCS, fragrances, that 96 hours may be optimal for a second reading. Occasionally, BOP, nickel sulfate, cinnamic aldehyde, and neomycin sulfate.
an additional late reading after 7 days may be needed for certain The preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) and benzocaine contactants such as metals, some antibiotics, and TCS that may were frequently identified as contact allergens in patients with yield late reactions. Oral CS exceeding 20 mg/day of prednisone or its equivalent have been shown to diminish skin test reactivity The pattern of foot dermatitis due to ACD varies according to to 5% nickel sulfate at 48 hours. There is minimal evidence to the type of footwear used. Para-tertiary butylphenol formaldehyde guide the duration of steroid reduction or withdrawal before resin (in adhesives), potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, and performing patch testing. If the clinical suspicion is high despite carbamates are among the most common allergens. Allergic CD a negative PT in a patient receiving immunosuppressive medi- involving the feet is commonly caused by sensitization to common cations, consider repeat testing when the immunosuppressant rubber allergens (carbamates, thiurams, and mercaptobenzothia- doses are lowered or discontinued. The test site where the PT are zole). Children presenting with sole dermatitis should be evaluated applied should have no topical potent CS or TCI applied for 5 to by patch testing to rule out ACD caused by rubber additives, ad- 7 days before testing. UV irradiation of PT sites before testing hesives, and/or chromates. The majority of patients with chronic can suppress PT responses.
leg ulcers and leg dermatitis have contact sensitization to chemical Doubtful (?þ) or weakly positive (1þ) questionable or irre- sensitizers found in topically applied preparations including BOP, producible reactions on PT can be easily misinterpreted. The FMs, antibacterial agents, CS, and lanolin.
timing of the response may also affect its clinical significance, J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S with a weak reaction at day 7 more likely to be clinically relevant When evaluating ACD from cosmetics and personal care than one at day 3. The inability to separate nonspecific from true products that contain many different chemical ingredients, allergic responses may be due to the "angry back" or "excited consider that the most common causes are due to a few skin" syndrome, which is defined as false-positive reactions important chemical classes, including fragrances, preservatives, adjacent to large true-positive reactions that induce contiguous excipients, nickel, and sun blocks. Fragrances are complex sub- skin inflammation and irritability. The frequency of false-nega- stances and are the most common cause of ACD from cosmetic tive results is not known, but has been estimated to occur in up in the United States. Previous studies suggest that the standard to 30% of patch-tested patients. The ROAT is used to further FM and BOP will detect approximately 60% to 70% of evaluate a patient suspected of ACD who exhibits doubtful or fragrance-allergic individuals. The addition of other commonly suspected false-negative PT responses, to confirm that the patient used fragrance ingredients (FM II, lyral, ylang ylang oil, narcissus is reacting to that particular product or to determine clinical oil, and sandalwood oil) may increase the yield up to 96%.
tolerability to new cosmetic products. The threshold concen- However, it should be noted that fragrances in PT have marginal tration for a positive reaction for the ROAT is lower than the irritant potential and weak positive reactions may not be regar- threshold concentration for a positive PT, although the accu- ded as proof of contact sensitization (low specificity of the test).
mulated ROAT dose was very similar to the PT.
Preservatives and antibacterials are used to prevent rancidity The clinical relevance of positive PT reactions to ACD can and microbial contamination. Preservatives tend to be grouped only be established by carefully correlating the history, which into 2 broad categories: formaldehyde releasers (products that includes exposure to the allergen, with the PT results. A positive emit formaldehyde) and nonformaldehyde releasers. It is rec- PT may be clinically relevant depending on current or past ex- ommended that patients allergic to formaldehyde be advised to posures. Current relevance is defined as definite if the PT or use avoid stay-on cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde releasers.
test with the suspected material is positive; probable if the PT is Among nonformaldehyde releaser preservatives, methlydibromo positive and the antigen is present in known skin contactants and the clinical presentation is consistent with that exposure; or isothiazolinone (MCI/MI) (trade name: Kathon CG) have possible if the PT is positive, and skin contact with materials emerged as an important cosmetic and toiletry allergen with known to contain the allergen was likely.
increasing prevalence. The use of MI alone as a preservative in If photo-allergic CD is suspected, physicians should be con- personal care and cosmetic products has increased in the past few sulted with expertise in UV radiation and photo-patch testing to years especially in rinse-off products such as shampoos, condi- confirm a suspected diagnosis. Photo-allergic CD typically affects tioners, baby soaps and detergents, and wet wipes. Although sun-exposed areas such as the face, the ‘‘V'' of the anterior neck, parabens formulated in cosmetics are infrequent causes of ACD, the dorsal hands, and forearms. It typically spares the upper they can induce ACD when used as antibacterial in topical eyelids, upper lip, and submental and postauricular areas. The medications especially those used on damaged skin, such as in more common cause of sunscreen sensitization is the chemical long-standing dermatitis and stasis ulcers. The rate of sensitiza- sunscreens. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide (physical UV tion to parabens in patients with chronic leg ulcers is higher than blockers) have not been reported to cause ACD or photo-allergy, that of the general population.
although there are a few reports of titanium in implants causing "Botanicals" (such as tea tree oil, propolis, and other essential ACD. Testing requires duplicate application of allergen with oils) are plant extracts that are increasingly used as additives to subsequent occlusion, and irradiation of one side to compare to skin care products and are potential causes of CD. It is important the other, nonirradiated application.
that patients who are allergic to fragrance also be made aware of Although in vitro tests for delayed hypersensitivity to contact the potential dangers of cosmetic products that may contain allergens (ie, metals and bone cement) are available, routine use of plant extracts and patients should also be counseled that "natural such assays is not currently recommended as their sensitivity and products" does not equate with safety.
specificity for diagnosing ACD has not been determined and should In patients suspected to have allergy to hair products, CAPB, be considered investigational. In vitro tests for assessing antigen PPD, fragrances, preservatives and glycerol thioglycolate should specific sensitization are based on measuring lymphocyte prolifera- be considered. CAPB is an amphoteric surfactant that is often tion (lymphocyte proliferation tests—LPTs) or cytokine production found in shampoos, bath products, and cleaners. Allergy to (ELISA or EliSPOT) after incubation with antigens. Some in vitro CAPB typically presents as eyelid, facial, scalp, and/or neck tests have been validated against patch testing, whereas others have dermatitis. Paraphenylenediamine is the active ingredient in not. The clinical relevance of in vitro testing to the diagnosis of CD many hair dyes, and is a very common cause of CD in hair- has not been established and is still investigational.
dressers. Other routes of exposure include body painting and Identifying sources of exposure to clinically relevant allergens temporary tattooing. ACD from PPD can be severe, sometimes is challenging. Dermatitis present on the face, hands, and mimicking angioedema. Cross-reactivity of PPD with other exposed chest may be triggered by airborne protein allergens such para-amino compounds, such as benzocaine, para-amino- as grass pollen, house dust mite, and cat dander; and diagnosed benzoic acid (PABA), sulfa drugs, aminoazobenzene, isopropyl- by the application of the allergen by patch testing. CD caused by para-phenylenediamine (IPPD), and azo dyes has been reported cosmetics is noted predominantly at the site of application; and may require avoidance. Glycerol thioglycolate is the active however, occasionally personal care products and cosmetics ingredient in permanent wave solution and tends to cause more manifest the contact allergy lesions in locations distant from the occupational dermatitis in hair dressers than consumers. Thi- original skin sites. This phenomenon termed ectopic CD can be oglycolates may remain allergenic in the hair long after it has caused by nickel transferred to the eyelid by fingers that have been rinsed out.
been exposed to a nickel source or toluene sulfonamide formal- Allergy to nail products is suspected when dermatitis presents dehyde resin in nail polish.
locally at the distal digit or ectopically on the eyelids and face.
J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT Most allergic reactions to nail polish and artificial nail products to experience the same symptoms. Similarly, a group of patients are to tosylamide and/or formaldehyde resin found in nail polish with implant-related eczema who were metal sensitized, and then enamel, in addition to nail hardeners and setting lacquers. Up to underwent revision with a different metal alloy implant, had a 80% of the reactions appear on the neck, face, lips, and eyelids.
higher incidence of eczema resolution. Anecdotal case reports Alkyl polyester resin may be a suitable alternative for sensitive suggest that patients with skin or systemic manifestations of sensitization to components of implantable defibrillators, pace- Topical medicinal CD commonly develops after exposure to makers, arterial stents, dentures, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) topical medications, including lanolin, para-aminobenzoic acid appeared to improve once the sensitizing agent was replaced.
(in sunscreens), "caines" (anti-itch preparations), topical antibi- There are no current guidelines or recommendations for otics (neomycin, bacitracin), topical antihistamines, nonsteroidal symptomatic patients with positive PT to metals or bone cement anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and/or TCS. Lanolin is used components. The decision regarding implant revision following as the base of many topical medications, including TCS and positive PT results can only be made after a thorough discussion moisturizers. Allergy to TCS affects 0.5% to 5.8% of patients between the patient, the allergist or dermatologist, and the or- suspected of ACD. PT to CS is complicated by the inherent, thopedic surgeon. In addition to the possibility of metal sensi- anti-inflammatory nature of the drug itself, which results in tization as a potential cause of joint replacement failure, there are frequent false-negative results if tested at too high concentration also reports of implant failure related to bone cement or its or late PT readings (7-10 days following application) are not components including benzoyl peroxide, hydroquinone, methyl done. Coopman et al classified 4 major groups of CS prepara- methacrylate, and n,n-dimethyl para-toluidine.
tions based on 2 immune recognition sites with considerable In considering special populations, both ACD and ICD are cross-reactivity within the groups. Testing should include tix- significant clinical problems in children. Patch testing should be ocortol pivalate, budesonide, triamcinolone, the patient's com- performed and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of mercial steroid, the vehicle, and the preservatives in the ACD in children. In children, a careful, age-appropriate history preparations. Although rare, patients sensitized to TCS can should include exposure to diapers, hygiene products, personal develop SCD with administration of the CS by an oral, IV, IM, care products, cosmetics, sunscreens, textiles with dyes and fire or inhalation route.
retardant materials, medications, pets and pet products, school PT to drugs may have a role in delayed hypersensitivity drug projects, sports, and so on. A US-based study showed nickel, reactions and have a higher positivity in patients presenting with fragrance, cobalt, thimerosal, BOP, potassium dichromate, maculopapular rashes, erythroderma, and nonimmediate cuta- neomycin, lanolin, thiuram mix, and PPD to be common al- neous reactions including drug rash with eosinophilia and sys- lergens in children. In addition, there are highly relevant aller- temic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous gens that have significant frequency in children because of their pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal unique exposure such as MCI/MI, dialkyl thiourea, p-tert-butyl necrolysis (SJS/TEN), and fixed drug eruptions. The utility of formaldehyde resin, CAPB, and disperse dyes.
the PT depends on various factors including the type and Contact dermatitis is one of the most common types of formulation of the drug being tested, the vehicle used, as well as occupational illness, with estimated annual costs exceeding $1 the immunopathogenesis eliciting the eruption. Currently, there billion. OCD is classically divided into ICD and ACD. ICD is no standardized approach to define the population likely to represents approximately 80% of all cases of OCD and most benefit and validated PT materials to make PT to drugs a stan- commonly involves the hands. Common irritant exposures dard of care.
include wet work, solvents and alcohols, cutting oils, coolants, Indications for pre-operative patch testing in patients with a degreasers, soaps, detergents, and other cleaning agents and history of metal allergy are still being studied. However, pre- disinfectants. The major chemical groups associated with ACD operative PT may help guide the selection of implant alloys in include metals, rubber-related materials, epoxies, resins and patients with a high suspicion of metal allergy, and such patients acrylics, organic dyes, plants, foods, medications, biocides, and demonstrate improved outcomes. This testing is not recom- germicides. The most common causes of plant dermatitis in mended for patients without such a history of metal sensitivity.
outdoor workers include poison ivy, poison oak, and poison There is no information regarding pre-operative PT in patients sumac. Patch testing is not recommended to poison ivy because with a prior history of methacrylate or antibiotic sensitivity.
it can cause sensitization or large bullous reactions.
The clinician should recognize that contact sensitization to Accepted and validated criteria such as those proposed by metals or bone cement that are used in orthopedic, cardiac, Mathias should be used to confirm the diagnosis of OCD. These dental, and gynecological implants have been associated with include (1) the clinical appearance that is consistent with CD; (2) both dermatitis and noncutaneous complications. These com- potential culprit cutaneous irritants and/or allergens are present plications may include localized pain, swelling, erythema, in the workplace; (3) the anatomic distribution of dermatitis is warmth, implant loosening, decreased range of motion, stent consistent with workplace skin exposure; (4) the temporal rela- stenosis, and pericardial effusions in the case of cardiac implants.
tionship between exposure and onset of symptoms is consistent Patch testing to implant or device components is recommended with CD; (5) nonoccupational exposures are excluded as prob- to help determine the etiology of the postimplantation adverse able causes of the dermatitis; (6) the dermatitis improves when absent from work exposure, and re-exposure results in exacer- Patients who experienced failed joint replacements and un- bation; and (7) PT performed according to established guidelines derwent revision using components dictated by a positive metal demonstrates positive and relevant reactions.
PT reported resolution of their joint symptoms, most frequently Management of CD begins with avoidance of contact with the joint pain, joint loosening, and localized dermatitis. Those pa- confirmed offending agent and the patient is informed of any tients with a positive metal PT who were not revised continued cross-reactivity concerns. The identification and avoidance of J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S contact with the offending agent(s) is the key to successful lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. Features on physical examination or treatment of ICD and ACD. For cosmetic products, the patients histological findings are unable to differentiate ACD from ICD.
should be given not only a list of what they are allergic to but also Patch testing and environmental history of exposure to contact a list of products that they can use, that are free of the suspected allergens is required. There are other dermatological conditions allergens. Several databases are currently available in the United that may resemble the clinical and/or histological appearance of CD, and these should be considered in the differential diagnosis Components of medical management of ACD include TCS (that includes cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The with second line therapies including phototherapy, oral retinoids, cutaneous biopsy, if needed to differentiate CD from other forms and immunosuppression. TCS are widely accepted as the treat- of dermatitis, should be interpreted by a pathologist with ment of acute and chronic dermatitis, and selection of the TCS expertise in dermatopathology.
for efficacy, potency, and acceptability is determined by many Summary Statement 2: In patients suspected of ACD, factors including the severity, the location, and the acuteness of patch testing is the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis.
the dermatitis. Key to the management of ACD is still the [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; C Evidence] identification and avoidance of the allergen. Several topical T-cell The suspicion of ACD is the first step in making the diag- selective inhibitors (topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus) have nosis. Patch testing is indicated in any patient with acute or been used successfully in the treatment of AD, but their efficacy chronic, often pruritic, dermatitis if underlying or secondary in ACD or ICD has not been established. Other treatments ACD is suspected. The history is important for the diagnosis and including cyclosporin, azathioprine and psoralen plus ultraviolet subsequent management of this disease. Although medical his- A (UVA) have been used for steroid-resistant ACD such as tory can strongly suggest the cause of ACD, it has moderate chronic hand dermatitis.
sensitivity (76%) and specificity (76%) in establishing the Primary prevention of ICD and ACD involves avoidance of Because the patient may be unaware of any relevant exposure to possible irritants and allergens and appropriate skin exposure, virtually any eczematous lesion could be aggravated by protection. Avoidance of exposure may be accomplished by several a contact Noneczematous eruptions such a prurigo means including elimination of an irritant or an allergen, substi- nodularis may also be associated with clinically relevant positive tution, training, and rotation of job task. The use of personal PT.Studies have demonstrated the utility of patch testing in protective equipment such as gloves, goggles and/or face shields, children with chronic dermatitis.
uniforms, and equipment to protect the skin from the exposure is The sensitivity and specificity of patch testing varies according important. The use of cotton liners under gloves can be useful. Skin to the allergen. For example, it has been reported that a positive care to protect the barrier function of the skin is important and PT to nickel sulfate is demonstrable in only 60% of patients with a involves the use of moisturizers, particularly lipid-rich moisturizers.
positive history of nickel allergy (ie, positive predictive value 60%), In a review of 15 studies reporting prognosis in OCD between whereas 12.5% to 15% of persons reporting a negative history of 1958 and 2002, the range of complete clearance of the dermatitis metal allergy had a positive PT response to nickel sulfat was 18% to 72%. Atopic dermatitis is associated with poorer Patch testing identifies contact sensitizers in nearly 50% of outcomes. The longer the duration between the onset and patients presenting with scattered generalized dermatitis.The diagnosis of hand dermatitis, the poorer the outcome. There is experienced clinician can misclassify ACD as nonspecific eczema significant job disruption for workers with CD. There are a small or IgE-mediated CU if the assessment is based solely on the percentage of individuals with occupational hand dermatitis who medical history without patch do poorly even with removal from exposure.
Although sensitization occurring after patch testing is rare, this has been reported after testing to plant allergens such as poisonivy or poison oak, as well as to p-aminoazobenzene, p-phenyl- CONTACT DERMATITIS: A PRACTICE enediamine, diaminodiphenylmethane, cobalt, and PARAMETEReUPDATE 2015 beryllium.The possibility of active sensitization can be mini- Clinical evaluation mized by testing with dilute Summary Statement 1: Consider ACD in the differential Patch testing has been shown to be cost effective if performed diagnosis of patients with chronic eczematous or non- early in the course of the disease in patients with chronic ACD eczematous dermatitis. [Strength of Recommendation: by reducing prediagnosis costs of treatment. Treated patients Strong; C Evidence] with CD confirmed by patch testing exhibit significantly greater Contact dermatitis may be suspected on the basis of the improvement in dermatology-specific quality of life than those clinical appearance of the lesions, the distribution of the patients who were not patch Skin prick testing has no dermatitis, and the absence of other etiologies or lack of associ- role in the evaluation of ACD but is often useful in patients ated systemic manifestations. Acute CD is characterized by presenting with allergic CU.
erythematous papules, vesicles, and crusted lesions. Recurrent or Summary Statement 3: In addition to personal products persistent episodes of CD will change over time from acute skin used by a patient suspected of ACD, review the home and inflammation to skin thickening, hardening, scaling, and workplace for other sources of contact allergens. [Strength of fissuring, with exaggeration of the normal markings known as Recommendation: Moderate; D Evidence] lichenification. Pruritus is characteristic of both acute and Work and environmental history must be carefully reviewed.
chronic CDs, and constant skin rubbing contributes to the Chronologic exposure histories that include hobbies and spe- lichenification. Histologically, CD demonstrates intercellular cific activities relative to onset of the dermatitis should be edema of the epidermis known as spongiosis, with varying de- grees of acanthosis (thickening of the epidermal stratum basale The exact nature of the work duration of each activity and occurrence of similar skin effects in coworkers may provide clues J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT TABLE I. Differential diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) Dermatologic condition Differentiating features and clues to diagnosis Irritant contact dermatitis  Glazed, parched, or scalded appearance  Sharply circumscribed dermatitis  Healing begins promptly on withdrawal of the offending agent  Patch testing negative Atopic dermatitis  Personal or family history of atopy  Early age of onset  Chronic and recurrent  Dry, scaly very pruritic  Typical distribution Facial in infancyExtensors in early childhoodFlexural areas in adolescence and adults Seborrheic dermatitis  Distribution: areas with sebaceous glands  Scalp, periauricular, face (medial eyebrows, glabella, nasolabial folds), presternal trunk, interscapular  Blepharitis common  Dandruff appears to be a precursor  Distinctive morphology: dull, yellowish-red, sharply demarcated lesions covered with greasy-looking scales Dyshidrotic eczema  Small (1-2 mm) vesicles, deep seated on nonerythematous base  Palms, soles, and/or lateral aspects of fingers, often symmetrical  Intensely pruritic and itching prodrome  Persists for 2-3 weeks and then resolves by involution and desquamation  Plaques typically have dry, thin, silvery-white, or micaceous scale  Auspitz sign: removing scale reveals a smooth, red, glossy membrane with tiny punctate bleeding Dermatitis herpetiformis  Genetic predisposition for gluten sensitivity  Intensely pruritic  Symmetrically grouped (herpetiform) papules and vesicles  Elbows, knees, buttocks, scapula, scalp  Direct immunofluorescence of the skin shows granular IgA at dermal papillae and occasionally along the dermo-epidermal border Mycoses fungoides and  Patches with thin, wrinkled quality, often with reticulated pigmentation cutaneous T-cell lymphoma  Pruritus varies from minimal or absent to common in premycotic phase and may precede MF by years  Often on lower trunk and buttocks  Cutaneous biopsy required for confirmation as to potential causes of work-related ICD or ACD.Relevant not apply. Simultaneous exposure to both an irritant and a contact changes in work environments that result in new direct chemical allergen or 2 contact allergens can reduce the clinical threshold exposures to the skin, including vapors and fumes, must be concentration for elicitation of response to a given allergen. The 2 probed. Certain occupations (eg, hospital workers) require mechanisms have been suggested to explain the effect of exposure to frequent hand washing, and the use of cleansing agents may an irritant on potentiation of contact sensitization, including effects compromise the skin barrier and cause irritant hand dermatitis.
on the immune response by upregulation of proinflammatory Because the worker may be unaware of specific chemicals to cytokines and/or enhanced penetration of the which he or she is exposed, MSDS obtained from the manu- Detergents are common causes of hand dermatitis because of facturer may be helpful; however, key sensitizing ingredients their disruption of the skin barrier and are frequently associated found at low concentrations are often omitted from product with ICD of the hand. Although there are some reports of ACD related to detergents, careful evaluation suggests that allergic re- Hobbies and nonwork activity such as gardening, macramé, sponses are rare.Irritants that disrupt the skin barrier may then painting, ceramic work, carpentry, and photography may be penetrate into the epidermis resulting in injury to the keratino- sources of exposure to culprit contactants. Obtaining a detailed cyte membranes and release of inflammatory cytokines, and history of animal and animal product exposure is essential.
contribute to developing ICD. This disruption of the skin barrier Summary Statement 4: Evaluate patients for both irritant and also allows for allergen penetration and resultant induction of allergic causes, especially in those presenting with hand dermatitis. [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; C Evidence] In addition to exposure to a single agent, simultaneous exposure to Physical examination multiple irritants and contact allergens may produce additive, syn- Summary Statement 5: Allergic CD should be suspected ergistic, or antagonistic responses. Although most research related and evaluated in the patient with both generalized and to irritant and allergic effects comes from studies of single agents, anatomically localized skin eruptions (such as the hands, individuals are often exposed to multiple irritants and allergens. In face, eyelids) that come in contact with the substances in the some situations, accepted threshold concentrations for elicitation of environment. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C an allergic cutaneous PT response to a specific contact allergen may J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S The latest NACDG lists the top 3 most common body lo- lip dermatitis and 85% of these cases were Allergic cations of CD as scattered and/or generalized distribution, the contact cheilitis (ACC) often involves the lip vermillion border hands and the face.In addition, attention should be given to and extends to contiguous skin presenting with concomitant specific anatomical sites, particularly the face, eyelids, lips, oral perioral dermatitis; with adjacent oral mucosa typically spared. In mucosa, neck and scalp, hand, axillae, anogenital area, feet, and patients presenting to dermatologists with cheilitis, history lower extremities. Each of these areas can be affected by ACD combined with patch testing was able to confirm ACC in only and will be described in greater detail in Summary statements 6 34% to 38% of patients.FM, BOP, and nickel were the through 14. A diagnosis of ACD based on the physical exami- most common positive allergens on PT. Sources of fragrances nation and history alone, however, is not conclusive and should include oral hygiene products (eg, toothpastes, mouthwashes, be confirmed by PT.
flavorings, compounds used for dental impressions), cosmetics, Summary Statement 6: In a patient with a facial rash and lip products (including lipsticks, glosses, and lip balms). In involving the periorbital areas (eg, eyelids), evaluate for ACD another study, lipsticks and lip balms were identified as the most caused by components of cosmetics, such as fragrances, pre- common sources of allergens for ACC in females and toothpaste servatives, and excipients, because these are common sensi- was the most commonly implicated in males. In tizers of the facial skin. [Strength of Recommendation: toothpastes, flavoring chemicals are most frequent relevant al- Moderate; C Evidence] lergens, including mint derivatives such as spearmint, menthol, Facial ACD may present as a generalized facial eruption or in peppermint, carvone as well as cinnamal, and anethole.In lip specific regions such as the forehead, periorbital, or perioral areas.
balms, propolis produced by bees, lanolin, coconut oil, almond Sensitizers in commercial facial products that are in direct skin oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E are potential sensitizers.Less contact are the most common causes of facial ACD.Facial common antigen sources of ACC are jewelry (ie, nickel by ACD may also occur when contact allergens are transferred ectopic transfer) and topical medications (eg, neomycin, bude- ectopically to the face by the hands from other regions of the sonide, tetracaine). Interestingly, relevant positive PT to allergens body. Skin exposure to airborne plant-derived aeroallergens (eg, that were not part of the NACDG patch series have been tree, weed pollens) may cause an eczematous dermatitis of the identified in 36% of patients with ACC.This suggests that a exposed areas of the face, neck, and arms. These reactions typi- selected panel should be used that is based on the patient's cally occur on a seasonal basis during the summer months.
personal products.
Compositae sensitizers are also found in many "natural" cosmetic Summary Statement 8: Evaluate patients with chronic oral products and may cause facial ACD.
mucosal inflammatory conditions for disorders other than Allergic CD is the most common cause of isolated periorbital ACD. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] and eyelid dermatitis.Risk factors include female gender, AD, ACD is often considered in the differential diagnosis of and age over 40 years. In one study, the most common sources burning mouth syndrome, lichenoid tissue reactions, stomatitis, of causative allergens were found in cosmetic products (eg, gingivitis, orofacial granulomatosis, recurrent aphthous stomati- facial cream, eye shadow) and ophthalmic therapeutics. The tis, precancerous and cancerous lesions, viral and fungal in- most commonly identified sensitizers were FM (19%), BOP fections, lichen planus, especially in human immunodeficiency (10%), thimerosal (10%), and neomycin sulfate (8%).Nickel virus-infected patients and those with Melkersson-Rosenthal has also been identified as a very common sensitizer associated syndrome. Nevertheless, the oral mucosa is considered an im- with periorbital CD.Although it has been suggested that mune privileged site and oral contact sensitization is considered preservatives in topical ophthalmic medications are important to be uncommon. Persistent oral complaints or gingivitis has sensitizers, benzalkonium chloride (the most frequently used been associated with positive PT to allergens in dental compo- today) has not been found to be a common sensitizer in patients nents including mercury, methacrylate, and with periorbital CDThimerosal, a possible sensitizer, is less In a large study of 331 patients presenting with oral symp- commonly used in ophthalmic products. A recent retrospective toms, PT was conducted to a comprehensive panel of flavorings, North American study of patients evaluated for periorbital preservatives, acrylates, medications, and metals.The mean age dermatitis could not detect significant sensitizers related to in this study was 58 years and 81% were women. The most ophthalmic products, and found that nickel and fragrances were frequent positive PT was to potassium dicyanoaurate, nickel, still the most common sensitizers identified by PT.ACD is gold sodium thiosulfate, FM, BOP, beryllium, cobalt, and responsible for 81% of cases of eyelid dermatitis. Common acrylate. More than 50% of patients presenting with burning sensitizers included nail product chemicals (tosylamide and/or mouth syndrome, lichenoid tissue reaction, cheilitis, stomatitis, formaldehyde resin, acyrlates), botanicals in personal care and gingivitis exhibited at least one positive reaction considered products, and nickel.
to be relevant by the reporting physician. However, the term Summary Statement 7: Evaluate patients presenting with "relevant positive" PT used in large retrospective PT studies is lip dermatitis (cheilitis) and perioral dermatitis for both severely limited due to the lack of documentation of clinical irritant and allergic causes of contact dermatitis. [Strength of improvement following avoidance to the suspected "relevant" Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] allergens. Thus, based on available clinical data, there is insuffi- Eczematous cheilitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of cient evidence to confirm a causative role of contact allergy in the the lips and is characterized by itching, burning, redness, edema, aforementioned oral syndromes.
and fissuring. This is most commonly caused by physical (eg, Chemical and traumatic injury may be the most common cold, dryness, wind) or chemical irritants (saliva, lip cosmetics, or causes of contact reactions involving mucous membranes. Many other oral products). Other causes include atopic cheilitis that is of these reactions are caused by caustic chemical agents inad- observed in patients with AD. In a series of more than 10,000 vertently applied during dental treatment. Lastly, one should be patients reported by the NACDG, 2% of patients presented with aware that oral erosions and blistering lesions may be the initial J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT presenting symptoms of autoimmune blistering diseases such as Summary Statement 11: Evaluate patients with axillary dermatitis for ACD caused by local contact sensitivity to al- Summary Statement 9: In patients presenting with lergens in topically applied products found in deodorants dermatitis that involves the scalp and neck, consider patch and textiles. In some cases, axillary dermatitis could be a testing for common causative sensitizers in cosmetics, hair manifestation of SCD (ie, "the baboon syndrome").
products, and jewelry. [Strength of Recommendation: Mod- [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] erate; C Evidence] ACD involving the axillary region is often due to contact Nickel remains the most common contact sensitizer and is sensitivity to fragrance chemicals in deodorants, including found more frequently in women than it is in men. The gender difference is likely due to greater exposure of the neck, hands and hydroxycitronellal, as well as cinnamic aldehyde and sensitizers in ears to nickel in jewelry,as well as piercing practices.
natural botanical Although ICD is more com- Females are twice as likely as males to have ACD involving the mon, ACD has been rarely attributed to Iso- head and neck due to cosmetics.Among patients with cosmetic lated case reports of ACD causing axillary dermatitis have been allergies, fragrances, preservatives, and emulsifiers are the most attributed to propantheline bromide used as a treatment for common causative allergens. Specifically the most common in Pretesting with a ROAT on the flexor surface of both genders are quaternium-15, FM and BOP. PPD (hair dye), the forearm and axilla is advised in any patient with a history of a glyceryl thioglycolate (permanent wave solutions), tosylamide pre-existing axillary dermatitis before initiating use of a new and/or formaldehyde resin (nail enamel products), and methyl methacrylate (nail product adhesive) were common sensitizers in ACD due to disperse dyes in clothing can elicit eczematous females. Sensitizers in hair care products affect 30% of females eruptions in the axillae, feet, and In Sweden, 1.5% of all and 22% of male patients who were evaluated for CD.In patients undergoing patch testing has positive reactions to a addition to the most common hair dye sensitizer, PPD, more textile dye mix and the most common reactive dye was disperse than 20 other potential sensitizers have been identified in hair orange 1, whereas a clinic in North America reported that dye products.Frequent sensitizers contained in shampoos disperse blue 106 and disperse blue 124 were the most frequent include fragrances, CAPB (a surfactant), preservatives such as Patients reacting to a textile dye mix more often MCI/MI, and preservatives that are formaldehyde releasers (eg, reported dermatitis involving the axillary folds, arms, face, and quaternium-15, imidazolidinyl urea). Other ingredients that are In the axillae, the periphery is more often involved than potential sensitizers include propylene glycol, vitamin E, para- the axillary vault due to greater contact of the garment to the skin bens, benzophenones, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, and meth- in this area.
Axillary dermatitis may be a manifestation of SCD, specifically involving the scalp is most frequently caused by sensitization to the "baboon syndrome", a diffuse eruption involving flexural and medical products (eg, neomycin, benzocaine), hair tint, dyes, hair intertriginous areas following oral, intravenous, or trans- cleansing products, and cutaneous exposure to the allergen in a contact-sensitized indi- Summary Statement 10: Consider irritant and ACD in all vidual.Allergens associated with SCD are listed in .
patients presenting with acute or chronic hand eczema. All Summary Statement 12: Evaluate patients presenting with such patients suspected of CD should undergo patch testing.
anogenital dermatitis for possible ACD to antigens contained [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] in topically applied products. [Strength of Recommendation: Allergic contact sensitization is a common cause of chronic Moderate; C Evidence] hand dermatitis. The prevalence of ACD in patients pre- Allergic CD can cause anogenital dermatitis. A total of 17% to senting with hand dermatitis or hand eczema varies according 74% of patients presenting with anogenital dermatoses have been to exposure history and occupation. Hair dressers presenting diagnosed with confirmed ACD to allergens contained in topi- with hand dermatitis had a high prevalence of ACD (75%) cally applied products such as cosmetics, medications, and with 25% of the remaining cases being attributed to irri- feminine hygiene and contraceptive products. In a recent large tants.In a multicenter collaborative study in Denmark, 508 retrospective study, 44% of patients with anogenital dermatitis consecutive patients who presented with hand eczema were (including 41% of women and 50% of men) were identified with evaluated. In these patients, ICD was diagnosed in 38%, ACD ACD. The most common sources of antigens were topical in 24%, AD in 19%, and in 22%, nonspecific dermatitis was medications, including TCS, fragrances, BOP, nickel sulfate, the diagnosis.Even in children, ACD is a common cause of cinnamic aldehyde, and neomycin sulfate. Cinnamic aldehyde, hand dermatitis with one study reporting as high as 36% dibucaine, benzocaine, hydrocortisone-17-butyrate, and bude- prevalence. Sensitizers deemed relevant to ACD involving the sonide were more common sensitizers in patients presenting hands included the preservative quaternium-15 (16.5%), exclusively with anogenital dermatitis. A total of 21% patients formaldehyde (13.0%), nickel sulfate (12.2%), FM (11.3%), were diagnosed with ICD; the most common irritants were thiuram mix (10.2%), BOP (9.6%), carba mix (7.8%) used in cosmetics, soaps and cleansers, various health aides, and un- rubber products, neomycin sulfate (7.7%), bacitracin (7.4%), known agents.In another patient series, the preservative MI and benzocaine were frequently identified as contact allergens in (7.4%). Thus, it is strongly recommended to evaluate all pa- patients with anogenital Methylisothiazolinone, tients with chronic hand eczema for ACD by obtaining a used as a preservative in wet baby wipes has been identified as a medical history of contact allergy and performing patch sensitizer and cause of ACD involving the buttocks and perianal testing. In addition to ACD, chronic hand eczema may be a area in children.
presenting symptom of psoriasis and should be considered in Summary Statement 13: Consider a diagnosis of SCD the differential diagnosis.
following systemic exposure (eg, ingestion, infusion, or J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S transcutaneous exposure) to a known contact sensitizer in a topical preparations containing fragrances and antiseptics should patient who presents with generalized dermatitis, inter- be avoided in patients with leg ulcers and that they have the triginous and flexural exanthema (Baboon syndrome), and/or potential to become sensitized to components of products and a flare at previous cutaneous sites of exposure. [Strength of medications that are used to treat leg Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] Summary Statement 15: In addition to avoiding irritants The most common causes of SCD consist of 3 groups of al- in patients with AD, evaluate for ACD if suspected, as the 2 lergens: (i) metals such as mercury, nickel, and gold; (ii) medica- dermatologic conditions often coexist in the same patient.
[Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] aminophylline; and (iii) plants and herbal products including the There is conflicting evidence as to whether patients with AD Compositae and Anacardiaceae plant families and BOP.Nickel are at heightened overall risk of contact sensitization compared sulfate is ubiquitous in steel devices, jewelry, clothing, and food.
with nonatopic individuals. One recent study showed an inverse Systemic CD can result from ingestion of trace amounts of nickel relationship between contact sensitization and severe in soy, chocolate, nuts, green beans, peas, and canned food Because AD is associated with an impaired skin barrier, it is Other examples of systemic exposure to allergens that can trigger plausible that this impairment is likely to increase absorption of diffuse SCD include systemic administration of aminoglycoside topically applied chemicals and enhance the risk of subsequent antibiotics in a patient sensitized to topical neomycin; hydroxyzine sensitization. Atopic dermatitis has been diagnosed in 34% of ingestion or administration of IV aminophylline in patients with children with clinically relevant PT reactions, although children ACD to ethylenediamine, which cross-reacts with both medica- without AD are equally as likely as those with AD to exhibit tions; oral estrogen triggering a systemic dermatitis after sensiti- clinically relevant positive PT.
zation to estrogen patcheor flare of previously positive In a large population-based study of Danish adults, contact budesonide PT sites after inhalation of nebulized budesonideIt sensitization to at least one allergen was observed in 14% of is postulated that once the allergen has entered the blood stream, it patients who self-reported AD, whereas in 10% of those without encounters and reactivates specific memory T cells that then home AD had ACD. This overall difference between atopics and to the site of the previous dermatitis.
nonatopics in this study was primarily attributed to a higher Patients may also experience SCD after oral challenges with frequency of allergy to fragrances that may reflect a greater cu- fragrance-containing foods, Chinese herbs, or drugs. Patients mulative skin exposure to topical treatments containing fra- who are contact sensitive to BOP are prone to SCD with In this same study, the risks associated with filaggrin ingestion of foods or flavoring agents that are constituents of mutations were also evaluated. Self-reported hand dermatitis as BOP (eg, citrus products, ice cream, cinnamon, chutney, cola, well as AD combined with hand dermatitis was significantly vanilla, curry, ketchup, or tomatoes) or cross-react with those associated with contact sensitization in patients with a filaggrin constituent allergens. In addition, various spices, garlic, cashew gene mutation (R501X, 2282del4), whereas AD alone combined nuts, and proteinaceous substances handled by grocers, meat and with filaggrin mutations but without hand dermatitis was not fish handlers, and bakers have been cited as causes of SCD.
significantly associated with contact In a North Summary Statement 14: Consider PT to rubber chemicals, American study, PT results compared between 300 patients with adhesives, and leather components of footwear in patients AD and approximately 3000 patients without AD found that presenting with unexplained chronic dermatitis involving the patients with AD were significantly more likely to exhibit contact lower extremities, feet and/or soles. [Strength of Recom- sensitization and this difference was attributable to sensitization mendation: Moderate; C Evidence] The pattern of foot dermatitis due to ACD varies according to In a report by Jacob et al,comprehensive PT played a key the type of footwear used. ACD rarely localizes between the toes role in the identification of relevant chemical allergens in per- and typical sole involvement spares the instep and the toe's sonal hygiene products and topical treatments used in manage- flexural creases. Patch testing studies have identified p-tertiary ment of 3 children with severe, recalcitrant AD. Avoidance of butylphenol formaldehyde resin (in adhesives), potassium di- offending allergens resulted in marked improvement of eczema, chromate, cobalt chloride, and carbamates as the most common which permitted reduction in TCS and subsequent discontinu- allergens.Allergic CD involving the feet is commonly ation of systemic immunosuppressive therapy.
caused by sensitization to common rubber allergens (carbamates,thiurams, and mercaptobenzothiazole). Patients suspected of Patch testing recommendations rubber ACD should also be tested to mixed dialkyl thioureas Summary Statement 16: Avoid or reduce doses of immu- (diethylthiourea and dibutylthiourea) because the majority of nosuppressant medications such as systemic CS and other thiourea-sensitized patients do not react on PT to the more systemic immunosuppressants before patch testing. Avoid common rubber allergens.Children presenting with sole application of TCS, TCI, or ultraviolet radiation to the PT dermatitis should be evaluated by PT to rule out ACD caused by site, because these may reduce allergic PT responses.
rubber additives or chromates (from leather tanning).All the [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] aforementioned chemicals should be included in PT panels to The majority of adult patients treated with oral CS exceeding evaluate patients with foot dermatitis.
20 mg/day of prednisone or its equivalent have been shown to The vast majority of patients with chronic leg ulcers have diminish skin test reactivity at 48 hours to 5% nickel positive PT to chemical sensitizers found in topically applied The effect of systemic CS on the results of PT is less understood preparations. The most common of sensitizers were BOP, FM I, for children. Patch tests in patients on low doses of prednisone antibacterial agents, CS, and In a recent prospective and cyclosporine may still yield clinically relevant results.
study of patients with leg ulcers, the number of positive PT There are no supporting data that guide the duration of ste- correlated with duration of the leg ulcers. This suggests that roid reduction or withdrawal before performing PT. The J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT suppression is not absolute, and if necessary, PT should be A study of the T.R.U.E. Test (panel of 35 antigens and a performed while on the lowest possible dose of the immuno- negative control) () showed that it is highly repro- suppressant medication.If the clinical suspicion is high ducible with only a 5% discordance between concomitant despite a negative PT, consider repeat testing when the immu- duplicate tests in individual patients.Depending on the test nosuppressant doses are lowered or discontinued.
antigen, the T.R.U.E. Test method has moderate concordance High/medium potency TCS (ie, betamethasone dipropi- with individually loaded chamber systems. In separate studies, onate 0.05%) applied topically to PT sites for 3 successive 62% to 63% overall positive concordance rates were reported days suppress 48-hour responses to contact The between the Finn chamber system and T.R.U.E. Test test site where the PTs are applied should have no topical The T.R.U.E. Test is widely used because of its potent CS or TCI applied for 5 to 7 days before ease of application. However, it lacks flexibility and has currently testing.Topical tacrolimus (0.1%) pre-applied to skin a limited number of allergens available. The NACDG series test sites for 48 hours suppressed 48-hour PT responses to comprises 65-70 allergens and is used as a screening research tool 5% nickel sulfate.Pretreatment of skin test sites with UV to track trends in delayed-type contact sensitization. It also tests irradiation produced dose-related suppression of erythema established and newly marketed chemicals to determine preva- measured at 48 hours after application of nickel sulfate PT lence and relevance in causing ACD. Thus, the NACDG may in nickel-sensitized subjects.Protection from UV-induced contain allergens in different vehicles and concentrations. The immunosuppression of allergic responses to nickel sulfate ACDS has outlined a Core Allergen Series of suggested 80 al- was achieved by application of sunscreen products blocking lergens that can be scaled up or down depending on the needs of UVA and UVB wavelengths.
the physician and the patient being tested. The allergens are Systemic antihistamines are generally not believed to interfere arranged with more likely allergens being higher in the tray.
with the PT readings. A study showed that treatment with 10 mg is an example of a PT form listing the NACDG loratadine for 4 days before patch testing was associated with a series. Exclusive reliance on the T.R.U.E. Test antigen panel as significant reduction in the size of the eczematous responses to opposed to an extended panel used by the NACDG or the nickel sulfate. Recently, desloratadine given for 4 days at twice standard series outlined by the ACDS and personal products can the normal daily dose (5 mg po bid) did not significantly impact miss detection of sensitization to clinically relevant interpretation of positive patch responses to 10 contact aller- Currently, there are different loading chambers available; how- gens.This would indicate that antihistamines do not need to ever, none have shown superiority over another.
be withheld for PT.
Summary Statement 19: Read and interpret PT conform- Summary Statement 17: In addition to using a core or ing to the scoring system developed by the International baseline series of PT allergens in evaluating ACD, consider Contact Dermatitis Research Group. [Strength of Recom- using supplemental series of PT allergens based on specific mendation: Moderate; D Evidence] patient exposures and the patient's personal products, to Patch testing techniques and scoring reactions by a grading increase the probability of identifying relevant sensitizers.
scale were first standardized in the 1930s. The International [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] Contact Dermatitis Research Group published the following Reliance on a core or baseline series of PT antigens such as nonlinear, descriptive grading scale in 1970,which continues those used by the NACDG or in the T.R.U.E. Test panel for to be widely used.
assessing all patients is likely to lead to underdiagnoses of ACD. A (-) Negative reaction recent multicenter North American study of over 4300 patients (?þ) Doubtful reaction with faint erythema only published in 2013 revealed that 25% of patients exhibited a (1þ) Weak positive reaction with nonvesicular erythema, clinically relevant positive test to an antigen not included in a infiltration, possibly papules standard 70-antigen panel, and 25% reacted to an allergen that (2þ) Strong positive reaction with vesicular erythema, infil- was not part of the T.R.U.E. TEST panel.In 2009, the tration, and papules NACDG reported that 23% of 4454 patients in a multicenter (3þ) Extreme positive reaction with intense erythema and study exhibited at least one relevant positive test to a supple- infiltration, coalescing vesicles, bullous reaction mentary allergen and 5% reacted to a clinically relevant occupa- (IR) Irritant reaction tional allergen not part of the standardized panel of 65Many PT companies provide kits with allergen panels selected for a The details of this rating system and corresponding clinical specific industry such as machinists, cosmetologists, or dental interpretation with a visual key are given in and workers . There are other standardized panels for exposure groups such as cosmetics, textiles, plastics, and glues Summary Statement 20: Remove and read PT at approx- and medications and topical treatments ( imately 48 hours after application. A second reading should ). Currently, such kits can only be obtained from the manufac- be done between 3 and 7 days following application.
turers listed in Frequently, especially in the eyelid, [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] lip, and facial dermatitis, it may be necessary to include personal In the evaluation of delayed hypersensitivity reactions, the products and substances specific to the patient's exposure history.
initial reading of PT should be done approximately 48 hours Summary Statement 18: Patch testing can be performed after their application following patch removal.However, if either using a preloaded thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous CU is considered, the PT has to be checked at 20-30 minutes testing kit of 36 chambers or with a panel of antigens loaded after application. Tests may need to be read 30 minutes after individually in a chamber system recommended by the removal of the patches to allow erythema from the occluding NACDG Research Group or the ACDS. [Strength of pressure or stripping of the tape and/or chamber to resolve. A Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] second reading must be done, usually between day 3 and day 7


J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S allergens dissipated after the day 5 reading.With most al-lergens, however, the gain in positive reactions was biggestwhen a reading was performed at day 5.lists al-lergens with typical early and late reactivity. Reactions occur-ring even as late as days 10 to 14 may be due to a delayedirritant response and delayed allergic reactions such as formetals and TCS, and very rarely represent sensitization fromthe PT.Conversely, some irritant reactions appearingwithin the first 48 hours tend to disappear (decrescendo effect)by 96 hours.In rare situations where patient circumstances(ie, distance from the practice, insurance issues) do not permit 3visits, the patches can be removed by the patient or localphysician at 48 hours and read by the treating physician in 72-96 hours. Patients can be instructed to take a picture of theback before removing the patch (to help the clinician determinethe integrity of the PT system, and to record any nonadherentor loose patches), and another picture after removing the patch.
They should also re-label the PT sites after removal. However,this approach is considered suboptimal.
Summary Statement 21: Consider that a possible false- positive reaction can result with the use of irritants or allergicsubstances at potentially irritating higher concentrations,pressure reaction from the filling chamber, an "angry backsyndrome," or patch testing on skin with active dermatitis.
[Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; D Evidence] Many variables contribute to the strength of the PT reaction, including the concentration and potency of the allergen, the de-gree of subject sensitization, the length of application time, andthe timing of the readings.The greatest source of misinter-pretation is due to questionable or irreproducible reactions in thedoubtful (?þ) or weakly positive (1þ) categories. The timing ofthe response may also affect its clinical significance; for example, aweak reaction at day 7 is more likely to be clinically relevant thanone at day 3. The inability to separate nonspecific from trueallergic responses may be encountered in patients who exhibit the "angry back" or "excited skin" syndrome, which is defined as false-positive reactions adjacent to large true-positive reactions thatinduce contiguous skin inflammation and irritability. The longerthe duration of the primary dermatitis, the greater the risk for theexcited skin syndrome to occur with patch testing.This shouldbe suspected in cases with more than 5 reactions in close proximityto each other. The underlying mechanisms are not fullyunderstood.
A pustular patch reaction should not be misinterpreted as a FIGURE 1. Visual key for scoring patch test reactions.
positive reaction in PT. A pustular reaction is common in atopicindividuals and in response to test of metals such as nickel,copper, arsenic, and mercuric chloride. The test site is only after the initial application.Occasionally, an additional late minimally pruritic and this type of pustular reaction is frequently reading after 7 days may be needed for certain contactants such an irritant reaction.
as metals, some antibiotics, and TCS that may yield late re- The position of the allergen in a multiple allergen template actions.A collaborative study documented that approximately may give rise to the false-positive results, especially if cross- 30% of relevant allergens that were negative at the 48-hour reacting or co-sensitizing substances are tested in too close reading became positive at a 96-hour reading, suggesting that 96 proximity.Marginally irritating allergens may also trigger hours may be optimal for a second reading. Consider a late false-positive reactions.Repeat the PT with greater separation reading for allergens with negative early reactions, when the of allergens or sequentially if the initial reactions are not clinically clinical history strongly supports sensitization. Four allergens relevant, because false-positive reactions are not reproducible with the highest frequencies of delayed-positive reactions were when the triggering allergens are gold sodium thiosulfate 0.5% (delayed-positive reactions in 22/ Summary Statement 22: Recognize the possibility that 353 patients), dodecyl gallate 0.25% (6/105), palladium chlo- false-negative reactions could be due to inadequate allergen ride 2% (8/194), and neomycin sulfate 20% (10/253). In concentration needed to elicit a response; inability of the contrast, reactions to certain preservatives and fragrance J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT TABLE II. Allergens associated with early and late reactions wrong carrier vehicle that resulted in insufficient penetration of Allergens associated with early peak reactions (at 48 h) the allergen, or inclusion of the wrong salt or version of theallergen. UV sunlight (eg, tanning), TCS, and TCI on the area of Balsam of Peru resin (Myroxylon pereirae) PT and systemic CS (ie, >20 mg/day and other immunosuppressives can all inhibit a positive patch response.
Also, the patient may need photo-patch testing if photo-allergic CD is suspected.
Summary Statement 23: Determine the relevance of a PT result based on the clinical and exposure history when interpreting the PT. [Strength of Recommendation: Moder- The clinical relevance of positive PT reactions to ACD can only be established by carefully correlating the history, which includes Allergens associated with reaction on day 5, resolved day 7 exposure to the allergen, with the PT test results. A positive PT may be clinically relevant depending on current or past exposures.
Methyl dibromo glutaronitrile phenoxy ethanol Current relevance is defined as definite if the PT or use test with the suspected material is positive; probable if the antigen is present in known skin contactants and the clinical presentation is consistent with that exposure; or possible if skin contact with materials known to contain the allergen was likely. Past relevance is considered if the PT is positive but the exposure was in the past,and not the present Allergens associated with late peak reactions (days 6-7) Summary Statement 24: Consult physicians with expertise in patch testing to household cleaning or industrial products if testing to the actual product suspected of containing the relevant allergen(s) is necessary, because false-positive and severe irritant reactions can occur. [Strength of Recommen- dation: Moderate; C Evidence] Topical corticosteroids Household and industrial products should only be tested by physicians with expertise on this type of testing after determination of safety from MSDS information and using nonirritating PT based on an authoritative textSome of these chemicals can beextremely toxic to the skin and on rare occasions even produce systemic effects. The PT concentration of these products must be Gold sodium thiosulfate based on established protocols when available. Nonirritant con- Palladium chloride centrations are established by testing groups of unaffected volun- Potassium dichromate teer control subjects. Whenever possible, customized contactants should be incorporated into a petrolatum base, but in some in- Preservatives and glues stances, a different vehicle should be used to increase exposure to the relevant antigenIt may be difficult to distinguish an p-Tert-butyl phenol formaldehyde resin irritant from an allergic reaction. Examples of direct PT to prod- ucts at nonirritating concentrations found in Patch Testing 3rd Edare bath products 1% aqua, shampoo 5% aqua, synthetic detergents 2% aqua, soap 1% or 2% aqua, and glues 1% to 20% in aqua, acetone, alcohol, or petrolatum. Antiperspirant, eau de cologne, cosmetics that are leave on, and insect spray may be PTwithout dilution. Agents that should not be patch tested includebenzene, toluene, and other solvents, such as gasoline, kerosene, responsiveness because of prior ultraviolet light exposure (ie, lime, floor wax and polish, diesel oil, rust removers, and others.
sun, tanning bed); concomitant immunosuppressive thera- Furthermore, unknown substances should not be tested.
pies; or methodological testing errors such as insufficient Summary Statement 25: Consult physicians with expertise occlusion, failure to perform delayed readings, and failure to in UV radiation and photo-patch testing to confirm a sus- perform a photo PT. [Strength of Recommendation: Mod- pected diagnosis of photo-allergic CD. [Strength of Recom- erate; C Evidence] mendation: Strong; C Evidence] The strength of the reaction on the skin does not necessarily Photo-patch testing should be done in clinical settings with the correlate with clinical relevance. For example, aminoglycosides expertise, materials, and equipment to perform the procedure. In may cause weak reactions on PT that are nonetheless clinically brief, duplicate applications of the suspected photo-sensitizer(s) are relevant.The frequency of false-negative results is not known, placed on either side of the upper back, and occluded for 24 to 48 but has been estimated to occur in up to 30% of patch-tested hours. A recent study suggests that 2 days of occlusion before patients.Potential causes of false-negative reactions include irradiation of allergens is more sensitive at detecting photo- too low a concentration of the allergen in the extract, use of the allergy.After PT removal, one side of the back is then irradiated J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S with 5 J cm2 of UVA and the other side is left open but un- Patients with AD presenting in a pattern of airborne exposure treated as the control. Both irradiated and unirradiated sides are (ie, present on face, hands, and exposed chest) may be triggered then measured 48 hours after irradiation for a response. If the by airborne protein allergens such as grass pollen, house dust patient has persistent photosensitivity, the minimum erythema mite, and cat dander. Although currently not standardized, this dose (MED) must be determined first and reduced to 1/2 of the can be diagnosed by the atopy patch test (APT), involving the MED for the photo-patch test. Readings are recorded pre- application of intact protein allergens by PT and reading the site irradiation, immediately postirradiation, and 48 hours post- after 24 to 72 hours. An APT reaction correlates frequently with irradiation. Additional readings have been recommended.
the skin prick test and serum IgE, but not always.
Summary Statement 26: Although in vitro tests for delayed For some plants, both plant parts and pollen may contain the hypersensitivity to contact allergens (ie, metals and bone same allergen, and have been reported to cause airborne CD.
cement) are available, routine use of such assays is not These include the weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. (a member currently recommended as their sensitivity and specificity for of the Compositae family) in India and Japanese diagnosing ACD has not been determined and should be cedar pollen confirmed by a positive scratch-patch and considered investigational. [Strength of Recommendation: Ambrosia deltoidea, or triangle-leaf bursage, confirmed by PT Moderate; C Evidence] with an oleoresinous extract of A. deltoidea leaves.
In vitro tests for assessing antigen-specific sensitization are Mulberry and Compositae pollen from dandelions, based on measuring lymphocyte proliferation (LPTs) or cytokine blazing star, golden rod, yarrow, Aster ssp, chrysanthemums, or production (ELISA or EliSPOT) after incubation with antigens.
margueriteare reported to cause airborne CU that can be Some in vitro tests have been validated by patch testing to confirmed by prick skin testing.
Summary Statement 29: The clinician should consider other in vitro tests are available, including the MELISA (Memory cosmetics and personal hygiene products that are directly Lymphocyte Immuno Stimulation Assay), and LPTs from Or- applied to involved skin or ectopically transferred from un- thopedic Analysis, but have not been validated against patch involved skin as potential sources of allergens in patients with testing. The clinical relevance of in vitro testing in the diagnosis ACD. [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; C Evidence] of contact dermatitis has not been established and is still The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines "cosmetic" as articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, Summary Statement 27: Use the ROAT to further evaluate or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the hu- a patient suspected of ACD who exhibits doubtful or negative man body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, pro- PT responses, to confirm that the patient is reacting to that moting attractiveness, or altering the appearance, and articles particular product or to determine clinical tolerability to new intended for use as a component of any such articles except soap cosmetic products. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; (US FDA. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Sec. 201 [21 U.S.C. 321]; Chapter II, Definitions 1: Thus Several open PT techniques have been used to test substances according to this broad definition, it is not unusual for in- with the potential for irritation, and are especially suitable for dividuals to apply dozens of personal hygiene products to their cosmetics and other personal care products such as make-up and skin on a daily basis including a plethora of cosmetics, each with skin lotions. The ROAT involves the repeated application of a a unique formulation of synthetic or natural ingredients. Such suspected allergen to the antecubital fossa twice daily for up to 1 products can include emollients for day and night use, hair care to 2 weeks, and observing for the development of dermatitis. To products (shampoos, conditioners, pomade, relaxers, sprays, gels, replicate the reactivity of the eyelid skin, the ROAT can also be mousses, foams), nail products (acrylic nails, polishes, hardeners, performed on the back of the ear. Another provocative open use repair agents, extenders, wraps), traditional cosmetics (eye liners, test involves the application of the product to the skin of the mascara, eye shadow, foundation, lipstick, lip liners), concealers, forearm, which is then left untouched and observed for 5 to 10 shave creams and gels, antiperspirants and deodorants, tooth- days for a reaction. A comparison of the ROAT with the PT for pastes, dentifrices, hand creams, and barrier creams.
nickel demonstrated that although the threshold concentration Although ACD caused by cosmetics is noted predominantly at for a positive reaction for the ROAT per application was the site of application, occasionally personal care products and significantly lower than the threshold concentration for a positive cosmetics will manifest the contact allergy lesions in locations PT, the accumulated ROAT dose was very similar to the distant from the original skin sites. This phenomenon is termed A usage test involves the daily direct application, under real world ectopic CD. Typical causes of ectopic ACD are allergens such as conditions, of an undiluted product highly suspected of con- nickel transferred to the eyelid by fingers, toluene sulfonamide taining a sensitizer, to prove causation. An example is for a pa- formaldehyde resin in nail polish (which may cause eyelid derma- tient to apply mascara to one set of eyelashes and to leave the titis yet spare the periungual skin and distal fingers), and gold other eye bare, to observe for dermatitis. This is often used when (where dermatitis is reported in women who wear facial cosmetics PT with suspected commercial allergens is negative but the that contain titanium dioxide that may adsorb or abrade the gold suspicion of contact allergy is high.
released from jewelry and make occasional contact with facialIn addition, patients allergic to hair products that contain Sources of exposure to clinically relevant allergens CAPB, a surfactant in shampoo, can present with eyelid dermatitis Summary Statement 28: Evaluate patients who present without concurrent dermatitis on the scalp, neck, or ears.
with recurrent dermatitis on exposed skin surfaces during Consideration must also be given to dermatitis where the allergen is airborne pollen seasons for contact sensitization to seasonal transferred between partners, parent or child.
pollen allergens. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Summary Statement 30: When evaluating ACD from cosmetics and personal care products that contain many J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT different chemical ingredients, consider that the most com- positive reactions), and a positive PT to individual ingredients mon causes are due to a few important chemical classes adds significantly to the probability of a relevant test.
including fragrances, preservatives, excipients, nickel, and Current labeling laws do not always require manufacturers to sun screening agents. [Strength of Recommendation: Mod- label a specific fragrance present in a product and regulation of erate; C Evidence] fragrance ingredients in cosmetics exempts fragrance formulas as In aggregate, the number of chemical contactants used by an "trade secrets." Therefore, some manufacturers do not list essential individual patient in a typical day can be more than 100. Despite oils that can also cause ACD such as tea tree oil (Melaleuca this extensive use, typical contact allergens contained in these alternifolia), ylang-ylang oil (Cananga odorata), jasmine flower oil products tend to be clustered in a few important classes, including (Jasminum officinale), peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), lavender fragrances, preservatives, formulation excipients, nickel, and sun oil (Lavandula angustifolia), and citrus oil (limonene). "Covert blocks. The 15 most frequently positive allergens of the NACD fragrances" that may be used for purposes other than for aroma, ie 2009-2010 PT were nickel sulfate (15.5%), neomycin (8.7%), preservatives, may be added to "fragrance free" products (benzal- FM I (8.5%), bacitracin (8.3%), BOP (7.2%), cobalt chloride dehyde, benzyl alcohol, bisabolol, citrus oil, unspecified essential (8.2%), formaldehyde (5.8%), quaternium-15 (5.8%), PPD oils) and may be problematic. In addition, new fragrance chem- (5.5%), FM II (4.7%), carba mix (4.6%), iodopropynyl butyl- icals are constantly introduced. Use testing and slow reintro- carbamate (4.3%), methyldibromo glutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol duction of some fragrance products may allow for the detection of (3.8%), propylene glycol (3.2%), and thiuram mix (3.1%).
intolerance to specific cosmetic agents. It may be possible to Fragrances are complex substances that contain hundreds of identify the presence of specific fragrance ingredients by different chemicals and are the most common cause of ACD communicating directly with product manufacturers.
from cosmetic in the United States. Fragrances are regularly Preservatives and antibacterials are present in most aqueous- present in cosmetics and personal care products, household based cosmetics and personal hygiene products to prevent products, and medicaments, either to achieve an appealing scent rancidity and microbial contamination. These preservatives are or to mask unpleasant odors. However, the labeling of products important cosmetic allergens. Preservatives tend to be grouped with regard to fragrance can be confusing.The use of the into 2 broad categories: formaldehyde releasers (products that term unscented can erroneously suggest that a product does not emit formaldehyde) and nonformaldehyde releasers.
contain fragrance when, in fact, a masking fragrance is present.
is a list of preservative systems commonly used in Fragrance-free products are typically free of classic fragrance in- cosmetic and personal care products.
gredients and are generally acceptable for the allergic patient.
In the United States, approximately 20% of cosmetics and Caution should be exercised when substitute products, which are personal care products (stay-on and rinse-off products) contain a labeled fragrance free, contain large numbers of botanical extracts formaldehyde The most recent data from the FDA used for the purpose of improving odor characteristics.Allergy Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program Databaseapproxi- to fragrances can be detected clinically when obvious contact sites mate that 1 in 6 stay-on cosmetics and 1 in 4 rinse-off products of perfume are involved. Clear demarcation of eczematous contain a formaldehyde releaser, the most frequent of which is dermatitis on the neck where perfume is sprayed may be an imidazolidinyl urea (7%), followed by DMDM hydantoin obvious indication of fragrance allergy.
(5.4%), diazolidinyl urea (4.5%), and quaternium-15 (1.4%).
It is necessary to PT to appropriate screening chemicals for De Groot et recommend that patients allergic to form- detection of delayed hypersensitivity to this group of aller- aldehyde be advised to avoid stay-on cosmetics preserved with The fragrance antigens in the current T.R.U.E.
quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imi- Test include BOP (a fragrant resinous natural product con- dazolidinyl urea. Provocation tests may also be performed to taining a mixture of many substances), and FM I (cinnamyl determine relevance to this particular patient.
alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, a-amyl cinnamaldehyde [amyl cin- Among nonformaldehyde releaser preservatives, methlydi- namal], hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, isoeugenol, eugenol, oak bromo gluteronitrile (also known as 1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyano- moss). Although there is a strong association between these butane and is the sensitizing ingredient in Euxyl K 400) has fragrances, separated PT may still be warranted to identify the emerged as an important cosmetic allergen in recent years.In specific offending fragrance so that not all fragrances need to North America, the prevalence of positive PT reactions to Euxyl K 400 increased from 1.5% between 1992 and 1994 to the Previous studies suggest that the standard FM and BOP will current rate of 5.5% for 2007 and 2008.A total of 11.8% of detect approximately 60% to 70% of fragrance-allergic in- hand dermatitis cases associated with Euxyl K 400 were occu- dividuals. The addition of other commonly used fragrance in- pation related and were linked to solvents, oils, lubricants, fuels, gredients (ylang ylang oil, narcissus oil, and sandalwood oil) may and cosmetics.In cosmetics, ACD from Euxyl K 400 or its increase the yield up to 96%.In a recent study of patients components is most commonly reported in hand and face lo- with eyelid dermatitis, PT to fragrance markers within the tions, hair products, and ultrasonic standard series (ie, FM I, FM II, Myroxylon pereirae, and cin- Another nonformaldehyde releaser preservative MCI/MI namic aldehyde) detected 73.2% of cases of fragrance (trade name: Kathon CG) is commonly used in cosmetics and The elucidation of fragrance allergy should result in advising an toiletries in the United States. The NACDG data from 2009 avoidance protocol that eliminates all culprit fragranced cos- to2010show that MCI/MI had a 2.5% frequency of positive metics and personal hygiene products. However, it should be PT reactions, ranking it the fifth most commonly positive pre- noted that fragrances in PT have marginal irritant potential and servative. The combination of MCI/MI is tested at a 3:1 com- weak positive reactions may not be regarded as proof of contact bination. Both MCI and MI can cause contact allergy with MCI sensitization (low specificity of the test). The increased strength as the more potent allergen in this However, the of the test reaction, a positive reaction on retest to FM (repeated use of MI alone as a preservative in personal care and cosmetic J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S TABLE III. Cosmetic preservatives CAPB is an amphoteric surfactant that is often found in Formaldehyde releaser Nonformaldehyde releaser shampoos, bath products, eye and facial cleaners, liquiddetergents, surface cleaners, pet care products, and other skin and hair care products, and the incidence of sensitization is increasing. Although it is less irritating than the older polar surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate,it is more Diazolidinyl urea sensitizing. CAPB allergy typically presents as eyelid, facial, Imidazolidinyl urea scalp, and/or neck dermatitis.Consumers were sensitized mainly through shampoos (including baby shampoo) and other Benzalkonium chloride toiletry products that include liquid shower gels, roll-on deodorants, and facial cleansers.
According to the NACDG data for 2007-2008, 1.1% of pa- tients tested had a positive reaction to and positive PTreactions to this allergen are often clinically relevant.
products has increased in the past few years. According to the US Commercial bulk production of CAPB may result in Food and Drug Administration Voluntary Cosmetic Ingredient contamination of the final product with 2 chemicals that are used Registration Program, MI was used in a total of 1125 cosmetic in the synthesis of CAPB, such as amidoamine and products in the United States in Of these, the majority are in rinse-off products: 24% were shampoos, 18% were con- Paraphenylenediamine is the active ingredient in many hair ditioners, and 10% were baby soaps and detergents. Wet wipes dyes, both permanent and semipermanent, and is a very com- (baby wipes, moist towelettes, and moist toilet paper) are a well- mon cause of CD in hairdressers. Although hair dye is the main identified sensitization source for source of exposure,other routes of exposure include body The MCI/MI mix misses approximately 40% of allergy to MI painting and temporary tattooing. ACD from PPD can be severe, likely because of the low concentration of MI in the MCI/MI sometimes mimicking angioedema. The "skin sensitivity test" combination in the PT. In Europe, several groups have docu- recommended in the package insert of hair dyes has been vali- mented frequency of allergy to this preservative of approximately dated as an effective method to predict a type IV hypersensitivity 1.5%.Patch testing to MI alone will likely diagnose more reaction and should be used by Nevertheless, PT cases of MI contact allergy.
may be needed to identify the active allergen in the consumer Although parabens formulated in cosmetics are infrequent causes of ACD, they can induce ACD when used as antibacterials It is difficult to find alternative hair dyes for PPD-allergic in topical medications. ACD has most commonly been reported individuals. Alternatives include henna (giving a reddish tint when paraben-containing products are used on damaged skin for any hair color), lead oxide (which oxidizes to darken gray such as in long-standing dermatitis and stasis ulcers. The rate of hair but has not been adequately evaluated for its toxicity), sensitization to parabens in patients with chronic leg ulcers is and temporary coloring agents (which only last for a few higher than that of the general population.
washes). Semipermanent hair dyes containing F, D & C and "Botanicals" are plant extracts that are increasingly used as D & C dyes appear to have very low cross-reactivity with additives to skin care products either for their medicinal prop- PPD (examples: Elumen Hair Color from Goldwell Cos- erties or as fragrances (such as essential oils). Unfortunately, in metics, Linthicum Heights, MD, and Clairol Basic Instincts- cosmetics, product labeling may not list essential oils as fra- Loving Care from the Proctor & Gamble Company, grances. These natural botanicals, plant extracts, and herbal Cincinnati, Ohio). However, semipermanent dyes may not remedies are potential causes of CD. One study showed a be as cosmetically elegant and require more frequent appli- sensitivity rate of 2.4% to testing with pure tea tree oil.Other cation. Scheman et al reported that PPD-sensitive individuals studies showed that 1.2% to 6.6% of patients patch tested for who test negative to para-toluenediamine sulfate (PTDS) dermatitis are sensitive to propolis,which is commonly used will very likely tolerate the newer permanent and demi- in cosmetic and medicinal preparations because of its antiseptic, permanent PPD-free hair-dye products.However, this anti-inflammatory, and anesthetic properties. Propolis is found in study suggests that patients be tested for PTDS before using many "all natural'' products, including lip balms, cosmetics, lo- PPD contacting dyes. Examples of PPD-free hair dyes tions and ointments, shampoos, conditioners, and toothpastes.
include Wella Koleston Perfect (permanent), Wella Color Synonyms for propolis include bee glue, bee bread, hive doss, Charm (demi-permanent), Schwarzkopf Igora Royal (per- propolis balsam, propolis resin, and propolis wax.
manent), Goldwell Color Chic (permanent), Goldwell Thus, PT should be considered for propolis, tea tree oil, and ReShade for Men (demi-permanent), Sanotint Light (demi- other essential oils in patients with cosmetic dermatitis. It is permanent), and L'Oreal Paris Excellence To-Go 10-Min.
important that patients who are allergic to fragrance also be made Crème Colorant (demi-permanent).Both physicians and aware of the potential dangers of cosmetics containing plant patients should consult available databases like Contact extracts and patients should be counseled that "natural products" Allergen Management Program (CAMP) and Contact Allergen does not equate with Replacement Database (CARD) regularly for updates.
Summary Statement 31: Patients suspected to have allergy Other sources of exposure to PPD include leather, fur, textiles, to hair products should be evaluated for PT reactions to industrial rubber products, and black henna tattoos.Cross- CAPB, PPD, fragrances, preservatives, and glycerol thio- reactivity with other para-amino compounds, such as benzocaine, glycolate. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C PABA, sulfa drugs, aminoazobenzene, IPPD, and azo dyes has been reported and may require J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT Glycerol thioglycolate is the active ingredient in permanent more widespread. Allergic and photo-allergic reactions have been wave solution. ACD to this chemical tends to cause more reported with several chemical sunscreen occupational dermatitis in hair dressers than consumers. Unlike Sunscreens have traditionally been divided into chemical PPD, thioglycolates may remain allergenic in the hair long after it absorbers (UVB [290-320 nm], UVA II [321-340 nm], and has been rinsed out. Hence, those individuals who are allergic to UVA I [341-400 nm]) and physical blockers.
it may continue to have skin eruptions weeks after application of Sunscreens are often overlooked as a cause of CD, because the perm, and hairdressers allergic to it may be unable to cut or other excipients (fragrances, formaldehyde releasers, pre- shape permanent waved hair.
servatives, vitamin E, and lanolin alcoholare more Summary Statement 32: Suspect allergy to nail products frequently implicated. Sunscreen sensitization is much higher in when the dermatitis presents locally at the distal digit or individuals referred for evaluation of photosensitivity.The ectopically on the eyelids and face. [Strength of Recom- most common cosmetic sunscreen agents used are listed in mendation: Moderate; C Evidence] Most allergic reactions to nail polish and artificial nail products are to tosylamide/formaldehyde resinfound in Physical ultraviolet light blockers nail polish enamel, in addition to nail hardeners and setting Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the most common lacquers. Up to 80% of the reactions appear on the neck, physical UV blockers used today and have not been reported to face, lips, and eyelids, although unusual locations including cause contact dermatitis or photo-allergy.
the gluteal, perianal, and genital areas have been reported.
Only 27% of reactions were reported in the periungual re- Topical medicinal CD gion of the hands and feet. Some patients react to the polish Summary Statement 34: If an eruption worsens, rather when it is still wet, but the majority of patients appear to than improves, after the topical application of certain med- react to the water-soluble components (including monomers ications, or fails to respond to TCS, patch testing should be and dimers) of tosylamide/formaldehyde resin found in dry performed to the suspected product and/or ingredients known to be contact sensitizers. [Strength of Recommenda- As an alternative, some manufacturers may use an alkyl tion: Moderate; C Evidence] polyester resin and label their products as "hypoallergenic." CD may develop after exposure to topical medications, These products would be suitable alternatives for sensitive including lanolin, para-aminobenzoic acid (in sunscreens), "caines" (anti-itch preparations), topical antibiotics, topical an- Artificial nails are increasingly used and are available as tihistamines, NSAIDs, and/or TCS.Neomycin, bacitra- sculptured nails, photobonded nails, and preformed nails. Re- cin, and iodochlorhydroxyquin are well-known sensitizers.
actions to artificial nails have included paronychia, onychody- Lanolin is used as the base of many topical medications including strophies, and dermatitis at contact areas and at distant sites.
TCS and moisturizers.
Acrylate monomers used for sculpting artificial nails are impor- Allergy to TCS affects 0.5% to 5.8% of patientssuspected tant sensitizers for contact and occupational dermatitis. Pre- of ACD. Sensitization can occur by skin, airborne, oral, and IV formed plastic nails may be glued over the natural nail plate using routes.Certain disorders predispose patients to an ethyl cyanoacrylate, a potential sensitizer.
increased risk of CS ACD. These include treatment of refractory Certain guidelines for testing nail cosmetics are as follows: (1) eczema, chronic venous leg ulcers, stasis dermatitis, and CD (in Nail polish should be tested as is—undiluted. (2) Acrylate allergy particular, patients with a history of 2 or more positive PT results should be screened with an acrylate test panel, including 2% and multiple medicament sensitivities).
methyl methacrylate, 1% bisphenol A, 2% tetraethylene glycol Patch testing to CS is complicated by the inherent, anti-in- dimethacrylate, 2% bisphenol A dimethacrylate, 2% ethylene flammatory nature of the drug itself, which results in frequent glycol dimethacrylate, 2% dimethyl-p-toluidine, and 1% benzoyl false-negative results if tested at too high concentration.
peroxide has been advocated.(3) Patch testing for nail polish Accordingly, PT readings should also be done 7-10 days removers should be an open PT, at a concentration of 10% in following application because approximately 30% of ACD to olive oil. (4) Cuticle removers are tested as an open PT at a 2% TCS could be missed by conventional readings.
Patch testing substances for TCS allergy that are commer- Summary Statement 33: Suspect the diagnosis of photo- cially available include amcinonide, betamethasone-17,21- allergic CD to cosmetics when eczema occurs in a light- exposed distribution following the use of a skin care product or cosmetic, including sunscreens. [Strength of Recommen- hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone 17-butyrate, prednisolone, dation: Strong; C Evidence] tixocortol-21-pivalate, and triamcinolone acetonide. The pa- Some cosmetic ingredients may only cause an ACD after tient's own commercial steroid,as well as the vehicle and exposure to UV radiation. Photo-allergic CD typically affects preservatives in the preparations,must also be tested.
sun-exposed areas such as the face, the ‘‘V'' of the anterior neck, Coopman et alsuggested that 4 major groups of CS prep- the dorsal hands, and forearms. It typically spares the upper arations should suffice, because there is considerable cross- eyelids, upper lip, and submental and postauricular areas. Before reactivity within the groups and possible cross-reactivity evaluation for photo-allergic CD, one should rule out phototoxic between them. Ninety percent of ACD to CS should be drug eruption, photo-allergic drug eruption, and systemic disease detected by using tixocortol pivalate, budesonide, triamcino- such as lupus erythematosus.
lone, and the patient's commercial steroAlthough The prevalence of allergic reactions to sunscreens may rare, patients sensitized to CS by skin contact can develop SCD continue to increase as the use of sunscreen continues to become with administration of the CS by an oral, IV, IM, or inhalation J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S TABLE IV. The most common cosmetic sunscreen agents Summary Statement 37: In patients with joint replacement failure, patch testing to components of the implant may be para-aminobenzoic acid helpful after infection and biomechanical causes have been excluded. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C Evidence] The clinician should recognize that contact sensitization to metals or bone cement that is used in orthopedic, cardiac, dental, and gy- or avobenzone (Parsol 1789) necological implants has been associated with both dermatitis andnoncutaneous complications. These complications may includelocalized pain, swelling, erythema, warmth, implant loosening, route.Cross-reactivity based on 2 immune recognition sites decreased range of motion, stent stenosis, and pericardial effusions in has been reported,and the avoidance of TCS within each the case of cardiac implants. Patch testing to implant or device class is recommended once allergy to TCS has been confirmed components has been recommended to help determine the etiology of the adverse reaction Summary Statement 35: The clinician may use the drug In a meta-analysis, the rates of sensitization to metals were PT for the diagnosis of some drug hypersensitivity re- significantly higher in patients with a failed implant than in pa- actions, recognizing that there is no standardized approach tients with a well-functioning implant (P ¼ .002) or without an to define the population, clinical manifestation, drug to implant (P < .001).Patients who experienced failed joint re- PT, and PT materials to make patch testing to drugs a placements and underwent revision using components dictated by standard of care. [Strength of Recommendation: Weak; D a positive metal PT reported resolution of their joint symptoms, most frequently joint pain, joint loosening, and localized derma- Patch testing to drugs may have a role in delayed hypersen- titis. Those patients with a positive metal PT who were not revised sitivity drug reactionsand have a higher positivity in patients continued to experience the same symptomsSimilarly, a group presenting with maculopapular rashes, erythroderma, and non- of patients with implant-related eczema who were metal sensitized, and then underwent revision with a different metal alloy implant, SJS/TEN, and fixed drug eruptions. The utility of the had a higher incidence of eczema resolution.Anecdotal case PT depends on various factors including the type and formula- reports suggest that skin or systemic manifestations of sensitization tion of the drug being tested, the vehicle used, as well as the to components of implantable defibrillators,pacemakers immunopathogenesis eliciting the eruption.
arterial stentsdenturesand IUDsappeared to improve PT may be helpful with aromatic anticonvulsants and various once the sensitizing agent was replaced.
antibiotics, but it is not consistently helpful for a wide range of At present, the recommendation for implant removal remains drugs. Patients with a history of drug exanthem from antibiotics controversial. Indeed there are reports of individual patients with are more likely to have a positive PT (10% to 46%) compared documented metal allergy who have tolerated implants of the with those with a history of a drug exanthem from nonantibiotic same metal without adverse reactions. An older study reported medications (w10% to 11%).
that 18 patients with documented metal allergy did well for over Within antibiotic classes, there are higher rates of positive PT 6 years following a joint replacement that contained the aller- reactions to aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, pristinamycin, and genic Gawkrodger stated in 1993 that there was no clindamycin compared with macrolides, tetracyclines, and evidence that nickel-sensitive patients, when given a plastic-to- stainless-steel hip implant, developed cutaneous reactions or PT can be performed for a wide variety of medications in loosening of their although he has since identified multiple concentrations and The European Society an association between metal sensitization, peri-implant hyper- of Contact Dermatitis (ESCD) and the European Network on sensitivity reactions, and implant loosening and failure. The Drug Allergy (ENDA) have guidelines for performing PT for overall risk, however, was low.Other patients with docu- medication-induced cutaneous However, the mented metal sensitization have tolerated cardiac implants with limitations of these studies include the lack of standardized test the same metal without adverse reaction.
materials, the absence of information as to the ideal test con- As in all cases of PT, results must be interpreted within the clinical centration and vehicle to use, and the differences in the inter- history and physical examination. If an implant is functioning well, pretation of the tests.
then a positive PT to an implant component is not clinically rele- Summary Statement 36: Consider pre-operative patch vantThe likelihood that an allergy to implant components is the testing for metal sensitization in patients with a significant cause of implant failure is higher when other causes of implant failure history of metal allergy. [Strength of Recommendation: (infection and biomechanical issues) have been ruled out. There are Moderate; C Evidence] no current guidelines or recommendations for symptomatic patients Indications for pre-operative PT in patients with a history of with positive PT to metals or bone cement components. The de- metal allergy are still being developed. However, pre-operative cision regarding implant revision following positive relevant PT PT may help guide the selection of implant alloys in patients results can only be made after a thorough discussion between the with a high suspicion of metal allergy, and such patients patient, the allergist or dermatologist, and the orthopedic surgeon.
demonstrate improved This testing is not rec- In addition to the possibility of metal sensitization as a po- ommended for patients without such a history of metal sensi- tential therapeutic cause of joint replacement failure, there are tivity. There is no information regarding pre-operative PT in also reports of implant failure related to bone cement or its patients with a prior history of methacrylate or antibiotic components, including benzoyl peroxide, hydroquinone, methyl methacrylate, and n,n-dimethyl J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT TABLE V. Components of selected alloys used in metal implants steel (ASTM F75) w% content Zirconium (oxidized) Special population The NACDG compared results of PT in children and adults ACD in children. Summary Statement 38: ACD and ICD and found no significant difference in the overall frequency of at are significant clinical problems in children. Patch testing least one relevant positive PT reaction in children (51.2%) should be performed and remains the gold standard for the compared with adults (54.1%).Additionally, there are highly diagnosis of ACD in children. [Strength of Recommendation: relevant allergens that have significant frequency in children Strong; C Evidence] because of their unique exposure such as MCI/MI, a preservative Although ACD was historically considered to occur less in infant wet wipes, liquid soaps, and shampoos. Also, exposures frequently in children, recent studies show that positive PT re- to dialkyl thiourea and p-tert-butyl formaldehyde resin in rubber actions range from 14% to 70% of children patch tested.
products are seen in shin guards, wet suits, and protective pads.
ACD is considered rare in the first few months of life with A US-based study showed nickel, fragrance, cobalt, thimer- increased reports suggesting an early peak around age 3, and an osal, BOP, potassium dichromate, neomycin, lanolin, thiuram increasing rate of occurrence through the teen years, attaining mix, and PPD to be common allergens in Eight of and even exceeding that observed in adults.
these are also in the top 10 allergens in adults suggesting that the In children, a careful, age-appropriate history should include sensitization profile for children does not differ significantly from exposure to diapers, hygiene products, cosmetics, sun blocks, that of adults. An allergen found in higher frequency in children textiles with dyes and fire retardant materials, medications, pets than in adults is lanolin/wool alcohols that can be found in and pet products, school projects, sports, and so on. The influ- healing ointments, aftershave, baby and bath oil, hand sanitizers, ence of fashion trends, hobbies, and lifestyle activity such as body and creams, reflecting the frequency of use of the products piercing, decorative skin paintings (eg, PPD-laced black henna containing this contactant. Thimerosal positive PT has been tattoos), natural remedies, and cosmetics (eg, tea tree oil), or reported in both adults and children, with the main source of products with fragrances and herbal ingredients have all been sensitization likely due to previous vaccination and may not be a associated with ACD in this population.
clinically relevant allergen. There are additional highly relevant Perioral dermatitis in children is associated with lip licking, lip allergens in children that correlate with unique exposures such as chewing, thumb sucking, or excessive drooling. Metals including (1) MCI/MI, a preservative found in infant products (wet wipes, mercury, chromate, nickel, gold, cobalt, beryllium, and palladium liquid soaps, shampoos); (2) CAPB, a surfactant in cleansing are important allergens in patients with dental implants, ortho- products (eg, No More Tears formulations); (3) disperse dyes in dontic devices, or who play an instrument. ICD is the most diaper material and colored garments (school and athletic uni- common cause of diaper dermatitis in infancy because of friction, forms); (4) carbamates and thiuram used in rubber (gloves, occlusion, maceration, and increased exposure to water, moisture, garments, shoes, and toys); (5) dialkyl thioureas; and (6) p-tert- urine, and feces. Allergic CD to rubber chemicals (mercapto- butyl formaldehyde resin found in rubber and neoprene (shin benzothiazole, cyclohexyl thiophathalimide) or glues (p-tertiary- guards, protective pads, and wetsuits).
butylphenol-formaldehyde resin) has been reported to cause The same test concentrations used in adults can be used in CDa dermatitis that is predominantly on the outer buttocks childrenHowever, it has been suggested that in very young and on the hips in toddlers. This is frequently caused by the elastic children (<6 years of age), allergens such as formaldehyde, bands that hold tightly on the thighs to prevent leaking.
formaldehyde releasing preservatives, mercaptobenzothiazole, and J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S TABLE VI. Substances that may be present in different types of implant or device and that potentially should be considered for diagnostic Implant or device Pacemaker and ICD Custom-made disk of relevant alloy ICD, irritant contact dermatitis.
Used with permission from Contact Dermatitis 2011;66:4-19.
thiuram be diluted 50%, and potassium dichromate diluted 25% for if there is a relevant exposure history, for example, black in petrolatum, to avoid irritant false-positive reactions.
rubber mix, dialkyl thioureas, mercaptobenzothiazole, PPD, and The German Contact Dermatitis Group (GCDG)rec- p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin. In conclusion, PT can ommends that children under 6 years should only be PT if there and should be performed in children and remains the gold is a high degree of clinical suspicion and only to the suspected standard for the diagnosis of ACD with appropriate parental allergens. Children over the age of 12 can be tested in the same informed consent.
manner as adults.
The ideal number of PT to be applied depends on the patient Occupational contact dermatitis. Summary Statement and could be limited by the surface available for testing and the 39: In a patient who presents with dermatitis associated with potential risk of active sensitization. Thus, Jacob et workplace exposures (ie, OCD), consider ICD as well as recommend a basic North American Standard Series for children ACD. [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; C Evidence] aged 6-12 years to include 20 selected allergens that are the most Contact dermatitis is one of the most common types of prevalent in the pediatric population with the highest clinical occupational illness, with estimated annual costs exceeding $1 relevance and therefore would be the highest yield as a basic billion (). An occupational series. These are bacitracin, budesonide, carba mix, cobalt health supplement (OHS) to the 2010 National Health Inter- chloride, cocamidopropyl betaine, colophonium, Compositae view Survey (NHIS) noted that 10%, or approximately 15.2 mix/dandelion extract, disperse blue, ethylenediamine, formal- million US current or recent workers reported the presence of dehyde, FM I, FM II, lanolin alcohol, MCI/MI, BOP, neomycin dermatitis. There was a higher prevalence rate in women (11.2%; sulfate, nickel sulfate, potassium dichromate, quaternium-15, 95% CI 10.4-12.0) than in men (8.5%; 95% CI 7.8-9.3). The and tixocortol-21-pivalate. Additional allergens can also be tested estimate of work-related dermatitis was 7.4% or 1.12 million.
J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT Occupational CD is classically divided into ICD and ACD.
In food processing workers with OCD, the prevailing factors Although the mechanisms differ between the two, the clinical are exposure to food ingredients, even intact proteins, and hand and histologic appearance may be similar.
washing. A review of NACDG results for hairdressers and Irritant CD represents approximately 80% of all cases of cosmetologists demonstrated that glyceryl thioglycolate in OCD. Common irritant exposures include wet work, solvents permanent wave solutions, PPD in hair dyes, nickel sulfate, 2- and alcohols, cutting oils, coolants, degreasers, soaps, detergents, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and quaternium-15 are common and other cleaning agents and disinfectants. The major chemical groups associated with ACD include metals, rubber-related ma- Among health professionals, hand dermatitis may be due to terials, epoxies, resins and acrylics, organic dyes, plants, foods, ICD, ACD, and IgE-mediated CU. With the advent of increased medications, biocides, and germicides.
barrier control recommended for health professionals, the rapidly A worker's skin may be exposed through direct contact with increased need for latex gloves resulted in a spike in the prevalence contaminated surfaces, deposition of aerosols or vapors, skin im- of both immune-mediated and irritant skin reactions. IgE-medi- mersion, or splashes. The hands are most commonly affected by ated responses include CU, rhinitis, asthma, and/or anaphylaxis, OCD and followed by the wrists, arms, and face. OCD can present and sensitization can be confirmed by specific prick or in vitro tests.
at any stage in a worker's career, including apprenticeshipThe Health care workers may also develop ACD to rubber accelerants common agents that cause ICD and ACD in OCD as reported by and other chemicals in gloves, which include bisphenol A in vinyl the NACDG in the United States include carba mix, cobalt chlo- gloves. In one study of 3448 patients (1058 health care workers) ride, epoxy resin, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glyceryl thio- with occupational dermatitis due to suspected glove allergy, 13% glycolate, mercaptobenzothiazole, nickel sulfate, potassium were sensitized to thiurams, 3.5% to dithiocarbamates, 3% to dichromate, quaternium-15, and thiuram. In addition, The Health mercaptobenzothiazole and/or its derivatives, 0.4% to thioureas, and Occupation Reporting System, the European Prevention and 3% to 1,3-diphenylguanidine.Patch testing to rubber Initiative for Dermatological Malignancies, and the Occupational chemical mix or the suspected article itself is appropriate.
Physicians Reporting Activity in the UK reported chromes and/or In 132 farmers with OCD, metals, disinfectants, rubber, and chromates, foods, latex, rubber chemicals, PPD, preservatives, pesticides were the most important allergens. Less commonly, resins and acrylics, soaps and cleansers, wet work, cutting oils and they reacted to colophony, lanolin, and propolis (especially bee coolants, petroleum products, solvents, and alcohols.
keepers). Contact dermatitis lesions in farmers are frequently Summary Statement 40: In patients with suspected occu- aggravated by irritant chemicals in fertilizers and pesticides.
pation-related CD, the examining physician should verify the A survey of Danish cleaners and/or housekeepers who had diagnosis by confirming that the dermatitis was caused or OCD showed significantly increased rates of sensitization to aggravated by workplace exposures. [Strength of Recom- formaldehyde and rubber additives such as thiurams, zinc mendation: Moderate; C Evidence] diethyldithiocarbamate and mercaptobenzothiazole compared Accepted and validated criteria should be used to establish causation and aggravation of OCD. proposed 7 In the military, common causes of ACD include exposure to criteria as a practical guideline for confirming this diagnosis: (1) plants and insects, formaldehyde resins, disperse dyes, and chro- the clinical appearance that is consistent with CD; (2) potential mate-containing dyes in uniforms, methylchloroisothiazolinone/ culprit cutaneous irritants and/or allergens are present in the methylisothiazolinone in coolants and cutting oils, metal allergy to workplace; (3) the anatomic distribution of dermatitis is consistent with workplace skin exposure; (4) the temporal rela- neomycin, aluminum, and thimerosal in vaccines.
tionship between exposure and onset of symptoms is consistent Summary Statement 41: Consider botanical-related ACD with CD; (5) nonoccupational exposures are excluded as prob- in outdoor workers, or others exposed to plants, including able causes of the dermatitis; (6) the dermatitis improves when florists, gardeners, landscapers, maintenance workers, and absent from work exposure, and re-exposure results in exacer- park and wildlife officials. [Strength of Recommendation: bation; and (7) PT performed according to established guidelines Moderate; C Evidence] demonstrates positive and relevant Of these 7 The most common causes of plant dermatitis in outdoor criteria, 4 must be present to conclude that the dermatitis is workers are plants within the genus Toxicodendron, still identified OCD. The validity of the Mathias criteria for establishing as Rhus in the dermatological literature. These include poison occupational causation and aggravation of CD was recently ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac. The allergenic substance, confirmed in a 2- to 5-year prospective study.
urushiol, derives its name from the Japanese word for the sap Industries and jobs that pose a high risk for development of found in the Japanese lacquer tree. It contains a mixture of OCD are as follows: catechols (1,2-dihydroxybenzenes) and resorcinols (1,3-dihy-droxybenzenes). Urushiol avidly binds to skin, but it is readily 1. Food service and food processing (cooks and caterers) degraded in the presence of water. Therefore, soak exposed skin 2. Cosmetology (beauticians and hairdressers) with cool water as soon as contact is suspected. Interestingly, the 3. Health care (personnel) nonleaf portions of the plant can also induce dermatitis, even in 4. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing the winter ). The diagnosis is made on the basis of the history. Patch testing to Toxicodendron is generally not recommended because it can 7. Mechanics, metal working, and vehicle assembly cause sensitization in an otherwise nonsensitized person and also 8. Electronics industry large bullous reactions.
9. Printing and/or lithography Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily) is the most frequent cause of hand 10. Construction.
dermatitis in floral workers. Lily and tulip sensitivity is caused by J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S sensitivity to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone or tulipalin some patients. On occasion, partnering with an occupational A, which is derived from the glycoside tuliposide A. The aller- health professional may help with patient management.
genic chemical is found in several of the lily florae, including Summary Statement 43: In addition to avoidance of Alstroemeria (Peruvian or Inca lily), Bomarea (restios or grasses exposure, the physician should prescribe appropriate adjunct from South Africa), Erythronium (dog tooth violet, trout lily, medical treatment. [Strength of recommendation: Strong; B adder's tongue), and Tulipa. It is present in less amount in Dioscorea hispida (water yam), Fritillaria (snake's head, chess A number of professional organizations provide guidelines and flower, frog-cup, guinea-hen flower, checkered lily), and Gagea consensus statements related to medical treatment. Several recent (Yellow Star-of-Bethlehem), and in at least one species of onion, reviews provide guidelines for the medical management of hand Allium triquetrum. The allergen is present in both the flower and dermatitis.Key components of medical management the bulb. Because the allergen penetrates latex and vinyl gloves, include TCS with second line therapies including phototherapy, nitrile protective gloves should be used by allergic individuals oral retinoids, and immunosuppression.
when handling tulips and Alstroemeria.Calcium oxalate TCS are widely accepted as the treatment of acute and crystals in the plant sap may also cause an irritant chronic dermaThe selection of TCS for efficacy, po- There are few standardized testing extracts available for plant tency, and acceptability is determined by many factors allergens, although some companies do offer a limited plant series including the severity, the location, and the acuteness of the that includes alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone and a few dermatitis. TCS may be sufficient for localized lesions, but other flower allergens. In the absence of commercially available acute extensive and severe dermatitis such as extensive Tox- extracts, PT may be performed with caution by using small icodendron dermatitis may need systemic therapy. The clinician amounts of the fresh plant or bulb, as severe bullous reactions should avoid the prolonged use of systemic steroids for man- may result from their high allergy content.Because of the agement of chronic dermatitis. Ointments and potent fluori- potential for severe bullous reactions, it is recommended that an nated CS should be avoided on areas of thinner skin such as the open test without occlusion be done.
intertrigenous areas, eyelids and face, and in young children.
The use of TCS over prolonged periods of time should beavoided and should not be a substitute for defining the etiology Treatment of contact dermatitis. Summary Statement of the dermatitis. If symptoms worsen, the possibility of contact 42: Once the allergen or irritant has been identified, the sensitization to the CS itself, the vehicle, or other ingredients in patient should be counseled on avoidance of contact with the the TCS should be considered.
offending agent and informed of any cross-reactivity con- Several topical T-cell selective inhibitors have been used suc- cerns. [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; B Evidence] cessfully in the treatment of AD, but their efficacy in ACD or The identification and avoidance of contact with the offend- ICD has not been established. Topical tacrolimus has been ing agent(s) is the key to successful treatment of ICD and ACD.
shown to be effective in the murine model of nickel ACD.
Recovery is possible if the agent is identified and avoided.
However, there are no published randomized, double-blind For cosmetic products, if PT identifies specific allergens, the studies to verify these preliminary results. Pimecrolimus has been patient should be informed of these allergens and counseled shown to inhibit the elicitation phase but has no demonstrable regarding avoidance. However, typical allergen names are long, effect on the sensitization phase of ACD in the murine model.
difficult to spell, commonly have numerous complex synonyms, Several preliminary studies suggest that pimecrolimus may be and are often intimidating for patients making compliance with effective in the treatment of ACD.
allergen avoidance difficult. To improve there Other treatments including cyclosporin, azathioprine, and are currently 2 computer-generated databases available in the psoralen plus UVA have been used for steroid-resistant ACD United States. These databases list of products that are free of the such as chronic hand dermatitis.The risks and benefits suspected allergens. One database is the CAMP that is available of these treatment options need to be considered; informed for members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society ( consent before use is necessary.
and the other is Mayo Clinic's SkinSAFEDatabase that is available for physi-cians for purchase, and patients of enrolled providers.
Prevention. Summary Statement 44: To prevent CD, avoid The dimethyl-glyoxime test (nickel spot test) can be used to exposure to irritants and allergens and use appropriate skin detect nickel released from metal objects. It has a limit of protection. [Strength of Recommendation: Strong; B Evidence] detection of 0.13 mcg/cm2.The sensitivity of the test has Primary prevention of ICD and ACD involves avoidance of been estimated at 59%, and a specificity of The cobalt exposure to possible irritants and allergens and appropriate skin spot test is based on disodium-1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disul- and may serve to detect dermal exposure.There are Avoidance of exposure may be accomplished by several means.
wipe tests that can detect nickel, cobalt, and chromium on the Elimination of an irritant or an allergen from exposure may not Detection of these metals can aid in avoidance of always be possible. Nevertheless, removal of chromium from cement in Europe is an example of successful elimination.
If contact with the culprit allergen or irritant continues, the Substitution of a potential allergen with another agent in the dermatitis may become chronic, more generalized, disabling, and workplace that is less allergenic may be Training is become a problem with continued employment and quality of life.
an important component of avoiding exposure in the work- There is some evidence that the use of conditioning creams may place.Rotation of job task may also reduce irritant expo- improve the skin condition. However, even with removal from sure but may not eliminate the risk of sensitization. Examples of exposure and avoidance of contact, the dermatitis may persist in methods of reducing exposure include using long handled J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT cleaning tools (brush with a handle), vacuuming, or wet from the British reporting system EPIDERM found that 7% had been unemployed and 17% had taken time off Skin protection remains the primary goal of prevention of A Danish study found similar results with prolonged sick leave occupational dermatitis. This should include the use of personal reported by 20% of A recent study reported work protective equipment such as gloves, goggles and/or face shields, status at 6 months postdiagnosis found 38% unemployed uniforms, and equipment to protect the skin from the exposure.
because of their skin disease.Another Toronto follow-up The use of cotton liners under gloves can be useful.In some study—at least 2 years postdiagnosis—found that 78% were instances, this may also involve the use of specialized skin creams working, but 57% had changed jobs and 35% had lost time of at such as barrier creams containing quaternium-18 bentonite least 1 month.Two recent studies have also reported on job (organoclay) to prevent Rhus dermatitis or creams containing change many years after the diagnosis of OCD. Meding et al, in a chelators such as pentaacetic acid to prevent nickel, chrome, or 12-year follow-up, found that 82% had some change in their copper In general, pre-work creams have not been work, with 44% changing In a Finish follow-up study at demonstrated to be useful, but skin care to protect the barrier 7-14 years postdiagnosis, 54% had job modifications, 34% had function of the skin is important. This involves the use of changed jobs, 20% were re-trained, and 25% were not work- moisturizers, particularly lipid-rich moisturizers.
ing.Only 8% had no change in their work.
Screening, to detect disease at an early stage when the disease There are a small percentage of individuals with occupational is still reversible, is used in the occupational setting. Although hand dermatitis who do poorly even with removal from expo- screening for early detection appears to be feasible, there is little sure. In a recent Australian study,18% of those with OCD information available on its effectiveness.
dermatitis had persistent dermatitis.
Given the visual nature of dermatitis, screening for hand dermatitis seems feasible and has been recommended in the occupational Other than a program in Germany focused on dermatologistsand several research studies focused on the intervention,there are no reports of its general use in workplaces with a high risk of OCD. As such, there is no evidence of the effectiveness of surveillance programs or partic- ular methods for screening.
Prognosis. Summary Statement 45: Education of the workers with ACD or ICD should include prognosis and information that their disease may persist and need long- term management even after treatment and workplace mod- ifications. [Strength of Recommendation: Moderate; C In a review of 15 studies reporting prognosis in OCD between 1958 and 2002, the range of complete clearance of the dermatitis was 18% to 72%.Two Australian studies from the 1980s documented ongoing problems in a significant proportion of affected workers. In one study, 55% had ongoing problems from between 6 months and 8 years following diagnosis, and the other study documented that 29% were unchanged or worse on average of between 1 and 5 years postdiagnosis.A Toronto study that evaluated outcomes at a minimum of 2 years post- diagnosis found that 63% were clear of disease, 28% had mild disease, 15% had moderate disease, and 5% had severe dis- ease.Seventy-eight percent of the patients noted improve- ment, 17% were unchanged, and 5% reported it to be worse than at diagnosis. Two recent studies provide prognostic infor- mation in workers with occupational hand dermatitis. A 1-year follow-up study found that 41% had improved, but 25% had persistent, aggravated, or severe disease.A longer term study with a follow-up between 7 and 14 years found that 40% had not experienced any dermatitis in the past year.Atopic dermatitis was associated with poorer outcomes, whereas contact allergy was not. The longer the duration of the hand dermatitis before diagnosis, the poorer the outcome.
A number of studies have examined work outcomes in workers with OCD. These studies demonstrate that there is significant job disruption for workers with CD. Some studies report work absence at the time of assessment and others report the results of a follow-up study. Status at the time of assessment J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S 154. Administration DFFaD. Frequency of use of cosmetic ingredients. 2007. . Accessed March 31, 2015. (III).
J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT APPENDIX A. MEMBERS OF THE JOINT TASK development of practice parameters; selects the workgroup chair(s); FORCE CONTACT DERMATITIS PARAMETER and reviews drafts of the parameters for accuracy, practicality, clarity, WORKGROUP, REVIEWERS OF THE CONTACT and broad utility of the recommendations for clinical practice.
DERMATITIS PARAMETER, AND MEMBERS OF Joann Blessing-Moore, MD THE JOINT TASK FORCE ON PRACTICE Adjunct Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics Stanford University Medical CenterDepartment of Immunology CONTACT DERMATITIS WORK GROUP Palo Alto, California The Joint Task Force has made a concerted effort to acknowledge all contributors to this parameter. If any contributors have been David A. Khan, MD excluded inadvertently, the Task Force will ensure that appropriate Associate Professor of Internal Medicine recognition of such contributions is made subsequently.
University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallas, Texas WORKGROUP CHAIR AND CHIEF CO-EDITOR David M. Lang, MD Head, Allergy/Immunology Section Professor of Medicine Respiratory Institute State University of New York at Stony Brook Director, Allergy and Immunology Fellowship Training Program Head of Allergy & Training Program Director Cleveland Clinic Foundation Winthrop University Hospital Mineola, New York Richard A. Nicklas, MDClinical Professor of Medicine JOINT TASK FORCE LIAISON AND CHIEF CO-EDITOR George Washington Medical Center David Bernstein, MD Professor of Clinical Medicine and Environmental Health John Oppenheimer, MD Division of Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology Department of Internal Medicine University of Cincinnati College of Medicine New Jersey Medical School Pulmonary and Allergy Associates OTHER WORK GROUP MEMBERS: Morristown, New Jersey Karin Pacheco, MD Jay M. Portnoy, MD Associate Professor Chief, Section of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Division of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences The Children's Mercy Hospital Department of Medicine Professor of Pediatrics National Jewish Health and University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine University of Colorado School of Public Health Kansas City, Missouri Christopher C. Randolph D. Linn Holness, MD Dalla Lana School of Public Health and Department of Medicine Yale Affiliated Hospitals University of Toronto Center for Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology Waterbury, Connecticut Diane E. Schuller, MD Emeritus, Professor of Pediatrics Marcella Aquino, MD—Mineola, New York Emeritus Chief of Allergy and Immunology Leonard Bielory, MD—Springfield, New Jersey Pennsylvania State University, Milton S. Hershey Medical College Earnest Charlesworth, MD—San Angelo, Texas Hershey, Pennsylvania Sharon Jacob, MD—Loma Linda, California Sheldon L. Spector, MD Michael Keiley, MD—Boise, Idaho Clinical Professor of Medicine Maeve O'Connor, MD—Charlotte, North Carolina UCLA School of Medicine Jacob Thyssen, MD—Gentofte, Denmark Los Angeles, California JOINT TASK FORCE ON PRACTICE PARAMETERS Stephen A. Tilles, MDClinical Assistant Professor of Medicine University of Washington School of Medicine The Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters is a 13-member task Redmond, Washington force consisting of 6 representatives assigned by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 6 by the American Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, and 1 by the Joint Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine Council of Allergy and Immunology. This task force oversees the J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S APPENDIX B. CLASSIFICATION OF Category of Evidence RECOMMENDATIONS AND EVIDENCE Recommendation Rating Scale Ia Evidence from meta-analysis of randomized controlled Ib Evidence from at least one randomized controlled trialIIa Evidence from at least one controlled study without A strong recommendation means Clinicians should the benefits of the IIb Evidence from at least one other type of quasi-experi- recommended approach clearly exceed the harms (or that the unless a clear and harms clearly exceed the III Evidence from nonexperimental descriptive studies, such benefits in the case of a strong as comparative studies negative recommendation) and IV Evidence from expert committee reports or opinions or that the quality of the clinical experience of respected authorities or both supporting evidence is excellent (Grade A or B. In Strength of Recommendation* some clearly identifiedcircumstances, strong A Directly based on category I evidence recommendations may be B Directly based on category II evidence or extrapolated made based on lesser evidence recommendation from category I evidence when high-quality evidence is C Directly based on category III evidence or extrapolated impossible to obtain and theanticipated benefits strongly recommendation from category I or II evidence outweigh the harms.
D Directly based on category IV evidence or extrapolated A recommendation means the Clinicians should recommendation from category I, II, or III evidence benefits exceed the harms (or LB Laboratory based that the harms exceed the benefits in the case of a negative recommendation), but but should remain the quality of evidence is not as APPENDIX C. ALLERGENS ASSOCIATED WITH strong (Grade B or C)In SYSTEMIC CONTACT DERMATITIS some clearly identified recommendations may be Contact sensitizer Systemic reaction to made based on lesser evidence Oral corticosteroids when high-quality evidence isimpossible to obtain and the Oral diphenhydramine anticipated benefits outweigh A weak recommendation means Clinicians should be Para-amino sulfonamide hypoglycemics that either the quality of flexible in their evidence that exists is suspect (Grade or that well-done Colophony, balsam of Spices: clove, nutmeg, cinnamon, cayenne studies (Grade A, B, or Peru, fragrance mix show little clear advantage to practice, although one approach vs another.
Piperazine and ethanolamine (Atarax, Nickel in tap water, utensils, and food patient preferenceshould have asubstantialinfluencing role.
No recommen- No recommendation means there Clinicians should APPENDIX D. SPECIAL OCCUPATIONAL PATCH is both a lack of pertinent TEST ALLERGEN PANELS evidence (Grade and an constraint in their unclear balance between benefits and harms.
 Dental screening—health care providers  Dental screening—patients balance of benefit  Machinists—oil & cooling fluids and/or metalworking  Photographic chemicals preference shouldhave a substantialinfluencing role.
*Refer to the next column.
J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT APPENDIX E. ALLERGEN PANELS BASED ON APPENDIX H. TRUE TEST PANEL ALLERGENS SPECIFIC EXPOSURES  Eyelid dermatitis  Footwear and/or shoes Potassium dichromate  Fragrance and/or perfumes  Methacrylate series: adhesives, dental, nails, and others  Photochemicals and/or photopatch  Plastics and glues  Rubber additives and/or chemicals Cobalt dichloride  Textile colors and finish APPENDIX F. MEDICATIONS, TREATMENTS, AND p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin Epoxy resinCarba mix  Antibiotics and/or antimycotics  Corticosteroids Clþ Me isothiazolinone (MCI/MI)  Local anesthetics  Medicinal substances  Antimicrobials and/or preservatives  External agents and/or emulsifiers  Metal compounds and implants  Plants and/or compounds of natural origin APPENDIX G. SOURCE OF PATCH TEST Diazolidinyl urea Quinoline mixTixocortol-21-pivalateGold sodium thiosulfate Sources of Patch Test Allergens Imidazolidinyl urea AllergEAZE by Smart Practice Canada SmartPractice Canada 2175 29th Street NE, Unit 90 Calgary, AB T1Y 7H8 Phone: 866-903-2671Fax: 866-903-2672 Disperse blue 106 91 Kelfield, Suite 5Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5A3Phone: (416) 242 6167Fax: (416) 242 9487 or 1-877-436-7637 True Test (Smart Practice): Allerderm—a SmartPractice affiliate3400 E. McDowell Rd.
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J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S APPENDIX I. EXAMPLE OF A PATCH TEST FORM 2,5-diazolidinylurea (Germall II) bisphenol A epoxy resin 4-phenylenediamine base 4-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin amidoamine (stearamidopropyl dimethylamine) cinnamic aldehyde cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate cocamidopropyl betaine coconut diethanolamide (cocamide DEA) disperse blue 106 dl alpha tocopherol acetate ethyleneurea, melamine formaldehyde mix J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT APPENDIX I. (Continued) imidazolidinyl urea (Germall 115) iodopropynyl butyl carbamates iodopropynyl butyl carbamates methyl methacrylate neomycin sulphate nickel sulfate hexahydrate potassium dichromate sesquiterpenelactone mix tea tree oil, oxidized wool alcohols (lanolin) Personal products Physician Signature PATCH TEST MORPHOLOGY CODES() ¼ Negative reaction(?þ) ¼ Doubtful reaction with faint erythema only(1þ) ¼ Weak positive reaction with non vesicular erythema, infiltration, possible papules(2þ) ¼ Strong positive reaction with vesicular erythema, infiltration and papules(3þ) ¼ Extreme positive reaction with intense erythema and infiltration coalescing vesicles, bullous reaction(IR) ¼ Irritant reaction PATCH TEST INTERPRETATION CODESN ¼ NegativeA ¼ AllergicU ¼ UnknownI ¼ Irritant RELEVANCEDefinite: if a use test with the putative item containing the suspected allergen is positive or positive patch to object/productProbable: if the substance identified by patch testing can be verified as present in the known skin contactants of the patient.
Possible :if the patient is exposed to circumstances in which skin contact with materials known to contain the putative allergen will likely occurPastUnknown J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S APPENDIX J. STRUCTURAL GROUPS OF CORTICOSTEROIDS AND POTENCY CLASSIFICATION WITHEXAMPLES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE PREPARATIONS A: Hydrocortisone D2: MPL aceponate tixocortol pivalate: D1: BTM-dipropionate labile esters w/o C16 has C17 or C21 short Acetonides: has C16 C17 has C16 methyl group & methyl nor B ring cis-ketal or -diol additions has C16 methyl group halogenated B ring halogen substitution [Cortaid, C/O/Sp][Egocort C 1%]HC Acetate[Cortisone, Lanacort, [DesOwen (0.05%) C/L] [Aclovate C/O (0.05%)] [Capex Sh, Dermasmooth F/S/ oil (0.01%)] TCL acetonide[Aristocort A C, Kenalog L [Tridesilon, DesOwen O [Westcort C (0.2%)] [Cutivate C (0.05%)] [DermAtop C (0.1%)] [Synalar, Synemol C Mometasone Furorate HC 17-butyrate [Synalar, Synemol [Elocon C/L (0.1%)] [Locoid C/L/O (0.1%)] [Westcort O (0.2%)] [CordranO (0.05%)]TCL acetonide[Kenalog, Aristocort A O [Kenalog, Aristocort C [Halometasone (0.05%)] [Luxiq F (0.12%)] [Valisone O (0.1%)] Triamcinolone Diacetate [Amcort, Aristocort C/O [Diprosone C (0.05%)] [Eumovate C (0.05%)]Fluticasone [Cutivate O (0.005%)]Mometasone Furorate[Elocon O (0.1%)] J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT APPENDIX J. (Continued) A: Hydrocortisone D2: MPL aceponate tixocortol pivalate: D1: BTM-dipropionate labile esters w/o C16 has C17 or C21 short Acetonides: has C16 C17 has C16 methyl group & methyl nor B ring cis-ketal or -diol additions has C16 methyl group halogenated B ring halogen substitution [Cyclocort O/L/C (0.05%- [Topicort C/O (0.25%)] [Betnovate C/O (0.1%)] [Topicort G (0.05%)] [Lidex C/G/O/S (0.05%)] [Cloderm C ( 0.1%)] [Diprosone O (0.05%)] [Halog C/O/S (0.05%- Clobetasol propionate[Clobex L/spray/sh, Dermovate C/O,Olux F, Temovate C/O/S/G (0.05%)] [Olux F (0.05%)]Diflorasone Diacetate[ApexiCon, Psorcon C/ O, Florone O(0.05%)] Cortisone acetate BTM sodium phosphate BTM Oral/IM BTM Injectable Suspension [Atolone Tablets (I)] Dexamethasone acetate phosphate Injection Paramethasone acetate [Cortan, Deltasone, Meticorten, Orasone] Cross reacts with D2 Budesonide specifically Cross reacts with Class cross-reacts with D2 Tixocortol 21-pivalate Budesonide J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL PRACT VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3S APPENDIX J. (Continued) A: Hydrocortisone D2: MPL aceponate tixocortol pivalate: D1: BTM-dipropionate labile esters w/o C16 has C17 or C21 short Acetonides: has C16 C17 has C16 methyl group & methyl nor B ring cis-ketal or -diol additions has C16 methyl group halogenated B ring halogen substitution International and Cloprednol Flucoronide procinonide [Syntestan (Germany)] (pivalate, valerate) Dichlorisone Acetate Budesonide [Naricort C [Dermaren (Spain)] Flumethasone (Vet use) [Pulmicort INH, Rhinocort Fluocortin butyl NS Butacort, Entocort] [Medinost (Georgia)] [Prednisolon STADA (hexanoate, pivalate, [Ultralan] [Ultraproct] Fluprednidene acetate Triamcinalone acetonide [Meprednisona All Pro, Tixocortol[Pivalone][Thiovalone]Fluorometholone[FML Oph O]Medrysone[HMS 1.0%][LIQUIFILM Oph Su]Prednisolone acetate[Pred Forte, HC, hydrocortisone; MPL, methylprednisolone; BTM, betamethasone; FLU, fluocinolone; TCL, triamcinolone; CLO, clobetasol; C, cream; O, ointment; L, lotion; F, foam;G, gel; S, solution; Su, suspension; Sp, spray; Sh, shampoo; Inh, inhaler; Oph, ophthalmic; NS, nasal spray.
In parenthesis are examples of products available. For this manuscript the allergenicity is classified as Groups A, B, C, D1, and D2 and the potency is from Class 1-7; 1 being themost potent and 7 being the weakest class. The classification of potency may vary depending on factors such as the vehicle and reference source.

Source: http://www.asbairj.org.br/files/VIIICURSO-2016_DrNelson-1.pdf

Microsoft word - hou_cmc

Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2011, 18, 1509-1514 1509 Exploring Old Drugs for the Treatment of Hematological Malignancies F. Gan#,1,2, B. Cao#,1, D. Wu1, Z. Chen1, T. Hou*,3 and X. Mao*,1,4 1Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, China 2Department of Pharmacy, The First Hospital, Xianning University, Xianning, China 3Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, China

Caims medical bulletin.pm6

A Comparative study of the Anticonvulsant effect of Nimodipine andKetamine combination with standardanticonvulsant drug in Rodents Prasanand S1, Pushpalatha C2, Mohsin MD3, Sam Pavan Kumar G4, Gundappa Rao S5 Aim of the study: To evaluate and compare the anticonvulsant property of nimodipine andketamine combination with a standard drug like Sodium valproate in electrically and chemically