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Animal/household prods

Testing Cosmetics andHousehold Products onAnimals Every year, hundreds of thousands of animals
suffer and die in unnecessary experiments to
test household products, toiletries and
cosmetics. Products such as soap, shampoo,
washing-up liquid, glue, paint, industrial
chemicals and even food additives, are
tested on animals by companies motivated
by profit.

The law in the UK and in the EU does not say
that products have to be tested on animals,
only that companies have to ensure that their
products are safe for people to use and do
not harm the environment.

Since 1998, the British government has not issuedlicences for testing cosmetics or their ingredientson animals. And in 2009, the ban extends acrossEurope. This sounds like great news, but sadly thiswill not be the end of animal testing for cosmetics.
Three types of animal poisoning test will continueuntil at least 2013: repeated-dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity and toxicokinetics. Currently, no ‘alternatives' to these tests have been approved.
Repeated Dose Toxicity
A chemical is given to animals over and over again And this is not the end of the story. There is another to see whether it harms them. It may be pumped European law, which may mean that some cosmetic into their stomachs or injected into them, or the ingredients will still be tested on animals. It is called animals may be forced to inhale it. The test can last REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and a few days or several months. At its conclusion, the Restriction of Chemicals). Under this law, the animals will be killed and their organs studied. At European Commission plans to test 30,000 least two different species of animal will be used – chemicals for their human and environmental safety.
one will be a rodent; the other could be, for Cosmetics were not supposed to be included in this example, a dog or a monkey.1 testing programme but, because some chemicals used in cosmetics are used for other purposes, they could also be tested on animals. Chemicals are forced into animals to see if they Household Product Tests
harm their reproductive systems or their young.
Animals may be poisoned for months or years in Most household products in the shops are made by order to examine the effects in their offspring. Some five companies, all of which test on animals: Procter animals will be given high doses; others low doses.
& Gamble, Unilever, SC Johnson, Colgate-Palmolive But all will be killed at the end of the test. and Reckitt Benckiser. To keep ahead of theircompetitors, all of these companies insist on developing ‘new' and ‘improved' ingredients – andthat means more animal testing, more misery and Again, chemicals are given to animals at varying doses and their whole-body reaction is watched to tfile see how they respond. Blood samples are regularly Campaigns continue to press for laws to stop the taken to examine the effects of the chemical. This use of animals for household product testing. In the c type of test is often used in conjunction with the meantime, Marks & Spencer and the Co-op have other two, but none can predict how a human will taken the lead and guarantee that their own-brand react to the same chemicals.2 products are not animal-tested.

Bad Science
The truth is that performing tests on animals doesnot establish whether products are safe for people touse. Animals are genetically and biochemicallydifferent from people. They absorb, metabolise andexcrete chemicals differently, and, therefore, animaltests can never predict how a chemical will affectpeople. For example, bleach causes only mildirritation to rabbits' skin but severe irritation tohuman skin. Benzene (a common chemical inhousehold items) causes cancer in people, but not inrats or mice. Furthermore, it is virtually impossible to assess inanimals the risk of a product causing a slow The main cruelty-free policies
developing disease in people, as their lifespan is much shorter than our own. Their lives are curtailed Fixed cut-off date (FCOD):
even more in laboratory experiments – a typical This means a firm's products or ingredients haven't rodent toxicity test will take on average three been tested on animals after a specific date. The months, at the end of which the animal will be killed further in the past the cut-off date, the more ethical and the outcome analysed.
Five year rolling rule (5YRR):
This means the product does not contain anyingredients that have been tested in the previous fiveyears. However, since a product can take severalyears to come to market, this policy is only a mildinconvenience to manufacturers, and does little todissuade them from testing new ingredients onanimals, as they know it will not be long before theirproducts can be labelled ‘cruelty-free'. Animal Aiddoes not endorse products developed under a5YRR. Beware if the labels says:
Damaging People and the
‘Not tested on animals'
This product may not have been tested on animals, but all of the ingredients may well have Nearly all household products contain substances been. In fact, most animal testing is for that can cause cancers and other diseases.3 ingredients and not finished products.
Furthermore, the barrage of antibacterial products ‘Against animal testing'
marketed to create a germ-free environment could This is meaningless unless the company can contribute to the development of drug-resistant prove that they stick to a strict non-animal superbugs. A 2007 study, which looked at 27 testing policy.
previous studies from 1980 to 2006, concluded that the main active ingredient in many antibacterial ‘We don't test our products or ingredients on
soaps – triclosan – may cause some bacteria to become resistant to commonly used antibiotics such Another company may have done so on their Many scientists have also concluded that man-madechemicals are damaging wildlife by causingdecreased fertility, decreased hatching success andeven gender dysfunction. Although REACH will testthousands of chemicals to assess their impact onpeople and the environment, the programme will killmillions of animals to do so, and ultimately will not tfilew generate reliable information about how substances are damaging people, animals and the environment.
c Rather than consuming more chemicals, we should be aiming to cut down their use in our daily lives.

How to be a cruelty-free cleaner
The following companies offer various householdcleaning products, all of which implement a fixedcut-off date (FCOD), and contain no animal-derivedingredients: • Honesty: Tel: 01629 814888
Mail order service.
Bio D: Tel: 01482 229950
Available in health food shops. List of outlets on company's website.
Clear Spring: Tel: 0161 724 4016
Available in health food shops, via mail order andfrom Animal Aid.
Astonish: Tel: 0113 236 0036
Available in supermarkets, ‘pound shops' and via mail order.
You could always try making your own householdcleaning products. This will save animals, de-toxify • Co-op own range products are cruelty-free,
your home and save you money! Not just old wives' but check on the label for animal ingredients.
tales, these tried-n-tested natural recipes really work: • Marks & Spencer own range products are
cruelty-free but check on the label for animal Washing powder: mix 1 cup of finely grated soap,
1 cup of washing soda and 2 tsp of lavender oil. Fabric conditioner: soak herbs in white wine
Humane Cosmetics Standard and
vinegar. Alternatively, buy a ‘laundry ball' e.g. from Household Products Standard to replace washing Look out for BUAV's leaping bunny symbol on powder and conditioner altogether – it really works! cosmetics, toiletries and household products, which Stain remover: washing soda removes tea, fruit
guarantees that neither the ingredients, nor the juice and blood. For oil, rub white chalk into the finished products, have been tested on animals after stain before laundering.
a certain fixed cut-off date. It does not guarantee that the products are free from animal ingredients.
Scouring powder: bicarbonate of soda can be
For an up-to-date list of companies that are allowed used for sinks and baths. to use this symbol, see Window cleaner: use a mix of vinegar and water.
To avoid smears, rub onto windows using Floor cleaner: washing soda crystals in water.
Oven/microwave cleaner: mix baking soda
(bicarbonate of soda) and water to form a paste.
Furniture polish: mix three parts olive oil and one
part vinegar, or one part lemon juice and two parts olive oil. Buff with a soft cloth.
Silverware polish: apply bicarbonate of soda
paste with a damp sponge or soft cloth.
Air freshener: leave opened box of baking soda
(bicarbonate of soda) in the room or add cloves and
cinnamon to boiling water.
For clogged drains: pour 1/2 cup baking soda
(bicarbonate of soda), then 1/2 cup vinegar down
NB. Bicarbonate of soda is the same as baking
soda. Washing soda is sodium carbonate (it can
usually be bought or ordered from supermarkets).


Luteinizing hormone reduces the activity of the npr2 guanylyl cyclase in mouse ovarian follicles, contributing to the cyclic gmp decrease that promotes resumption of meiosis in oocytes

Contents lists available at Developmental Biology journal homepage: Luteinizing hormone reduces the activity of the NPR2 guanylyl cyclasein mouse ovarian follicles, contributing to the cyclic GMP decrease thatpromotes resumption of meiosis in oocytes Jerid W. Robinson ,1, Meijia Zhang , Leia C. Shuhaibar , Rachael P. Norris , Andreas Geerts Frank Wunder , John J. Eppig , Lincoln R. Potter nn, Laurinda A. Jaffe n

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