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Meet the Need
Teacher‘s Guide This project, "Meet the Need. Vocational Teaching Material Supporting the Integration of Migrants into the Labour Market" was funded by the European Commission under the Grundtvig Lifelong Learning Programme. In Austria, this project was also supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture.



Forschungsinstitut des Roten Kreuzes, Wien
Barbara Kuss (EU-Koordination), Maria Neumüller,
Almut Bachinger, Edith Enzenhofer lernraum.wien – Institut für Mehrsprachigkeit, Integration
und Bildung (Die Wiener Volkshochschulen)
Barbara Haider, Thomas Fritz
queraum. kultur- und sozialforschung, Wien
Anita Rappauer, Christa Strassmayr (Evaluation)
Thüringer Volkshochschulverband e.V., Jena
Julia Faerch Christensen, Wiebke Heber, Margit Kreikenbom,
mhtconsult ApS, Helsingor
Ane Kjaer, Maia Feldman, Tine Baatrup, Margit Helle Thomsen,
Agenzia per lo Sviluppo Empolese Valdelsa, Empoli
Ecaterina Constantinova, Claudia Manetti, Cecilia Martini
Anniesland Research Consultancy Limited
Sarah-Jane Pretty, Pamela Clayton
Asociatia pentru Educatie si Dezvoltare Durabila
Andreea Emina Panaitescu, Gabriel Dobrescu, Carmen Marica,
Rhegina Georgescu This project was funded by the European Commission. In Austria, the project was additionally supported by the Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture (bm:ukk).
This product solely reflects the opinions of the authors. The European Commission and the Federal Ministry for Arts and Culture cannot be held responsible for the use of the information contained Edited by Sarah-Jane Pretty, Anniesland Research Consultancy Limited Great Western Road 1616, G13 1LT Glasgow Graphic design, typesetting and layout by markushechenberger.net Agency Printed by FVRepro, 37-39 Lowfield Street, Dartford, Kent, DA1 1EW, UK. "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Table of Contents
Introduction . 7
The Icons . 11
Retail . 13
Care . 49
Food Services . 79
Office Communications . 115
Construction . 155

Table of Contents
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Why has this Compendium been developed?
Migration has been recognised as one of the key issues in most EU member states. In this context,
promoting the labour market inclusion of people with a migration background is a major challenge. The starting point of the project "Meet the Need" is the need for and the current lack of second language teaching material related to specific vocations. Up to now, even people with a migration background who have passed several second language courses and who have good general skills in their second language might have difficulties accessing the labour market. Employers do not only require general language competence but also ask for applicants who have specific communication skills appropriate for their respective occupational fields. Language related demands on the workplace have been changing. Today, skills such as teamwork, (oral) communication with clients and colleagues, and written documentation and record-keeping are required. This might lead to the situation that even those applicants with a migration background who have already attended language courses and have good language skills can nevertheless be confronted with substantial problems when trying to access qualified jobs.
Thus, the major aim and the innovative aspect of Meet the Need is to target a previously underesti- mated challenge: to provide people with migration backgrounds not only with second language courses in general but with material for second language courses which focus on specific vocations and specific labour market demands. Competent and professionally trained teaching staff for second language courses are available to meet these challenges, but in turn, these instructors need teaching materials that meet their needs. Language teachers point out that there is an increasing demand for specific vocation related teaching material. A great variety of general material for second language teaching exists, but it tends to focus on language learning in a general sense. However, until now, there has been a lack of manuals containing technical terms or typical modes of expression in order to prepare learners for employment in specific occupational fields. The working environment for language instructors, characterised by mainly precarious working condi- tions that lack opportunities for exchange, makes it difficult to develop such material. Lack of time and resources often do not allow for initial needs' analysis with their learners in order to understand what they need and to then create tailor-made teaching materials accordingly. At the same time, appropriate textbooks, semi-authentic or other practice related material for language courses might not be available. The project "Meet the Need", thus, is a contribution towards closing this gap.
How has this Compendium been developed?
The Compendium at hand is a product developed in the project, "Meet the Need. Vocational Teaching
Material Supporting the Integration of Migrants into the Labour Market". Meet the Need was funded by the European Commission in the context of the Life Long Learning program, Grundtvig. Throughout the course of the project there was a close connection between theory and practice: second language teachers, employers, and migrant employees were included in the project proceedings in order to ensure meeting the needs of all involved groups.
This project was carried out in four phases:
In phase 1, a needs analysis was carried out in order to define selected occupational fields that the
Compendium should provide teaching material for. The needs analysis included a labour market analysis in order to identify major labour market sectors with a high proportion of migrants in the respective country, which are also likely to provide employment opportunities in the future. In these selected labour market fields, an exploration among both managers and migrant staff of the chosen employment sectors as well as language teachers was conducted in order to gain insight into specific linguistic challenges of the respective profession. This step was essential in order to recognise the practical requirements for second language teaching material.
As a basis for the development work, the availability and quality of vocation related teaching material was investigated. The partners conducted an assessment of already available material for second language teaching, putting a specific focus on vocation related teaching material, and selected material of good practice.
The main task of phase 2 was to collect relevant linguistic material for the chosen profession. In order
to ensure practical relevance, workshops were held with experts from selected vocational fields – mainly managing personnel, but also teachers from vocational schools. In these workshops, specific technical terms, codes of conduct, specific phrases and relevant expressions for the respective vocational field were collected, and employers' expectations as well as typical challenges for migrants were clarified. This was the basis for the development of the teaching material.
Phase 3 was dedicated to transforming the findings of the previous steps into concrete teaching material.
Each partner developed material for one chosen sector and then all the material was translated to all the partners' languages. As specific job profiles or codes of conduct might differ between countries, a specific challenge was to create material in a way that was suitable for different national circumstances and thus met the partner countries' needs. Thus, a complex translation and adaptation process was required. This involved cross-checking the material not only by second language teachers but also by national vocation experts in order to ensure that specific communication aspects were covered. A major task was to create audio material. This was a direct reaction to both migrants' difficulties with spoken everyday language and teachers' requirements: language instructors lack authentic audio resources for their students and course participants.
In phase 4, the Compendium was completed. It will be distributed via conferences and different exploi-
tation activities in each country to second language teachers and adult education centres. The Compen- dium is available in a printed version as well as on the project's web site (http://www.meet-the-need- Which labour market sectors are covered?
The selection of relevant labour market fields was based on the needs analysis and the labour market
investigation conducted in the initial phase of the project. The selected labour market sectors had to meet the following criteria: a relevant number of persons with migration backgrounds already employed in this sector, and future demand in the chosen sector considered to provide good labour market opportu- nities for persons with migration backgrounds in the future.
Research in the partner countries showed that despite differences with respect to legal regulations, migrants' countries of origin, and the overall percentage of migrants, quite a similar picture could be found in the different partner countries with respect to the distribution of migrants in the labour market and with respect to working conditions. As the labour market analysis showed, retail trade, construction, and food services are sectors with a very high proportion of migrant employees in all partner countries. Thus, these sectors offer opportunities for migrants to enter the labour market. At the same time, the project partners are well aware of the fact that employment in these sectors may create barriers in the sense of not finding employment with better options for further development, higher positions, and better salaries. On the other hand, there is a high demand for highly skilled employees, e.g. in the field of health care. Office communication, for instance, is of key importance as it is used in a general context and can be considered as a cross-cutting skill in various fields of employment. In order to provide the required work force, and in order to foster migrants' labour market inclusion, all countries face the common challenge of valuing and recognising skills and qualifications of migrants.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Who can use the Compendium?
Meet the Need is designed to provide material for second language instructors who are teaching in
a general context. The Compendium has made material for vocation related language teaching easily accessible to language instructors. It can be handed out directly to teachers or to the management of schools and organisations. Additionally, it could be presented at a place to which all teachers and staff members have access (e.g. at libraries). It might even be used for learners who do not have a migration background. Furthermore, the Compendium is designed in a way that allows for certain exercises to be used in the context of self-study. How does the Compendium support my work as a teacher?
The Compendium offers material with practical relevance for labour market sectors. By making use
of the Compendium, teachers are able to respond more flexibly to their students' learning needs. The content of the exercises is focussed on typical daily working routines in the respective labour market field and includes material related to practice. Photo material as well as audio and video files/links with a focus on the selected vocational fields provide valuable teaching resources. In order to keep the prepa- ration time short, the Compendium contains a lot of examples and exercises that can be easily copied and are ready to use. However, teaching is a dynamic process, and teaching material might not always be suitable for all lear- ners' needs and for all possible teaching contexts. In order to respond to different teaching requirements, an adaptable version of the Compendium can be downloaded from the Meet the Need web site (www.
What is the structure of the Compendium?
After this introduction you will find a short index and an explanation of the icons used.
Then, the Compendium provides teaching material for five selected labour market sectors:
1. Retail trade2. Care3. Food Services4. Office communication 5. Construction Each chapter starts with a contents list of all exercises for the respective sector. Icons tell you which kind of activity is the skill focus of each exercise (e.g. reading, listening). Then you will find a factsheet providing basic information on the job profile, educational requirements, average salaries, as well as links to relevant institutions, e.g. vocational associations or chambers.
At the end of the Compendium you will find a list of references for further vocation related teaching material.
The complete version of the Compendium including all audio and video material as well as picture cards can also be found on the Meet the Need web site (www.meet-the-need-project.eu), where the Compen- dium will be available to download for free. If you wish to change certain exercises according to your individual training needs, you will find an adaptable version on the project web site as well. What else would we like to say?
The presented material has been developed with the support of second language teachers, employers,
and vocational experts from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Romania, and the United Kingdom. Therefore we would like to express our appreciation to all the people who were willing to engage in this process, who offered their critical feedback and gave us suggestions and the necessary inspiration to develop this Compendium. All methods and exercises have been assessed with respect to usability in practice. We hope that the methods and exercises presented may: s Support daily teaching work s Be fun for the learners and add variety to teaching s Increase feelings of achievement in the daily work of second language teachers Not least, the Compendium should be a contribution to improving migrants' labour market integration opportunities. We hope that we have been able to inspire you and that we have developed a product that delivers rele- vant teaching resources to you! Your Meet the Need team "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
The Icons
Thought shower/Thought pool
This is a whole class or group activity that encourages people to work together to draw on any prior knowledge they may have about a topic. This activity focuses on reading texts that are based on real-life situations and experiences in a vocational context. These listening activities are semi-authentic in that they are based on interviews and dialogues set in a vocational context. All the audio clips are downloadable on: www.meet-the-need-project.eu as well as their accompanying transcripts.
The compendium contains activities that include watching video clips through links provided, in order to carry out related activities based around the vocational themes presented by the project. Additionally, useful further video links may be given for extension activities and/or home study, which the teacher could use to create more material. More complex investigative learning
These are activities that require more analytical work following on from mainly reading, listening and video-related activities. They require focus on a particular aspect of an exercise such as for example, grammar, specific content, and questi- ons that are more challenging to address due to their specific vocational contexts.
This relates to any activity where the main focus is on writing, such as making a note of key information, re-writng sentences and writing emails. All writing activities are based on a specific vocational context.
Speaking focus - monologue
These activities focus on developing the skills of individual learners to talk about their own experiences and to present (oral) information in a vocational context either to a partner, group or whole class.
Speaking focus - pair work
These activities encourage students to develop the confidence and ability to share their ideas and knowledge in order to address a task.
Speaking focus - group discussion
These activities require learners to work together in groups of more than two peo- ple, in order to benefit from and share more ideas, develop confidence in public speaking, expressing opinions and responding to others. These activities include playing games as well as discussion focused activities.
Research-based activities
These activities encourage independent learning in terms of requiring learners to research material - mainly, but not exclusively, on the internet for extension activities either in the classroom or at home, if possible.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Contents Table for Chapter Retail
Ex 1. Specialities In Retailing . 16
1A. Thought shower/Thought pooling . 16 1B. Comparison . 16 Ex 2. Tasks In Retail . 17
2A. Important skills . 17 2B. Other skills . 18 Ex 3. Training For General Retail . 19
3A. Reading about general retail . 19 3B. Verb search . 20 3C. Verb gap fill . 20 3D. Explanations . 20 3E. Internet research. 21 Ex 4. Vocational Opportunities In Retail . 22
4A. Video: information about jobs in retail . 22 4B. Video: key information . 22 4C Further videos . 22 Ex 5. A Success Story . 23
5A. Ardian's story: moving up . 23 5B. Ardian's story: comprehension . 24 5C. Grammar focus: verb forms . 24 5D. Cloze text . 25 5E. Retelling the story . 26 Table of Contents
5F. Your own story . 26 Ex 6. Getting Started . 27
6A. Tasks in a supermarket . 27 6B. Other tasks in a supermarket . 27 Ex 7. Hygiene In The Workplace . 28
7A. Reading texts . 28 7B. True or false? . 29 Ex 8. Hygiene Plan (hygiene schedule) . 30
8A. Interview . 30 8B. Grammar exercise . 30 Ex 9. A Typical Day In A Bakery . 33
9A. Listening exercise . 33 9B. Making notes: important tasks . 33 Ex 10. Working At The Deli Counter . 34
10A. Competencies and duties . 34 10B. Discussion . 34 Ex 11. Working As A General Grocery Sales Assistant . 35
11A. A typical working day . 35 11B. Cloze text . 35 Ex 12. A Virtual Tour . 37
12A. Video: John's grocery . 37 Ex 13. The Art Of Selling . 38
13A. A good sales person . 38 13B. A good sales talk . 38 Ex 14. Photo Stories: Practising Sales Talks . 39
14A. Selling handbags . 39 14B. Selling sunglasses . 40 14C. Selling belts . 41 14D. Practising with a partner . 41 Ex 15. Tips From The Experts . 42
15A. Open and closed questions . 42 15B. Positive expressions . 44 15C. Convincing a customer . 45 Ex 16. Describing And Selling A Product . 46
16A. Products and adjectives to describe them . 46 16B. A sales dialogue. 47 16C. Describing a product in detail . 47 16D. Presenting a product . 48 "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
UK Retail Sector Fact Sheet
"Retail jobs are incredibly popular right now; after all, you don't always need qualifications to get a foot in the door and there can be great opportunities for training and development. There are lots of different jobs that you can do in retail, from junior customer service roles right up to area manager, responsible for several key stores." http://www.totaljobs.com/careers-advice/job-profile/retail-jobs/ customer-service-assistant-job-description. This web site also details job descriptions for various retail Key facts below about the UK retail sector are quoted from the UK National Careers Service, and information about job profiles (descriptions, wages, hours, training and development) can also be accessed through their web site: "UK retail accounts for £321 billion turnover and one‐third of all consumers spending. It is the largest private sector employer and employs around 2.9 million people or 1 in 10 of the working population. Within retail, there are an estimated 295,000 businesses selling a wide range of products, employing from one person to thousands of people, all who have a number of functions. Much of the employment and turnover in retail is accounted for by a few dominant retailers, who operate both nationally and internationally. Just 10 retailers employ around a third of all those who work in retail. 13% of people employed within retail do not have an NVQ qualification, 22% have a NVQ level 2 qualification and 34% have a NVQ level 3 or higher qualification. "There are a substantial number of smaller retailers who operate locally or in niche markets. New emerging markets and job opportunities to support the online retailing are needed. The current economic climate is affecting all areas of retail business, but online retailers and value/discount stores are showing signs of growth. Between 2007 and 2017, 214,000 new retail jobs are expected to be created in the UK, while a further 1.2 million jobs will need to be filled as a result of people leaving the sector. The highest percentage growth in employment over the next five years is expected in the North East, whilst significant declines are forecast in the South East, London and the North West.
"The UK retail industry covers the following activities: Retail sales in non-specialised stores (e.g. supermarkets and department stores) Retail sales in specialised stores (e.g. butchers, greengrocers and fishmongers) Retail sales of pharmaceutical goods (e.g. chemists and pharmacies) Retail sales of in specialised stores (e.g. stores selling textiles, clothing, books, electrical household appliances, furniture and lighting) Retail sales of second-hand goods Retail sales not in store (e.g. catalogue and mail order sales, online and via stalls and skills-are-retail-employers-looking-for/article.aspx outlines typical skills that employers in the retail sector are looking for in applicants. Fact Sheet
Ex 1. Specialities In Retailing
1A. Thought shower/Thought pooling
There are many different areas in retail, from general retail to specialist sectors such as sports equipment. What other sectors can you think of? Think of different products that get sold. Write down as many sectors as you can in your group and then compare with the rest of the group. Add information to a spider- gram on the board and in your own notebooks.
Compare your results with the list in Exercise 2. Did you get similar results? What did you miss? What is different? "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 2. Tasks In Retail
2A. Important skills
Match the skills in the second box with the retail areas listed in the column on Area of retail
Skill - You have to:
General household retailersBuilder's merchantInterior designDIY storeElectrical and electronics shopDelicatessenGarden centreMotor vehicles and partsFood tradeCosmetic specialistShoe salesSporting goodsClothing retailerJewellers Read blueprints
Differentiate between different plant species
Know food and drinks from around the world
Prepare cheese cuts, measure out speciality foods
Apply cosmetics properly
Know details about household goods and kitchen appliances
Detect problems with people's feet
Know the latest technological developments
Know different models and types of vehicles
Know which products are needed for different home improvements
Know shapes, styles and materials of furniture and how to combine them
Know different sports and which equipment is needed
Adjust watch straps, necklaces and rings
Combine clothing and accessories in fashion

2B. Other skills
Together with a partner discuss and research further skills that are important for the different branches in retail.
For each retail area discuss: What do you have to know? What do you have to do? Teacher's tip: if there is access to computers, the students could research skills on the internet, discuss their
findings and present their information to the other students (perhaps by creating a poster or through Power- Point, for example). "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 3. Training For General Retail
3A. Reading about general retail
Read the information below about general retail and tell your partner what you can understand from it.
Retail – general retailers
Shop assistants work in retail businesses or branches of retail chains. There is usually a variety of tasks.
These are examples of what might be expected from a shop assistant.
s Greet customers and find out what each customer wants or needs.
s Open and close cash registers, performing tasks such as counting money, separating charge slips, coupons and vouchers, balancing cash drawers and making deposits.
s Maintain knowledge of current sales and promotions, policies regarding payment and exchanges, and security practices.
s Compute sales prices and total purchases, and receive and process cash or credit payment.
s Maintain records related to sales.
s Watch out for and recognise security risks and thefts, and know how to prevent or handle these situations.
s Recommend, select and help locate or obtain merchandise based on customer needs and s Answer questions regarding the store and its merchandise.
s Describe merchandise and explain use, operation and care of merchandise to customers.
s Ticket, arrange and display merchandise to promote sales.
s Prepare sales slips or sales contracts.
s Place special orders or call other stores to find desired items.
s Demonstrate use or operation of merchandise.
s Clean shelves, counters and tables.
s Exchange merchandise for customers and accept returns.
s Bag or package purchases and wrap gifts.
s Help customers try on or fit merchandise.
s Deal with stock inventory and requisition new stock.
3B. Verb search
Read the text again and underline all the verbs. 3C. Verb gap fill
Fill in the missing verbs in the list. what each customer wants or needs.
knowledge of current sales and promotions.
and cash or credit payments.
questions regarding the store and its merchandise.
shelves, counters and tables.
purchases.
locate merchandise based on customer desires.
security risks and thefts.
other stores to find desired items.
new stock.
and display merchandise to promote sales.
Talk to your partner about which particular skills are needed for different e.g.: You have to know the characteristics of different products.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
3E. Internet research
Look at the following links for different retail industry job descriptions and choose a job that interests you.
Present your results to the group.
Ex 4. Vocational Opportunities In Retail
4A. Video: information about jobs in retail
Watch the video clip about opportunities in the retail sector and discuss topics such as people's experiences (before they got the job, what they did/do in the job, training undertaken/offered, etc.) and managers' viewpoints on the skills and qualities needed in their staff, etc. 4B. Video: key information
Your teacher will replay the video in parts. Discuss the video in pairs. Note down key points regarding, for example, what training is available and what tasks are undertaken, and what qualities and skills employers are looking for in the retail trade. (This could be referred to later on, in exercise 13.) Extension: If you have access to the internet, you can click on the link on the same web site page in order to gain more information about working in the retail 4C Further videos
You can watch further videos: 1. This is set in the USA, but is relevant and specifically focuses on the fabric 2. This is about a retail sales associate and highlights relevant tasks and qualities as well as career progression: http://www.youtube.com/ Teacher's tip: There is also a text version of the video above on the web page.
There are opportunities for you to devise exercises from these texts for reading and writing foci. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 5. A Success Story
5A. Ardian's story: moving up
Read the article and answer the questions in 5B.
I came to England five years ago. I couldn't speak When the job came to an end, I was called into any English and life was very difficult at the the manager's office. I was very surprised when beginning. I attended ESOL evening classes, she told me that she would like me to stay on which really helped me. I quickly learned to and work in the stockroom. She said that I was a read and write in English, but I was not confi- good worker and she thought I was reliable. I told dent in speaking. After a short while, I applied her that I would like to progress in the company. for a temporary shop assistant vacancy at a large She told me that if I kept improving my English, supermarket in my neighbourhood. They did give I would be given the opportunity to progress.
me a job, but because I couldn't communicate well, they offered me a position as a shelf-filler. As a stockroom assistant, although I did not speak to customers, I had to speak to my It was the Christmas period and the place was colleagues and sometimes to delivery drivers. very busy. I had to work very hard and I had to I had to check for damage, price tag and store quickly learn the names of the products. Not only the stock in the correct places. I had to read that, but also I had to know where to put them! messages and take phone calls from different I was lucky that my colleagues could sometimes departments regarding stock replenishment. help me. Also, there was another person from Albania who was very good at speaking English. Anyway, after about a year in the stockroom, We sometimes spoke in our language, but most I was given the opportunity to train as a shop of the time, I liked to practise speaking English. assistant. At first I was nervous about speaking My English colleagues were very patient with to customers, but I soon gained confidence. me, but sometimes they laughed if I said some- My English has improved greatly! I was deter- thing wrong, like ‘desert' instead of ‘dessert'. mined to progress in the company and I've worked hard. I was promoted and I have been an assistant manager now for six months! Teacher's tip: this article is fictitious, but based on a real person talked about in an interview with an em-
ployer. Real articles could perhaps be sourced and used in the same way. 5B. Ardian's story: comprehension
Answer the questions about the article. Try to write the answers in full sentences.
1. When did Ardian come to the UK? 2. Could he speak English?  3. Where is Ardian from?  4. What job did he apply for?  5. What job did he get?  6. What did he have to learn for the job?  7. What was Ardian's next position?  8. What were two of his duties? 9. Why was he nervous at first? 10. Why is Ardian's story a success story?  5C. Grammar focus: verb forms
1) Read the article again and mark the past tense verbs (Past Simple and Present Perfect) and infinitive forms used. Teacher's tip: you could adapt the exercise to focus on any grammatical aspect.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
2) Write the past tense verb forms and the nouns in the the correct columns.
Past Simple
Infinitive (base form)
5D. Cloze text
Fill in the missing words from the extract of the article below. Use the words in the box.
Ardian's story: moving up
As a
assistant, although I did not and sometimes to delivery drivers. I had to check for places. I had to read regarding stock 5E. Retelling the story
Tell your partner Ardian's story in as much detail as possible without looking at the article.
5F. Your own story
Talk to your partner about your own story using the points below to help you.
a) When did you come to the UK?b) Could you speak any English?c) Had you worked in your own country? If not, what did you do?d) Have you worked in the UK? (Include any voluntary work.)e) What were your experiences?f) What were your challenges?g) What were your colleagues like?h) What would you like to do? / What are your plans for the future? "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 6. Getting Started
6A. Tasks in a supermarket
Below are listed various tasks that workers in a supermarket have to perform. Which tasks do they have to do once a day, which several times a day and which on a continual basis? Look at the tasks in the box below and fill in the table. organising the shelves
slicing cold meats
advising customers
checking the fruit and vegetables
cleaning the shelves
restacking the shelves/putting out products
having a break

working with colleagues
putting on your uniform
cashing up
keeping the shop clean
complying with hygiene regulations
Several times a day 6B. Other tasks in a supermarket
Compare your results from exercise 6A with those of your partner.
What other tasks are there to be performed in a supermarket? Share ideas with your partner and add them to the list.
Ex 7. Hygiene In The Workplace
7A. Reading texts
Read the three excerpts below from a food safety manual and discuss the main The text relates to personal hygiene requirements for food handlers. Personal Hygiene
5.5 Food handlers must present for work in a clean state – hair, clothing and body. A high standard of
personal cleanliness is required, with particular concern for the hands and hair. 5.6 Fingernails must be short and clean. 5.7 Nail varnish and false nails must not be worn. 5.8 Jewellery should be kept to a minimum. The only types permitted are sleeper- type earrings and plain finger rings. 5.9 Long hair must be tied back or enclosed within a hat or hair net. Protective Clothing
5.10 Protective clothing must be worn by all food handlers and fulfil the following: clean and in good
repair, washable, lightweight, of light-coloured material and cover all outer clothing and the hair. 5.11 Staff who handle high-risk food must not travel to and from work wearing their protective clothing. This should be kept at work so that all clothes changing is on site. 5.12 Plastic, disposable gloves are acceptable for certain high-risk food handling activities, but must not be regarded as a "second skin". The following disciplines should be observed: s Hands must be washed and dried before gloves are put on s Gloves must only be used for one particular task s On completion of the task, the gloves should be discarded and the hands washed again s Gloves must be changed and hands washed after a maximum of one hour's use 5.13 Strong, closed toe, "sensible" shoes with slip-resistant soles should be worn to protect against slipping, hot spillages, etc. Where required by the premises management, specialist safety or slip- resistant footwear must be provided and worn.
Hand Washing
5.14 Hands are to be washed in wash hand basins provided only for this purpose and no other. Each
basin requires a supply of hot and cold running water, liquid soap and disposable towels. 5.15 Wash hand basins must be kept in a clean condition, provided with a plug, and their location or other equipment must not obstruct access. 5.16 Hands should be washed frequently, but in particular on the following occasions: "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
s Before starting work and after any break s After visiting the WC s After handling raw food (meat, fish, pastry, eggs, vegetables) s After handling dirty equipment (including money) s After handling delivery packaging s After handling refuse s After cleaning surfaces or equipment 7B. True or false?
Read the sentences below carefully and tick either the true or the false box.
1. Nail varnish and false nails can be worn. 2. Long hair must be tied back or enclosed within a hat or hair net. 3. Gloves may be used for more than one particular task. Teacher's tip for 7A: for extension work (e.g. food storage requirements and checking the condition of incom-
ing stock) you could refer to the above web site address. In plenum, grammar focus could be on the passive form. Variation: You could divide learners into A, B, C – with A working on the first excerpt, B working on the second and C working on the third. This should be carried out individually. (Note that A has the easiest text.) Teacher's tip for 7B: this is a sample of an exercise that can be used. Text can be copied and pasted into the
questions and then amended to make false. Additionally, the wording could be changed anyway to challenge high- level students. You could create more exercises from the text (e.g. jigsaw, gap fill, word searches, crosswords). Ex 8. Hygiene Plan (hygiene schedule)
Below is a hygiene plan from a supermarket. Ask your partner for the information to fill in the gaps. Use the questions below: Which surfaces/floors do I have to clean? What do I need to clean in the chilled area/toilets/staff rooms/kitchen? What do I clean xxx with? What quantity do I use? How do I clean xy? How often do I clean xy? This is a jigsaw exercise – asking for the missing information about cleaning (what/where/when/how often/with what to clean something). One learner works on hygiene plan A and the other has plan B. 8B. Grammar exercise
Form imperative sentences from the list of words below and use the words in the box as examples. The imperative with a direct object
The imperative with a direct
and an indirect object
Use the green cloth! Clean with surface with the green cloth! Use the brush.
Sweep the floor with the brush.
Teacher's tip: you should ensure that the learners do not fill each other's plans in, as the focus is to ask questions.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Chopping boards G 448 Budenat Top quick-acting Spray on neat, use Dry floor cleaning using wheeled bucket Toilet cubicles, 50 ml per 10 l of Red cloth for the basins, tiling on one for tiles and Staff rooms
100 ml per 10 l of Use green cloth iger (grill cleaner) work, rinse with clear water Crockery, cutlery 1 tab per dish-washer load Wiener Hilfswerk/SOMA (edited and partially adapted) mit grünem Tuch, Use green cloth, nachspülen iger (glass cleaner) Dry floor cleaning using wheeled bucket 200 ml per 10 l of With machine OR manually using wheeled bucket Chilled areas and G 451 Combi As needed, at least Staff rooms
100 ml per 10 l of Use green cloth 3-5 ml per 10 l of By hand in sink washing)ORP 508 Pura Eco Tabs Wiener Hilfswerk/SOMA (gekürzt und z.T. adaptiert) "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 9. A Typical Day In A Bakery
9A. Listening exercise
Listen to a sales assistant talking about a typical day working in a bakery (baker's (shop)). 9B. Making notes: important tasks
Listen to the audio again and take notes of the most important tasks that a sales assistant carries out in the bakery (baker's (shop)). Teacher's tip: The audio file and transcript can be found on the Meet The Need web site.
Ex 10. Working At The Deli Counter
10A. Competencies and duties
Listen to an employer talking about the competencies that a deli counter assistant should have and the some of the typical tasks. (Deli is short for delicatessen.) Listen to the audio clip again and note down the typical tasks and the skills needed when working as a deli counter assistant. Then discuss the following questions. 1. What are the general competencies required on the shop floor?2. What specialist tasks are involved in the delicatessen?3. Why do you think strict health and hygiene measures are needed when working with fresh food? Teacher's tip for 10A: you can download the transcript from the Meet the Need web site.
Teacher's tip for 10B: you could perhaps bring in pictures.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 11. Working As A General Grocery Sales Assistant
11A. A typical working day
Listen to the audio clip about a person working as a general grocery sales assistant in a big supermarket. He talks about his typical working day.
11B. Cloze text
Read the cloze text below. Then listen to the audio clip again and fill in the gaps. Compare your answers and spellings with the teacher's transcript.
My job as a general grocery sales assistant keeps me very ! I'm always doing different things, so I never really – I don't have time! I work an early morning so I'm one of the people who take delivery of the goods . I have to deal with delivery notes; pack the goods onto the stock trolley them onto the shop floor. On the shop floor I have to the shelves. I usually work in two sections – cans and , but they sometimes need help in other sections if someone is , or something. I have to read the fully – especially when we get Throughout the day I have to that the aisles in my sections are fully stocked. I like using the to price tag the goods. I have to make checks too – making sure something hasn't gone or cans and packaging are not help out with this in the fresh food section.
often ask me for help, such as where something is. This means that I have to have about the products in other sections – not just my own. I sometimes don't know exactly where a product is, but I can . I can't just leave the customer! I have who I think will know. I like to find out about that product and its for future reference. As well as talking to customers, I keep an eye on them to watch out for . I have to make sure the I'm responsible for are safe. This means cleaning up anything that's been on the floor. It's worse for the guys working with all the – milk and alcohol and stuff – there's always some- ! We have to put up warning Now and again, I help out on the tills. I like that. I've been so there's no problem – unless there's a new and then I might have to ask my colleagues or the till . I like talking to the customers too – I'm quite , but they like it – as long as I'm not queue! Actually, thanks to customers, I often try out new foods or new recipes, because I look at what they've got and ask questions.
I enjoy my day at the supermarket, and because I start early, I leave at about three o'clock and then I've plenty of Teacher's tip: you should replay the audio in parts as it is about three minutes long. It is downloadable on the
Meet the Need web site. You can adapt the cloze text regarding the level of ability and also create other exercises such as jigsaw. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 12. A Virtual Tour
12A. Video: John's grocery
Take a tour with Doug as he shows you his specialist grocery store in Iowa! Discuss what you like about John's Grocery and in what ways customer service is Teacher's tip: It is advisable to watch the video first before the class. This is a long video clip and after
showing the learners what the basement is, it would be a good idea to move the video on to about the 13th minute of showtime! Even so, there are many aspects that are useful to create exercises focusing on: what stock there is (for product lexis building); how stock is displayed (e.g. in sections and categories); where it is displayed (e.g. on shelves and racks) etc. In the discussion, encourage learners to think about the atmosphere, lighting, presentation, tidiness, space, attractiveness of displays, Doug's product knowledge. Ideas for exercises: Q&A – verbal and written quizzes, memory games, name how many. Ex 13. The Art Of Selling
13A. A good sales person
Thought shower/Thought pool: In your groups, think about and discuss what makes a good salesperson (impor- tant qualities to be good in that role). Write key words on a spidergram on the board as well as in your own notepads. 13B. A good sales talk
Do you remember a good sales conversation? What is essential? Collect important aspects and exchange ideas in pairs or groups. Use the spidergram method to collate the information as in exercise 13A.
Teacher's tip: spidergrams on flip charts could be kept in order to add to as the learners progress through the
exercises. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 14. Photo Stories: Practising Sales Talks
14A. Selling handbags
Here you can see two students. They are role playing a sales scene in a shop that sells handbags. Which description fits which photograph? Match the sentences below with the photographs. The photographs are in the correct order.
A) The customer says thank you and good bye to the saleswoman.
B) The customer asks how much the bag is.
C) The customer says which bag she is interested in.
D) The saleswoman welcomes the customer.
E) The saleswoman explains the special features of the bag to the customer.
F) The saleswoman shows the customer the bag that she is interested in.

14B. Selling sunglasses
Here you can see two students.They are role playing a sales scene in a shop that sells sunglasses. Describe what happens in each photograph using one sentence.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
14C. Selling belts
Here you can see two students. They are role playing a sales scene in a shop that sells belts. What do the saleswoman and the customer say? Write little dialogue sequences for each picture.
Sales assistant: Good Afternoon .
Customer: I'd like to buy a belt.
14D. Practising with a partner
Choose a scene and play it with a partner. Try to cover all the steps of a sales talk from this section. Change roles.
Ex 15. Tips From The Experts
For this teaching material we carried out interviews with the Principal and Vice-Principal of the Voca-
tional College for Retail in Vienna's Favoriten district. They gave us some important tips on how to conduct a good sales talk. Below are exercises on three aspects that you should bear in mind: 1. Asking open questions, 2. Choosing positive expressions and 3. Addressing customers directly when putting your case to them.
15A. Open and closed questions
At the beginning of your conversation, open questions are important, so as to
give the customer enough space to express their wishes. (These can be informa- tion questions or "Wh- questions" and they give many different ways to answer).
Closed questions are good for checking whether you have correctly understood the customer or
in order to end a conversation and close a sale (a.k.a. checking questions, in other words the only answers are yes or no).
Either/or questions enable a customer to choose from two possible answers, for example in order to
narrow down what is being offered.
Exercise: Which questions are open? Which questions are closed? Which questions are either/or questions? Tick the boxes as appropriate.
1. Can I help you? 2. What can I do for you? 3. Are you looking for anything in particular? 4. What did you have in mind? 5. Are you looking for a particular brand? 6. What is it that you need the bag for? 7. Would you like a metal CD stand, or a wooden one? 8. Were those trousers a good fit? 9. Do you like the design? 10. What do you want this jacket to go with? 11. How often do you go jogging? 12. Do you like wearing strong colours? 13. Are you looking for flats or heels? 14. Do you have a wood floor in your living room? 15. Would you prefer a hands-free system via cable or wireless? "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Re-word all the closed and either/or questions in the exercise above so that they are open questions.
1. Can I help you?  How can I help you? 2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  15B. Positive expressions
In a sales conversation, it is important to use as few negative expressions as possible. Negative elements stick in customers' minds. For example, if you say, "With these shoes, you won't get any blisters", the customer will worry about blis- ters.  Better: "These shoes are really comfortable to wear, even if you have them on for long periods of time." Execise: Circle the negative words in the sentences below.
Re-write each sentence using positve words. There are some suggestions in the box below. 1. In these shoes, you won't sweat.
 2. With this jacket, you won't get wet – even in heavy rain!  3. This phone won't break down so quickly.
 4. This dress won't be unflattering.
 5. This package is not expensive.
 6. This GPS device is not complicated to operate.
 7. This sausage is not fatty.
 8. This isn't an overpowering perfume.
to flatter the figure
to be totally waterproof
to be easy
to have a light and discreet scent
to be robust
to have an outstanding cost/performance ratio
to be lean
feet stay dry
Compare your solutions. Maybe the group will come up with other alternatives. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
15C. Convincing a customer
When engaging a customer, it is important to address him/her directly. Avoid phrases like, "It's possible to .", "I find that.", etc. Instead, use expressions that make the conversation more personal and involve the customer. For example, instead of, "This cushion can be washed at 40 degrees" use, "You can wash this cushion at 40 degrees." Exercise: Re-write each sentence below to make them more personal.
1. This jacket goes well with both trousers and skirts.
 2. These carving skis are suited to skiers with a sporty style.
 3. This cutlery can be bought both as part of a set or individually.
 4. These shoes are watertight yet airy.
 5. This phone makes it easy to surf the net.
 6. This crockery is also microwave-safe.
 7. This skincare gel causes very few reactions.
 What solutions did you come up with? Compare and discuss your wordings. Ex 16. Describing And Selling A Product
16A. Products and adjectives to describe them
Below are photographs of various products. Match the characteristics listed with the products. NB: some of the descriptions fit multiple pictures. Maybe you can also come up with other typical characteristics and descriptions.
has/have many uses
manageable
comfortable
fashionable
the latest model easy to operate
discreet
outstanding cost/performance ratio
comfortable to wear
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
16B. A sales dialogue
Choose a product that you want to sell. Practise a sales dialogue with your partner, paying attention to all the steps of a sales talk and describing the product as precisely as possible. One more tip: allow customers to handle or try out the product themselves. There are some potential phrases for this in the box below.
You can make notes, but try to speak freely rather than reading the dialogue. When finished, switch roles (sales assistant  customer).
Go on, have a feel!
Slip it on!
Why not try it on?
Have a go!
Try it out!
Switch it on!
See for yourself!
16C. Describing a product in detail
Choose a product that you would like to sell, and in order to describe the product in more detail, research answers (e.g. online, in brochures, in user instructions, etc.) to the following questions in the table below. The better informed you are, the better you can advise your customer.
Where is the product from?Where was it assembled? In what country or countries was it manufactured? What materials/substances does the product contain?How was it put together? How was the product manufactured?How was it processed? What are the features of the product?What is the quality like?What can it do? Where/How can you use this product?How do you operate it?How do you have to care for this product?What can I combine it with? How is the product delivered?What payment options are there?What service options are there?Is there a guarantee?Is there customer service? How long does the product last?How does it need to be stored? Environmental aspects How is the product recycled?How is the product packaged? Are there extensions for the product?Are there accessories? Other information What else is important? 16D. Presenting a product
Present the product in front of the group. When talking about particular features, try to address the potential customer directly and emphasise the benefits for him/her. For example, instead of saying "This camera is very compact", say "This very compact camera would be great for you because you could easily take it with you everywhere." Here is a selection of phrases that you could use: provides you with + NOUN gives you + NOUN enables you to + VERB helps you to + VERB allows you to + VERB extends your + NOUN reduces your + NOUN strengthens your + NOUN promotes your + NOUN ensures that + VERB saves you + NOUN / saves you from + -ing form VERB makes it easier for you to + VERB offers you the benefit of.
will enable you to + VERB .
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Contents Table for Chapter Care
Ex 1. Social Healthcare Workers . 52
1A. Thought shower/Thought pool . 52 Ex 2. Qualities And Skills . 53
2A. Short portraits . 53 Ex 3. Personal Skills . 55
3A. In working as a social healthcare worker it is important to practise being . 55 3B. Extension activity 1 . 55 3C. Extension activity 2 . 55 Ex 4. Finding Out About The People In Your Care . 56
4A. Asking questions . 56 4B. Understanding a MAR (Medication Admin Report) . 56 Ex 5. A Typical Working Day . 58
5A. A day in the life of a health and social carer working in a residential care home . 58 5B. Different roles . 58 5C. Good practice or poor practice? . 59 Ex 6. Doing An Apprenticeship In Health And Social Care . 60
6A. Case study . 60 6B. Multiple choice . 61 6C. Paragraph headings . 62 Table of Contents
Ex 7. Home Care Workers . 63
7A. Duties of a home care worker . 63 7B. A schedule/home care plan . 63 7C. Extension activity . 63 Ex 8. A Home Carer's Experience . 64
8A. A short story . 64 8B. What is Bert's health like? . 64 8C. Writing about Bert's health . 64 Ex 9. How Are You? . 65
9A. Making enquiries about health . 65 9B. Writing questions about health . 65 Ex 10. Health . 66
10A. How are you? . 66 10B. Answering questions . 67 Ex 11. Bert's Health . 68
11A. A visit to the optician's . 68 Ex 12. Personal Care . 69
12A. Grouping personal care items . 69 Ex 13. Personal Care . 70
13A. Memory . 70 13B. Fish . 70 13C. Mix and Match . 71 Ex 14. Co-operation With A Patient . 72
14A. Giving information and asking questions . 72 Ex 15. Exercises Using Picture Cards And Role Play . 74
15A. Exercise with picture cards . 74 15B. Language use training . 74 15C. Role play . 74 GLOSSARY – Pictures . 75
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
UK Care Sector Fact Sheet
According to The Migration Observatory, "Projections of future demand for care estimate that, under current care patterns, expenditure on social care would have to nearly double from 1.4% of GDP in 2007 to 2.7% by 2032 to meet increased demand for social care and rising real unit costs of care. The model also projects that the social care workforce caring for older people would need to increase by 79% (Wittenburg et al. 2010: 15)." http://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/policy-primers/social- care-older-people-and-demand-migrant-workers. This web site looks into the issues surrounding the demand for migrant workers in the care sector.
According to The National Careers Service: the social care sector has two sub-sectors: 1) Adult social care – with a workforce of nearly 1.5 million, (5% of England's workforce) and 38,000 employers – includes residential care, domiciliary care and social work with all its specialisms. 2) Children and young people – with an estimated workforce of 2.7 million.
"Of the 1.39 million in adult social care in England: 1.31 million are directly employed; and 78,000 are bank, pool and agency staff, students and others. Of the 14,456 care-only homes registered with CSCI in June 2007: 9,870 (68%) are private sector and 3,251 are voluntary sector. Councils operate most of the remaining care-only homes. Most social care services (58%) are provided by micro organisations (or agencies) employing between 1-10 people, or small enterprises (29%) employing between 11-49 people. 12% of social care enterprises employ 50-99 people and 1% employ 200 or more. In 2007, 54,151 individuals were receiving direct payments to fund their own care. "Entry requirements vary for different types of jobs and occupations within the sector. There is no qualification requirement for many jobs within adult social care although the 14-19 diploma and apprenticeships are both routes in to the sector. Once in employment social care employees will develop skills through a formal induction process and are expected to study towards relevant qualifications (e.g. a National Vocational Qualifica- tion). Staff working with vulnerable adults must complete a Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) check. The most popular qualifications include: Levels 2 and 3 NVQ in Health and Social Care (for care workers and assistants including those with supervisory duties) and Level 4 NVQ Registered Manager Award (Adults) required by residential care home managers." https://nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.
As the focus in the care sector materials of the Meet the Need project is on care assistants, it should be noted here that a care assistant's starting salary could be between £12,000 and £16,000 per annum. With experience, qualifications and extra responsibilities: between £18,000 and £21,000. Working hours vary depending on the job and could include evenings, weekends and overnight stays and may be full-time or part-time. More information is given about this position and other positions on the web Another useful link: Fact Sheet
Ex 1. Social Healthcare Workers
1A. Thought shower/Thought pool
Draw on any previous knowledge to discuss what makes a good social health- care worker (what one has to be good at in that role), writing key words on a spidergram on the board as well as in your own notepads. Teacher's tip: spidergrams on flip charts could be kept in order to add to as the learners progress through
the exercises. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 2. Qualities And Skills
2A. Short portraits
Read the texts below. Find the words in the box that best fit each person and discuss them with your partner. Discuss (a) what qualities/skills they have which would be important/essential to do the job of a social healthcare worker (e.g. sociable); (b) what skills may be useful to the employer, but not essential for the job (e.g. good with his/her hands Lena
Lena is unemployed at the moment. She helps her elderly neighbour with the shopping and cleaning.
Lena has an allotment, where she has lots of vegetables and flowers. She goes to the allotment every Sunday. Lots of people pop in for a coffee and a chat. Ollie
Ollie is 50. He works in a factory. He has worked in the same factory for 30 years. Ollie has formed a
little club at the factory. Every time it meets, everyone is supposed to put 10p into the club's cash box. Twice a year they go bowling and this is paid for from the club's cash box. Everyone at the factory likes Ollie because he is always jolly and funny.
Cissy
Cissy is married with three children. She gets up early each morning and makes breakfast and packed
lunches. Every day she cleans, cooks and does the laundry. She likes crocheting. She produces many beautiful crochet items. She also knits jumpers, which she donates to poor children in other countries.
Kyle
Kyle is cooking. He enjoys making a good three-course dinner with a starter, a main course and a
dessert. Kyle likes playing the piano. He plays music with two friends. He has a large computer that he can use to make music. He enjoys making new music.
Nina
Nina likes playing tennis. She enjoys exercise and she enjoys winning! Nina's home is neat. If you open
the cupboards, everything is neatly arranged on the shelves.
John
John repairs cars. He has a large garage, where he works on cars. Lots of people come and go. They say,
"John, can you give me a little help?" and John always says, "Yes, of course I can." John enjoys fishing. He catches a few fish – sometimes! Teacher's tip: you can adapt the text so that there is a box of words for each portrait – in order for the learn-
ers to mark out the relevant words. Hugo
Hugo has two older boys, 14 and 16 years old. They play football. Hugo drives his boys and their team-
mates to games in other towns every Sunday. Hugo plays football, too. He plays with some old friends every Wednesday.
Hugo is a "Night Owl" volunteer: he goes round the town on Saturday nights and watches out for the young people coming out of pubs and clubs in the town. Hugo helps them if they have any problems.
He/she is physically fit
He/she is patient
He/she is ambitious
He/she is meticulous
He/she is reliable
He/she is cheerful
He/she is a good listener
He/she is dextrous
He/she is outgoing
He/she has good interpersonal skills
He/she is good at planning
He/she is a good organiser
He/she is friendly
He/she is hardworking
He/she is energetic
He/she is dedicated
He/she is responsible
He/she is quality-oriented
He/she is considerate
He/she is active
He/she is a good team player
He/she is precise
He/she is helpful
He/she is sociable
He/she is good with his/her hands
He/she is a good salesperson
He/she is service-minded
He/she is inventive
He/she is creative
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 3. Personal Skills
3A. In working as a social healthcare worker it is important to practise being .
Here is a list of words for personal skills. The various skills can be important in working as a social healthcare worker. Discuss in pairs what personal skills you have from the list. Could you be a good social healthcare worker? a good organiser
a good planner
a good listener
respectful of privacy and dignity
good with your hands
a good team player
flexible
able to take a broad perspective
a good listener
friendly
likes things organised
have empathy
3B. Extension activity 1
Match your own personal skills and abilities to personal skills required in care work job vacancy advertisements with job descriptions and personal specifications. You and/or your teacher can find these and bring them into class. Discuss this 3C. Extension activity 2
Write a letter of application for the job vacancy you have discussed in exercise 3B. State what relevant personal skills and abilities you have that are suitable for Ex 4. Finding Out About The People In Your Care
4A. Asking questions
Social healthcare workers must always refer to the ‘care plan' of each person in their care. The care plan details all the information they need to find out about the people in their care. In groups try to work out what sort of questions need to be asked to find out about Anne, who is a resident at a residential care and nursing home. This could be a spidergram activity. Then present your findings to the class and compare them with your teacher's list of answers.
4B. Understanding a MAR (Medication Admin Report)
There may be times when a basic social and healthcare worker will be expected to look at the MAR sheet for a resident, although training is required to actu- ally work on it without supervision. It is proper practice that only a team leader, manager or duty nurse can fill in the MAR and draw up the medication. If a basic care worker administers any medication, he or she may have to sign the form as well as the team leader.
Look at the MAR sheet that the teacher gives to you and do the activities that your teacher gives you.
Teacher's tip for 4A: you may be able to find a care plan template on the internet or from colleagues teaching
health and social care to use as an example when reviewing the activity. Teacher's tip for 4B: This exercise is to give learners the chance to look at a MAR sheet and you could take
this opportunity to focus on language criteria such as: reading tables vertically and horizontally, frequency, days and times of day, etc. The MAR sheet is available on the Meet The Need web site in PDF for download- ing and printing. Alternatively, find it below. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Printed: 31 Aug 10 12:23 Page withheld or other reason withheld or other reason withheld or other reason withheld or other reason withheld or other reason Pharmacy Ref: 35421 Doctor: DR PAT HOMES nausea or vomiting nausea or vomiting nausea or vomiting nausea or vomiting nausea or vomiting 23 ANY STREET, MYTOWN Weedle Pharmacy, Townview, Mallow . Phone: 022-21343 Monday 04 Oct 2010 MEDICATION ADMIN REPORT
MRS MARY NAME
Start Date:
14 FRUSIDE TABLETS 40MG TAKE ONE TWICE DAILY 21 GLUCOPHAGE TABLETS 500MG TAKE ONE THREE TIIMES DAILY 14 LANOXIN PG TABLETS TAKE TWO IN THE MORNING 7 LOPRAZ CAPSULES 20MG TAKE ONE IN THE MORNING 28 SEROQUEL 25MG TABLETS TAKE ONE FOUR TIMES DAILY Teacher's list of appropriate questions for 4A: Who is she? What was her profession? What family does
she have? What is her ethnicity and cultural background? How does she like to be addressed? Does she know where she is? What are her abilities? How much assistance does she need – can she dress/undress herself, walk, wash? Has she had a health assessment? What are her health abilities/needs? What medication does she take? How is her medication managed? What kind of independence does she have? What kind of lifestyle is she used to? When does she like to get up/go to bed? What music/TV programmes does she like? What activities does she like doing (crosswords, arts & crafts, bingo, jigsaw puzzles, etc)? What food does she like? Does she have any food allergies? Ex 5. A Typical Working Day
5A. A day in the life of a health and social carer working
in a residential care home.
In the video clip, Amanda talks about her life as a care assistant at a Heritage Care care home. The students watch the video twice and, with a partner or in small groups, discuss what they have seen related to various themes, such as: Why Amanda chose to be a care worker How she felt at the beginning What training she received What tasks she carries out Who she works with What personal skills are required to do this type of work What she likes about being a care worker Discuss one or two of these topics per group or pair. Afterwards contribute your findings to a whole class/group discussion about the video clip. 5B. Different roles
It needs to be highlighted that Amanda is not a basic care worker. Teacher's tip for 5A: the video could then be played again in smaller parts to check understanding and ac-
curacy, including highlighting the meaning of certain words and expressions such as ‘shadowing', ‘job satisfac- tion', ‘Dementia Unit', ‘insight', ‘personal care', etc., appropriate to the language level of the students. Answers to 5B: she is a keyworker: she is especially responsible for two residents. She liaises with doctors and
care managers. She fills in the medication form. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
5C. Good practice or poor practice?
Look at the video again, but with the sound off. Focus on body language and interpersonal skills in order to identify, using what you have learnt so far, good practice and poor practice. Also you can ask questions to ensure proper practice. (It is understood that people may lose their sense of identity and the will to live if they are made to feel that everything has to be done for them.) Teacher's tips on poor practices 5C:
1. Action: Amanda takes over from the elderly person who is already doing up her coat and without
asking her permission. She also talks to someone else in the room, not the lady whose coat she is Effect: not interacting with, and de-skilling, the elderly person; hurrying up the person.
2. Action: the elderly person has a walking frame, but Amanda holds her arm and is very close to her, Effect: not encouraging the elderly person's independence and perhaps not respecting her personal space. Question: did she ask the elderly person's permission to walk so close to her and to control the 3. Action: after knocking at the resident's door, Amanda walks into the room and starts to help the elderly person choose what clothes they are going to wear. Effect: no encouragement for the person to get up and get herself dressed. Question: has the effort been made before to persuade the elderly person to choose her clothes without any help and get dressed without any help? Has Amanda ever asked her if she needs help, or has she just taken over? Ex 6. Doing An Apprenticeship In Health And Social Care
6A. Case study
Read the text below about Claire, who is doing an apprenticeship in health and Paragraph heading
While Claire was in her final year at school, she was sure that she wanted to work with older people
because she enjoyed helping her mother to look after her great-grandfather. Paragraph heading
She found out about an apprenticeship scheme, which combined on-the-job learning and study. Claire
was pleased to find out that she would earn £95 per week as an apprentice. Claire visited her local Jobcentre Plus to find out what specific apprenticeships there were. She found a placement at a resi- dential and nursing care home for older people and after an interview she was accepted.
Paragraph heading
Claire was nervous when she started her apprenticeship, but support was always available. Claire
worked closely with a senior member of staff at all times, firstly through personal observation and buddying/shadowing another staff member and then undertaking the work under supervision.
Paragraph heading
From the very first day, Claire was given real work to do and she quickly adapted to her new role,
learning new skills including the management of residents' personal care, such as showering and bathing, feeding under the instruction of a speech therapist and carrying out activities with residents, including exercise regimes under the instruction of a physiotherapist.
Paragraph heading
One of Claire's key challenges was learning how to speak to residents. With little experience of older
people, she felt shy and unsure initially, but soon learned from her mentors, and from the residents Paragraph heading
As part of her apprenticeship, Claire attends college on Tuesdays to study for her health and social care
qualification. Her course is fully funded because she is under 19 years of age. She also has one-to-one coaching at the workplace where she has to put together a portfolio of evidence. She is studying for her Level 2 Diploma in Health & Social Care; Level 2 Certificate in Preparing To Work In Adult Social Care; Level 2 Award Employment Responsibilities and Rights; and Key Skills Level 1 Application of Numbers and Communication. She has decided to follow the Dementia Pathway Learning option to complete her Diploma. The mandatory elements of the Diploma are: Communication, Personal Devel- opment; Equality & Inclusion; Duty of Care; Safeguarding & Protection; Your Role & Responsibilities; Person Centred Approaches; Health & Safety; Handling Information. Paragraph heading
Claire would like to progress to achieving a Level 3 National Diploma. She would like to become a
key worker. She says that maybe one day she will become a team leader.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
6B. Multiple choice
Read the article and put a cross in the box with the right answer. Only one answer is correct. 1. Claire is training to be a:
 speech therapist
2. Claire's apprenticeship placement is in a:
 residential and nursing care home
3. As part of her apprenticeship, Claire is studying:
 Citizenship
 Level 3 Diploma in Health and Social Care  Key Skills Level 2 Communication  Level 2 Diploma in Health and Social Care 4. One of Claire's roles is to:
 give out medicine
 help with bathing  supervise other members of staff 5. One thing that Claire found challenging at first was:
 cleaning
 speaking to elderly people  going to college  getting to work on time 6. In the future, Claire would like to be:
 an accountant
 a team leader 6C. Paragraph headings
Focus on the paragraphs of the text in exercise 6A. Add the following paragraph headings correctly to the spaces in the text. s Finding out information s Future aspirations s At the beginning s Making a decision Teacher's tip for 6A: regarding the section about qualifications, this could be simplified or cut depending on
the level/interest of the learners. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 7. Home Care Workers
7A. Duties of a home care worker
Discuss in pairs what type of jobs you think a home care worker has to do.
7B. A schedule/home care plan
Social and health care workers, working in the homecare sector, work according to a schedule/home care plan that details who they have to visit, what they have to do in the specific homes, and how long they have to spend on each task in the Read the information on a home care schedule that your teacher will give you. Discuss the schedule in pairs and answer questions by your teacher about the schedule, e.g. what time do they have to get to Mr ….'s home; what tasks do they have to do, e.g. help him get out of bed, prepare breakfast; how long they can spend, e.g. 30 minutes, 1 hour (depending on the care needs of the individual).
7C. Extension activity
Create your own home care schedule.
Teacher's tip for 7A: it may be a good idea to source a video clip, if possible, to play to the students after their
Teacher's tip for 7B: you can obtain an example of a schedule from colleagues teaching health and social care,
or create a schedule. Teacher's tip for 7C: alternatively, learners can do a gap fill exercise where they fill in missing information
on a schedule template from a text created or adapted by you. Ex 8. A Home Carer's Experience
8A. A short story
Read the short story about Bert Hansen below.
Bert Hansen is 82. He lives alone in a small flat. His wife died six years ago. Bert misses her a lot. When he wakes up in the morning, Bert suffers joint pain, and it takes him a long time to get out of bed. He puts his glasses on and slowly makes his way to the kitchen. Bert finds it hard to walk. His legs hurt. He also gets dizzy. Bert makes a coffee and eats a piece of bread with some cheese. He also drinks a glass of water. He isn't thirsty, but Sally says that he should drink a glass of water every morning. Sally is a social healthcare worker. She comes round at about ten every morning to help Bert with housework and to check on his well-being. She checks that Bert has managed to get out of bed, dress and make breakfast. She asks him, "How did you sleep?" and he answers, "I slept well, thanks." Bert nearly always sleeps well and he is happy about that.
Bert reads the newspaper every morning. He likes to keep up-to-date with the news. Bert feels that the print is getting smaller and smaller. He is aware that he has problems with his eyesight, and he is therefore going to see an optician next week. He hopes that the optician will be able to help him so that he will be able to read the small print once again.
8B. What is Bert's health like?
Discuss the following in pairs: What is Bert's health like? What pains does Bert suffer? What does he struggle with? 8C. Writing about Bert's health
Write about Bert's health.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 9. How Are You?
9A. Making enquiries about health
Below are examples of how a social healthcare worker can enquire about someone's health. Form discussion groups and work through the following (stomach, leg, head, arm)? s Are you (still) (dizzy, thirsty, tired)? (leg, head, arm) (still) hurting? Do you still feel sick/nauseous? 9B. Writing questions about health
You now know about Bert's health. Now, imagine you are Sally. You want to find out how Bert is feeling. Ask Bert some questions to find out Ex 10. Health
10A. How are you?
Read the two dialogues carefully. The conversations take place between a care worker in a residential care and nursing home and two elderly residents.
Dialogue one
Care worker:
Good morning, Suzie. Did you sleep well last night? Ooh, Maggie, I had a bad night. I couldn't sleep.
Oh dear, what was the problem? I had terrible cramps in my leg.
Didn't you call the night staff for pain relief? I didn't want to bother anyone.
Oh, you wouldn't be bothering anyone! We're here to help you! Are you still in pain now? To be honest, yes, I am a bit.
My right leg.
Don't worry, Suzie, I'll speak to the duty nurse about the pain you're having in your leg.
Thank you, Maggie.
Dialogue two
Care worker:
Good afternoon, Mr. Bennette. My name is Maggie Smith and I'm a care worker here. Mr. Bennette: Good afternoon, my dear. Care worker: Would you like me to call you Mr. Bennette? Mr. Bennette: Yes, I would prefer that. Care worker: How are you feeling today, Mr. Bennette? Mr. Bennette: I've been sitting in this chair for quite a long time. My joints feel a bit stiff and achy and I can't reach my walking frame.
Oh dear, I'm sorry about that. Let me pass it to you. Here you are. Would you like any help getting up? Mr. Bennette: I think I can manage, but perhaps you'd better keep an eye on me!Care worker: Don't worry, Mr Bennette, I'm here to help you if you need me to.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
10B. Answering questions
Look at the questions for each dialogue and read the dialogues again to find the answers. You also have to think about what you have learnt so far to answer question one in for both dialogues and question three for dialogue two.
Questions to dialogue one.
1. What has Maggie done correctly? (e.g. She greeted the elderly person.)
2. Where does Suzie feel pain?
3. Who will the care worker tell?
Questions to dialogue two
1. Why does the care worker ask Mr Bennette how she should address him
(what she should call him)? 2. What is Mr. Bennette's problem?3. Does the care worker help Mr Bennette to stand up? Why/why not? Teacher's tip: when a care worker finishes his or her shift, there is a handover stage whereby he or she needs
to inform the person taking over the care of a person of anything that has happened during their shift and which the new carer needs to know about or act upon. You could ask the learners what sort of information the person taking over might need. A useful web site could be: Ex 11. Bert's Health
11A. A visit to the optician's
Read the text below and fill in the gaps with the words from the box Bert is 82. He lives alone in a flat. Bert has problems with . He is seeing the optician today. Bert's daughter, Dorothy, has gone with him to see the . She has taken a day off from so that she can help her father. The optician says that Bert . Bert hopes that he will be able to read the better when he gets his new glasses. It has been a long day and Bert is . He finds it difficult to get up the hurt, and he is scared of falling. He is pleased to be sitting in his with a nice cup of tea
comfy chair
newspaper
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 12. Personal Care
12A. Grouping personal care items
Look at pictures 24 to 44. Then read the words in the box below. Write three words that fit under each heading (numbered 1 – 7). shaving foam
wheelchair
toothpaste
nail file
hair band
squeegee
electric razor
1. Personal care, washing: 2. Personal care, shaving: 3. Personal care, nails: 4. Personal care, hair: 5. Personal care, teeth: 6. Aids for those with difficulty walking: 7. Articles for a bed: Ex 13. Personal Care
Picture/text exercises for picture cards 24-44 Here are 3 small games for groups: Memory, Fish and Mix and Match 13A. Memory
Materials: use picture cards and text cards 24 – 44 Number of players: two to three per group The cards are placed face down on the table. Students A, B and C take turns to turn over two cards. If the two cards turned over match, you have a set and you get to turn over two more. The player with the most sets at the end is the winner.
Example: B turns over two cards from the deck. B says what the picture repre- sents or reads out the text.
13B. Fish
Materials: use picture cards 24 – 44.
Number of players: three per group The picture cards are placed face down on the table. Each player takes three cards.
A asks B (or C), "Do you have anything for ‘Personal care, hair'?" If B has a card from ‘Personal care, hair', he/she says, "Yes, I have a brush. Here you go." (B then gives the card to A, who continues to ask questions). If B does not have a card from ‘Personal care, hair', he/she says, "Fish!" It is then B's turn to ask Players can only ask for categories that they already have in their hand. When a player has three cards from the same category, he/she has a set, which he/she then lays down on the table. The player with the most sets at the end is the winner. (See the categories from exercise 12.) "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
13C. Mix and Match
Materials: use picture cards and text cards 24 – 44 Number of players: the whole group.
There are the same number of cards as there are people in the class. The cards come in pairs.
When the instructor says, "Mix!", go round and exchange cards with those you When the instructor says, "Match!", find the person with the card that matches your own. You are allowed to ask, "Do you have a brush?" (or another question using the words in question). Once everyone has found their match and checked the cards, the instructor says, "Mix!" and the exercise continues.
Ex 14. Co-operation With A Patient
14A. Giving information and asking questions
When co-operating with a patient, it is important for a social healthcare worker to inform the patient in a friendly manner what he/she is going to do and what he/she wants the patient to do. Questions also need to be asked to check that the patient is able to do what they are asked (e.g. "Are you steady on your feet?" "Do you have any restrictions in your arm/leg movements?").
Look at the example, then talk to your partner and write on the lines provided.
See picture cards 1 – 23. Come up with more examples yourself.
Example: You want a patient to raise his/her arm to wash the armpit. What do you say? s I would like to give you a wash under your arms.
s Do you have any restrictions in your arm movements? s Are you able to raise your right arm? s Could you raise your right arm, please? / Would you mind raising your right arm, please? 1. You want a patient to stretch his/her arm to dry it properly. What do you say?    2. You want a patient to bend his/her arm to put it into a shirtsleeve. What do you say?    3. 3. You want a patient to raise his/her leg so that you can wash under their legs in bed. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
4. You want a patient to sit down on the shower chair. What do you say?    5. You want a patient to lean forward so that you can dry his/her back. What do you say?    Teacher's tip: this activity could be preceded by an activity covering parts of the body and a range of related
imperative verbs. Additionally, learners could look at magazines with pictures of people going up/down steps, walking, getting up from a chair, getting on a horse, etc and try to work out how they would tell the person to do these things (e.g. for walking, one could say, "Put your left leg forward/step forward with your left leg. Now, put your right leg forward – further forward than where your left leg is.) Ex 15. Exercises Using Picture Cards And Role Play
Here are three small games for groups.
1. Use photos 16 – 23. The social healthcare worker has to tell the elderly person what she is doing, "Now I am brushing your hair". 2. Use photos 1 – 15. The social healthcare worker invites the elderly person to collaborate, "Please bend your leg." (Refer to exercise 14.) 3. Role play. Use some clothes and one student should play a social healthcare worker while the other plays an elderly person. Now the first student has to dress the elderly person and use all the phrases from games 1 and 2.
15A. Exercise with picture cards
As a social healthcare worker, it is important to always inform the patient of what you are doing.
Materials: use picture cards 16 – 23 that your teacher will give you.
Number of players: two to three A, B and C take turns to draw a card and say a sentence that fits the picture. You must tell the patient what you are doing.
15B. Language use training
Materials: use picture cards 1 - 15 that your teacher will give you.
Number of players: two to three A, B and C take turns to draw a card and say a sentence that fits the picture. Example: B takes a card showing a photo of someone taking their glasses off. B says one of the following sentences: "Could you take your glasses off, please?" "I need you to take your glasses off, please." 15C. Role play
Materials: each group receives the following props: shoes, a shirt, socks, glasses, a cardigan, etc.
Number of participants: three to four A plays a weak and elderly patient and B plays a social healthcare worker who has to help A to get dressed and use as many of the sentences from Exercises 15A and 15B as possible. C and D listen and comment. Then the participants switch roles, so that everyone takes part in the activity.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
GLOSSARY – Pictures
to raise your arm to stretch your arm to raise your leg to stretch your leg to bend your leg to turn your head to put your glasses on to take your glasses off to fasten a button to brush your teeth to comb your hair to brush your hair to fluff cushions to shake down a duvet "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
hair band
nail file
shaving foam
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Contents Table for Chapter Food Services
Ex 1. What Can You Find In A Professional Kitchen? . 82
1A. Thought Shower/Thought pool . 82 Ex 2. Working With Recipes . 83
2A. Video recipes . 83 2B. Filling in information . 83 2C. Writing out a recipe . 84 2D. Making your own recipe . 85 Ex 3. Cooking Techniques . 88
3A. Thought shower/pooling . 88 3B. Definitions. 88 3C. Definitions and images . 89 Ex 4. Games . 91
4A. Matching terms and functions 1 . 91 4B. Matching terms and functions 2 . 91 4C. Memory game . 91 Ex 5. Do's And Don'ts . 92
5A. Thought shower/pool . 92 5B. Rules 1 . 92 5C. Rules 2 . 93 5D. Rules 3 . 94 Table of Contents
Ex 6. Formal Speech . 96
6A. Formal and informal register . 96 Ex 7. An Informal Dialogue . 98
7A. A listening exercise . 98 7B. Ordering text . 98 7C. Informal dialogue: phrase gap fill . 98 7D. Role play: an informal dialogue . 98 Ex 8. Formal Dialogue . 99
8A. Listening exercise . 99 8B. Ordering text . 99 8C. Formal dialogue: phrase gap fill . 99 8D. Role play: a formal dialogue . 99 8E. Discussing attitudes . 99 Ex 9. Challenging Situations – Creating Dialogues . 100
9A. Dealing with a challenging situation . 100 Ex 10. Taboo . 101
10A. Picture game . 101 Ex 11. A Perfect Cappuccino . 102
11A. How to make a perfect cappuccino . 102 11B. Writing the six steps to making a cappuccino . 102 11C. Ordering sentences . 103 11D. Explaining the six steps . 103 Ex 12. Drink Categories . 104
12A. Types of drinks . 104 Ex 13. Cocktails: Ingredients And How To Make A Cocktail . 107
13A. How to make a Mojita . 107 13B. Create a cocktail . 107 13C. A good bartender . 109 Glossary: Food Service (COOKING) . 110
Glossary: Food Service (STORAGE). 112
Glossary: Food Service (PREPARATION) . 113
Glossary: Food Service (WASHING UP) . 114
Glossary: Food Service (TABLEWARE) . 114

"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
UK Food Services Sector Fact Sheet
CFSP (Certified Food Service Professional) is the industry specific professional qualification for the
UK Food Service industry. It is being introduced under the auspices of CESA (Catering Equipment Suppliers Association), which is already an established & highly regarded body within the industry. CESA's objective is to help improve the levels of professionalism in the sector by creating a universally recognised and respected industry ‘standard' for knowledge and experience.
According to The National Careers Service, "the sector accounts for a workforce of 2.1 million, most of which are based within the restaurants, hospitality services, and pubs, bars and nightclubs industries. The roles within the sector are extremely diverse and include managers, technical staff, front-of-house staff, back-of-house staff, and non-core staff. "The restaurant industry includes: fast food establishments – such as McDonalds, Burger King and KFC, as well as traditional outlets such as fish and chips shops, sushi bars and sandwich bars; cafes and coffee shops; mainstream restaurants – these are high street restaurants which tend to be mid‐price and include many branded and themed chains such as Pizza Express, Garfunkel's and Ask; fine dining – these tend to be more expensive restaurants that offer unique dishes and, sometimes, more experi- mental cuisine.
"Jobs in the industry range from: kitchen assistants, bar manager, general manager, chef, cleaner, conference and banqueting manager, waiter/waitress, food and beverage manager, kitchen porter, restaurant manager, wine waiter.
"For most entry level jobs, there are no specific academic requirements, but a willingness to work hard, a good attitude, good communication and team working skills can be an advantage. For public facing roles, employers may prefer candidates who have previous experience of working in a customer service environment and show good people skills, as well as an appreciation of the importance of customer "There are opportunities for progression in the industry for those willing to take on more responsi- bility. Previous managerial experience can be an advantage. It is fairly common for people to move between certain areas of work in the industry.
"There is a range of industry endorsed courses, apprenticeships, vocational qualifications, and training schemes available. Some qualifications are only available to those over 18 years old, such as: Advanced Certificate in Licensed Hospitality; Award for Personal Licence Holders (QCF); Diploma in Licensed Hospitality; and NVQ in Hospitality Supervision." https://nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk/advice/ The National Careers Service web site (through the above link) provides more statistics about the UK workforce and the link below gives job profile information: https://nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk/ A useful web site about migrants in the food services industry is: http://www.hse.gov.uk/food/migrant.htm Fact Sheet
Ex 1. What Can You Find In A Professional Kitchen?
1A. Thought Shower/Thought pool
Draw on any previous knowledge to thought pool types of kitchen tools/ utensils and equipment – to be added to a spidergram on the board as well as in your own notepads. Then do the same activity with cooking techniques/methods. Teacher's tip: alternatively, you could divide the learners into two groups. Each group works on one spider-
gram before they present their findings to the whole class and add any other word as a whole group. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 2. Working With Recipes
2A. Video recipes
Watch the video of the recipe (first dish), Pasta alla carbonara:
Work through the exercises related to the video. After working with the first video, do the same activities after watching the second video recipe.
Video and recipe 2: Fish Pie: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n0pNAjgLRcM
2B. Filling in information
Watch the video again and fill in the table focusing on the ingredients, cooking techniques, utensils, chef 's advice and any further information. See the example below (for the pasta dish).
If the sauce is too When you drain thick, add a little the pasta, leave the bit of water from pasta a bit moist. the boiling pasta a little bit at a time. 2C. Writing out a recipe
Watch the video again and in pairs or groups write down the recipe following the scheme below. After that compare the text with the teacher's text. Name of the recipe:
Introductory notes:




Ingredients:









Cooking method:






Other information:
Type of dish:
Cooking time:
Advice:
Level of difficulty:
Season:
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
2D. Making your own recipe
In groups, think of a recipe that you know and write it down using the words you have learned so far. Write down the utensils to use, the cooking methods, the ingredients, the amounts and any advice. The teacher will give you the recipe template from exercise 2C to fill in your information. Present your recipe to the rest of the class.
Recipe texts (for the teacher)
Video 1: Name of the recipe: Pasta alla carbonara

Introductory notes: Pasta alla carbonara (usually spaghetti, but also fettuccine, rigatoni or bucatini) is an Italian pasta dish based on eggs, cheese (pecorino romano or parmigiano-reggiano), bacon (guan- ciale or pancetta), and black pepper. The dish was created in the middle of the 20th century.
4 egg yolks + 1 egg ½ cup of pecorino cheese 5.5 oz of smoked bacon 12 oz of spaghetti 2 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil Freshly ground black pepper
Cooking method:
1. Boil the spaghetti in slightly salted water at a steady boil.
2. Sauté the diced, smoked bacon in a frying pan in a thin layer of olive oil, stirring occasionally with a wooden spoon.
3. Once the bacon is golden and crispy, take it off the heat and leave it to cool for a few minutes.
4. In a bowl, whisk the egg yolks and the egg together and add the grated pecorino – mixing it in really well with the whisk. After that add the black pepper and keep whisking the mixture. (If the sauce is too thick, it can be thinned by adding some water from the boiling pasta a little bit at a 5. Add the cooled smoked bacon to the mixture and stir it in. 6. Drain the pasta, but leave some of the water to keep the pasta moist. (This will thin the sauce and make it easier to coat the pasta with the sauce.) 7. Stir everything together with a wooden spoon until the pasta is coated with the sauce and serve it Video 2: Name of the recipe: Fish Pie
Sea salt and freshly ground black pepper 150g good Cheddar cheese, grated 1 bunch of fresh parsley 300g salmon fillets, skin off and bones removed 300g cod fillets, skin off and bones removed 125g king prawns, raw, peeled A large handful of spinach 100–120 mls single cream 1. Dice the potatoes into 1-inch cubes and boil them.
2. Slice the leeks and carrots finely.
3. Put 2 tablespoons of olive oil and a little knob of butter into a frying pan and then add the sliced leeks and carrots and fry them.
4. Slice the cod and salmon into large chunks with a chopping knife, but you can leave the prawns whole. Put the fish into an oven dish, season with a pinch of salt, a bit of pepper and then add the finely sliced parsley. 5. Cut the lemon into halves and squeeze the juice over the fish mixture. Also add some lemon zest. Then add half of the Cheddar cheese into the dish. 6. Add a good handful of whole leaf spinach to the leeks and carrots in the frying pan and leave them to cook for a bit until they reduce in size.
7. Drain the potatoes through a colander and put them back into the saucepan and back on the heat for 30 seconds (so that steam comes off, leaving the potatoes with a dry and fluffy consistency).
8. Pour about 100 ml of single cream from a jug over the leeks, carrots and spinach sauce base in the frying pan. Let the sauce come up to a boil.
9. Meanwhile, add a bit of butter (or olive oil is healthier) and a pinch of salt. 10. When the base sauce comes to the boil, pour the mixture over the fish.
11. Mash the potatoes with a masher and put the mash on top of the oven dish containing the fish, vegetables and sauce. Spread the mash over the mixture with a serving spoon.
12. Bake the fish pie in an oven at 180°C for about 30 minutes until the potato topping is crisp and 10. Serve the fish pie with peas or salad. Teacher's tips:
1. If you think it would be useful, learners can use the phrases and vocabulary listed below to write down he recipe.
2. A cloze gap activity could be created to focus on specific language – using the recipes above. Alternatively, more recipes can be found on the web site for the cloze text as well as for extension or homework activities. "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Vocabulary and phrases
Bring the pan of water to the boil and then add the pasta/potatoes
Add a pinch of salt Drain the pasta/potatoes using a colander Sauté the bacon in a frying pan Mix, stir, whisk, pour, mash Boil, sauté, fry, bake, cook Tablespoon (tbsp) Ex 3. Cooking Techniques
3A. Thought shower/pooling
Think about and discuss in groups what kind of cooking techniques/methods you prefer for different types of food. (For example, how do you like potatoes to be cooked? Boiled, steamed, sautéed, fried or roasted?) Discuss each cooking technique, tools and equipment in groups. Fill in the table below. After that, look at the teacher's table and add any information if necessary. Equipment & utensils
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
3C. Definitions and images
Match the correct image to each cooking technique definition in the table below. Also write down the name of the cooking technique. Your teacher will give you the pictures.
Technique Equipment & utensils
Food is cooked by immersing it in a liquid which can initially be hot or cold. The liquid may be, for example, water, salt and water, broth, milk, etc. At full boil the liquid will be so hot that bubbles of ‘vapour' escape the liquid by moving fast enough to break the surface of the liquid and up into the air.
The food is cooked in fat up to a high temperature (+180°C) with the result that the ingredients being fried will be soft inside with a crisp, golden surface caused by the caramelization of sugars.
This is a technique used to cook large pieces of solid food in the oven or on a spit (a dry cooking method). During the cooking of meat, the fat in the meat melts and ‘bastes' the meat, keeping it moist. If the meat is ‘lean', then fat needs to be added into slits in the meat or the meat can be ‘marinated' in liquid containing acid (vinegar, wine, lemon juice, etc). ‘Basting' is another method of keeping the meat moist. This involves bathing the outside of the meat with oil, pan drippings or a sauce during the cooking process.
This is a method of slow cooking where the main ingredient is seared (scorched) or browned in fat and then simmered in liquid on a low heat in a The ingredients are placed on a grill and cooked by a dry direct heat at a high temperature that sears the ingredients in order for the juices to stay in. Table for the teacher
Equipment & utensils
This is a method of slow cooking where the main ingredient is seared (scorched) or browned in fat and then simmered in liquid on a low heat in a This is a technique used to cook large pieces of solid food in the oven or on a spit (a dry cooking method). During the cooking of meat, the fat in the meat melts and ‘bastes' the meat, keeping it moist. If the meat is ‘lean', then fat needs to be added into slits in the meat or the meat can be ‘marinated' in liquid containing acid (vinegar, wine, lemon juice, etc.). ‘Basting' is another method of keeping the meat moist. This involves bathing the outside of the meat with oil, pan drippings or a sauce during the cooking process.
Food is cooked by immersing it in a liquid which can initially be hot or cold. The liquid may be, for example, water, salt and water, broth, milk, etc. At full boil the liquid will be so hot that bubbles of ‘vapour' escape the liquid by moving fast enough to break the surface of the liquid and up into the air.
The food is cooked in fat up to a high temperature (+180°C) with the result that the ingredients being fried will be soft inside with a crisp, golden surface caused by the caramelization of sugars.
The ingredients are placed on a grill and cooked by a dry direct heat at a high temperature that sears the ingredients in order for the juices to stay in. Note:
It may be necessary for you to adapt the wording in the teacher's table according to the language
ability of the class. However, it is important to define the vocational terms rather than omitting them. You could use the internet to play video clips showing different cooking techniques and equipment.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 4. Games
4A. Matching terms and functions 1
Using the images given in the glossary, choose some of them and match the image with the term and the function.
4B. Matching terms and functions 2
Using all the images given in the glossary, put them together in separate s equipment for preparing food s equipment for conserving food s equipment for cooking s equipment for washing up 4C. Memory game
Memory game 1: associate the image with the name of the tool. Memory game 2: associate the image with the function of the tool.
Ex 5. Do's And Don'ts
5A. Thought shower/pool
Think about and discuss what a good waiter/waitress should do. Add to a spidergram on the board as well as in your own notepads. Then do the same activity with what a good waiter/waitress should avoid.
5B. Rules 1
In pairs, write what a waiter/waitress must and must not do during service. At the end of the exercise, compare your table with the teacher's table.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
5C. Rules 2
Re-order the do's and don'ts from the sentences listed in exercise 5D.
5D. Rules 3
Individually or in pairs put a tick after the sentences that show what a waiter/ waitress should do. Put a cross after sentences that show what a waiter/waitress should not do.
PHASE 1: WELCOMING THE CUSTOMERS
1. The waiter greets the customers and asks if they have a reservation.
2. The waiter leads the customers to a table in disarray, still to be cleared.
3. The waiter brings menus and asks if he can bring water or anything else to drink while the customers decide what they are having.
4. The waiter ignores the customers and doesn't greet them.
5. The waiter leads the customers to their table and, where possible, asks where they would like to sit.
6. The waiter forgets to bring the menu and the customers have to summon him to ask for water.
PHASE 2: SHOWING THE MENU AND TAKING THE ORDER
7. The waiter interrupts while the customers are talking and only takes a partial order.
8. From a distance, and discreetly, the waiter checks that nothing is missing on the table; he must be alert to respond to any of the customer's queries or needs. If possible, it is best to anticipate the 9. The waiter returns to the table several times to ask for clarifications on certain courses. The waiter does not know how the dishes are cooked.
10. The waiter leaves the unnecessary settings on the table.
11. It is important to remove from the table any unnecessary place setting.
12. The waiter returns to the table and asks the customers if they are ready to order. The waiter gives details of the daily specials (if any) and takes the order. 13. The waiter is inattentive and does not see that the customers are calling him.
14. The order: it is important to know how each dish is prepared and to gather as much information as possible on how the customer wishes his dish to be cooked. It is important not to return to the table to ask for additional information on the courses ordered.
PHASE 3: CONCLUDING THE SERVICE
15. Once the bill is handed over, the waiter allows the customer to check it and decide how to pay
(bank card, credit card, cash).
16. The waiter brings the bill in order to clear the table.
17. Once the bill is handed over, the waiter hovers by the client while waiting for the payment.
18. The waiter hands the customer the bill only after his request.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Table for the teacher
These are rules (do's and don'ts) that a waiter/waitress should follow when serving customers.
The exercises above relate to this table. (5B to 5D.) Welcoming customers The waiter greets The waiter ignores the customers and the customers and asks if they have a doesn't greet them.
reservation.
The waiter leads the customers to their The waiter leads the customers to a table but, where possible, asks where table in disarray, still to be cleared and they would like to sit.
The waiter brings menus and asks if the The waiter forgets to bring the menu customers would like anything to drink and the customers have to summon while they decide what they are having. him.
Taking the order The waiter returns to the table and asks The waiter interrupts service to talk to the customers if they are ready to order. someone else while the customers are The waiter gives details of the daily ordering their food. The waiter only specials (if any) and takes the order. takes a partial order.
The order: it is important to know how The waiter returns to the table several each dish is prepared and to gather as times to ask for clarifications on certain much information as possible on how courses. The waiter does not know how the customer wishes his dish to be the dishes are cooked. The waiter does cooked. It is important not to return to not ask how people like their meat to be the table to ask for additional informa- cooked (rare, medium rare, well done).
tion on the courses ordered.
It is important to remove from the table The waiter leaves the unnecessary any unnecessary place settings.
settings on the table.
From a distance, and discreetly, the The waiter is inattentive and does not waiter checks that nothing is missing on see that the customers are calling him.
the table; he must be alert to respond to any of the customers' queries or needs. If possible, it is best to anticipate the customers' needs; for example, do they need the dessert menu? Would they like Concluding the The waiter hands the customer the bill The waiter tries to clear plates without only after it is requested.
checking if they are finished with. The waiter brings the bill in order to clear Once the bill is handed over, the waiter Once the bill is handed over, the waiter leaves, allowing the customer to check hovers by the client while waiting for it and decide how to pay (bank card, the payment.
credit card, cash).
Ex 6. Formal Speech
6A. Formal and informal register
Add the sentences from Table 1 to Table 2, according to the service phases. Choose the appropriate register (formal/informal).
You (formal)
Do you have a reservation? Did you book a table? Where would you like to sit? Where do you want to sit? Please take your seats.
Sit down, please.
May I bring some water to drink? Still, sparkling? Do you want something to drink? Still, Would you like anything else to drink? Anything else to drink? Here is the menu.
Here's the menu.
Would you like the wine list? Here's the wine list.
Are you ready to order? Can I take your order? Our special dish of the day is.
Today's special is.
Is the artichoke risotto for you? Which one of you ordered the artichoke risotto? Would you like to see the dessert menu? Do you want any desserts? May I bring you some coffee? Can I bring you some coffee? "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
WHAT DOES THE WAITER SAY?
Welcoming the The waiter greets the customers and asks if they have a reservation.
The waiter leads the customers to their table and, where possible, asks where they would like to sit.
The waiter brings menus and asks if he can bring water or anything else to drink while the customers decide what they are having.
Taking the order The waiter returns to the table and asks the customers if they are ready to order. The waiter gives details of the daily specials (if any) and takes the order. The order: it is important to know how each dish is prepared and to gather as much information as possible on how the customer wishes his dish to be cooked. It is important not to return to the table to ask for additional informa- tion on the courses ordered.
It is important to remove from the table any unnecessary place setting.
From a distance, and discreetly, the waiter checks that nothing is missing on the table; he must be alert to respond to any of the customers' queries or needs. If possible, it is best to antici- pate the customer's requirements. Concluding the The waiter hands the customer the bill only after his request.
Once the bill is handed over, the waiter allows the customer to check it and decide how to pay (bank card, credit card, cash).
Ex 7. An Informal Dialogue
7A. A listening exercise
Listen to the informal dialogue between a waiter and 2 customers in a pizza 7B. Ordering text
Listen to the dialogue again and put the conversation in the right order. Your teacher will give you the text.
7C. Informal dialogue: phrase gap fill
Listen to the dialogue again in parts and fill in the gaps in the text. Your teacher will give you the text.
7D. Role play: an informal dialogue
In pairs or small groups, create an informal dialogue between a waiter/ waitress and one or two customers. You could use a different restaurant setting, for example: in a café or a burger bar. Then present your role play to the rest of "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 8. Formal Dialogue
8A. Listening exercise
Listen to the formal dialogue between a waiter and two customers in a fine dining restaurant (formal register).
8B. Ordering text
Listen to the dialogue again and put the conversation in the right order. Your teacher will give you the text.
8C. Formal dialogue: phrase gap fill
Listen to the dialogue again in parts and fill in the gaps in the text. Your teacher will give you the text.
8D. Role play: a formal dialogue
In pairs or small groups, create a formal dialogue between a waiter/waitress and one or two customers. A different fine dining restaurant setting could be used, for example, in a French or Indian restaurant. Then present your role play of the formal dialogue to the rest of the class.
8E. Discussing attitudes
Listen to the dialogues from exercise 7A and exercise 8A. Discuss the similari- ties and differences between: s the attitudes of the two waiters s how the customers and waiters relate to each other s the situations/settings Ex 9. Challenging Situations – Creating Dialogues
9A. Dealing with a challenging situation
Think of challenging situations that a waiter/waitress may come across in their job. Next, in groups of at least two people, choose a challenging situation and create a dialogue for it. Then role play your challenging situation in front of the whole class. Discuss as a class how the situations were dealt with. Focus on what the waiter/waitress should say to the customer/s. s The customer arrives and the restaurant is full.
s The wrong dish is served to the customer, who complains.
s The customer complains that their food is a little cold.
Teacher's tip: if the learners have access to computers, they can google web sites about dealing with difficult
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 10. Taboo
10A. Picture game
Choose one image and describe the type of service to your partner, without using the words below each picture.
morning, coffee, cappuccino, croissant, milk breakfast, lunch, eggs, orange juice Coffee break
noon, break, pasta, abundant, meal work, colleagues, lecture, short, pause, coffee dinner, cocktail, wine, friends, evening, bar evening, family, home, pizzeria, restaurant, work Ex 11. A Perfect Cappuccino
11A. How to make a perfect cappuccino
Watch the video which shows how to make the perfect cappuccino: Discuss the video, focusing on the parts of the coffee machine and the instruc- Cappuccino has many definitions depending on where you are in the world. In Italy, it's a beverage generally consumed first thing in the morning, and is made of espresso and steamed milk.
11B. Writing the six steps to making a cappuccino
Watch the video again in parts and write down the six steps to making a cappuccino. Focus on the video's specific terminology and use the list of words given below to help you. (These words are not necessarily in order.) steam arm
full fat milk
to turn on/off
work surface
coffee beans
ready ground
a wide-bottomed jug
pump pipes
grip handle
dosing spoon
      "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
11C. Ordering sentences
Watch the video again and put the sentences listed below in the right order (from 1 to 10) by writing the correct number by each sentence.
The light of the machine will go out when the water is at the correct temperature.
Put the coffee in the filter basket and tap it to create a level surface. Pour the milk on top of the espresso. Use 7 grams of coffee for a single shot espresso and 14 grams for a double shot espresso. Put a coffee cup underneath the machine, turn on the dosage button and wait for the coffee to filter through. Steam the milk, preferably full fat milk, to create plenty of froth. Turn on the boiler to heat the water to the correct temperature.
Add the correct amount of water into the tank of the machine. Turn the steam arm on your coffee machine on full for five seconds before inserting it into the milk, as this will clean it through. Tap the jug with the milk on a work surface to remove bubbles.
11D. Explaining the six steps
Watch the video again and in pairs explain (orally) the six steps to making a cappuccino, with the help of the sentences and words from the above exercises. Teacher's tip for 11A: the website also includes videos on how to make other types of coffee, which could be
used as extension exercises or for a project on presenting how to make different coffees – if learners have access to the internet. Teacher's tip for 11D: you could also play the video mute while one or two more confident learners stand by
the board and talk through the process of making a cappuccino. Ex 12. Drink Categories
12A. Types of drinks
Group the drinks (listed in the Menu in Table 1) into the beverage categories TABLE 1 (MENU)
330ml Highland Spring Water Draught beer (½ pint) Ginseng espresso large Draught beer (pint) Decaffeinated coffee J20 Apple & Raspberry Fruit juices 200 ml Water bottle 1,5 l Macchiato coffee Cans Coca-cola, Fanta, Sprite Hot chocolate with cream Tea and other infusions 175ml glass of house wine Sparkling wine glass Non-alcoholic aperitifs Gin, rum, tequila Alcoholic aperitif Assorted milk shakes Extra mature whisky Table service charge 10% "Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
TABLE 2 (BEVERAGE CATEGORIES)
Nerve drinks
Drinks containing substances that act upon the nervous system generating excitement.
Fruit juices
Fruit juice is the by-product of fruit transfor- mation, which at the end of the productive processes, retains the original fruit's taste and Non-alcoholic beverages can be sparkling or not; are packaged in a sealed bottle or other container, and prepared with natural drinking water – mineral or otherwise.
Aperitifs are specific beverages that prepare the organism for a meal.
Spirits are prepared by distilling (separating) a substance from another, bringing a liquid to the vapour state and condensing it again.
A liqueur is a spirit based on sugar, alcohol and specific, distinguishing flavours (e.g. from trees, berries, flowers, or fruits).
An alcohol drink obtained from the fermentation of barley and other cereals, flavoured with hops.
TABLE 1 (FOR THE TEACHER)
Nerve drinks
Drinks containing substances that act upon the nervous system generating excitement.
Fruit juices
Fruit juice is the by-product of fruit transfor- mation, which at the end of the productive processes, retains the original fruit's taste and flavour.
Non-alcoholic beverages
Non-alcoholic beverages can be sparkling or not; Fanta are packaged in a sealed bottle or other container, Ginger ale and prepared with natural drinking water – mineral or otherwise.
Sprite or Seven up Aperitifs are specific beverages that prepare the Sparkling dry wines organism for a meal.
Aniseed aperitifs Wine-based aperitifs Spirits are prepared by distilling (separating) a substance from another, bringing a liquid to the Vodka vapour state and condensing it again.
Fruit and vegetable crushes A liqueur is a spirit based on sugar, alcohol and specific, distinguishing flavours (e.g. from trees, berries, flowers, or fruits).
Beer
An alcohol drink obtained from the fermentation of barley and other cereals, flavoured with hops.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 13. Cocktails: Ingredients And How To Make A Cocktail
13A. How to make a Mojita
Watch and discuss the video on how to make a simple Mojita; focusing on the ingredients (soda, mint leaves, sprig of mint, simple syrup, white rum, lemon twist), verbs (e.g. bruise, muddle, shake, jigger, measure out, garnish), measure- ment terms (e.g. ounce/s (oz) of, pinch of, tablespoon/s of, whole) and utensils (e.g. a cocktail spoon, a pour spout, a jigger (measuring cup), a muddler, a column sized glass and a metal shaker): 13B. Create a cocktail
Read the cocktail list – focusing on the specific vocabulary. (You can look at images from the picture glossary or on the internet). Then divide into groups to create a new cocktail. Present the new cocktail to the rest of the class. The same activities could be used for non-alcoholic cocktails. Vote for your favourite cock- Note: Measuring term 1/3 is stated as ‘one part' and 6/10 is stated as ‘six parts'.
s 1/3 Brown cocoa cream Shake with ice and serve in a cocktail glass. Grated nutmeg is optional. s 1/2 Red vermouth Mix directly over ice in an old-fashioned glass. Add soda water. Garnish with half a slice of orange and s 6/10 White rum s 3/10 Lemon or lime juice s 1/10 Grenadine syrup Shake with ice and serve in a cocktail glass.
Bloody Mary
s 6/10 Tomato juice s 1/10 Lemon juice Add a few drops of Worcestershire Sauce, Tabasco, celery salt, salt and pepper. Prepare in a tumbler Dry Manhattan
s 7/10 Rye or Canadian whisky s 3/10 Dry vermouth s 1 drop of Angostura Prepare in a mixing glass with ice. Serve in a cocktail glass. Garnish the glass with a lemon twist.
Dry Martini
s 2/10 Dry Vermouth Prepare in a mixing glass with ice. Serve in a cocktail glass. May be served with a green olive and a lemon twist on top.
s 7/10 Rye or Canadian Whisky s 3/10 Red Vermouth s 1 drop of Angostura Prepare in a frozen mixing glass and serve in a cocktail glass. Decorate with a red cherry.
s 3/10 Triple sec s 2/10 Lime or lemon juice Prepare in a shaker with ice. Serve in a cocktail glass with salt-encrusted rim. s 1/3 Red vermouth s 1/3 Bitter Campari Prepare in an old fashioned glass with ice. Add half an orange slice.
Pina Colada
s 2/10 Coconut milk s 5/10 Pineapple juice Shake in a blender with ice; serve in a tall drinking glass. Decorate with pineapple and a cherry.
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Vodka Martini
s 2/10 Dry vermouth Prepare in a shaker. Serve in a cocktail glass. May be served with a green olive and a lemon twist on 13C. A good bartender
Think about the qualities and abilitites a good bartender should have – to be added to a spidergram on the board as well as in your own notepads. Then do the same activity about what a bartender's tasks are. Teacher's tip 13C: alternatively, you could divide the learners into two groups. Each group works on one
spidergram before they present their findings to the whole class and add any other words as a whole group. Glossary: Food Service (COOKING)
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Glossary: Food Service (COOKING)
Glossary: Food Service (STORAGE)
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Glossary: Food Service (PREPARATION)
Glossary: Food Service (WASHING UP)
Glossary: Food Service (TABLEWARE)
"Meet the Need" Compendium - Teacher‘s Guide
Contents Table for Office Communications Chapter
Ex 1. A Day At The Office (Interview 1) . 118
1A. An office clerk talks about her working day . 118 1B. True or false? . 118 1C. A typical day. 118 1D. Role play . 119 Ex 2. A Day At The Office (Interview 2) . 120
2A. An interview with an office receptionist . 120 2B. Victoria's tasks . 120 2C. Vocabulary – office work . 120 2D. Sentences – office work . 120 Ex 3. Health And Safety At The Office. 121
3A. Video: safety in the office . 121 3B. Vocabulary focus: gap fill . 121 3C. Grammar focus: the imperative . 122 3D. Making comparisons . 122 Ex 4. Friendliness – Unfriendliness. 123
4A. Friendly or unfriendly? . 123 4B. Sounding friendly or unfriendly . 123 4C. Rewriting sentences . 123 4D. Say something friendly . 124 Table of Contents
Ex 5. Office Communications: Answering The Telephone . 125
5A. Telephone conversations . 125 5B. Giving instructions and reporting instructions . 126 5C. Giving instructions over the phone. 126 Ex 6. Notes . 127
6A. Writing an internal email or memo . 127 6B. Match the texts . 128 6C. Writing a note . 129 6D. Reply to a note . 130 6E. Correcting notes . 131 Ex 7. Business Letters . 132
7A. The chronological course of an order process . 132 7B. Quote request – building blocks for emails . 133 7C. The quote – money vocabulary . 134 7D. The order – compound nouns . 135 7E. Thought shower/thought pooling: compound nouns . 136 7F. Order confirmation – terms for quantities . 137 7G. Thought shower/thought pooling: designations of quantity . 137 7H. Invoice – terms for quantities . 138 7I. Write your own business email/letter . 139 Ex 8. Vocabulary Training: In The Office – Let's Get Started! . 140
8A. Thought shower/Thought pooling: the work station . 140 Ex 9. In The Office – The Workstation . 141
9A. Matching words and pictures . 141 9B. Verbs for office tasks . 142 Ex 10. Guessing Game: "In Other Words" . 143
Ex 11. Find The Matching Cards . 150

"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
UK Office Communications Sector Fact Sheet
Office communications roles are to be found in every sector. The information is from The National Careers Service web site: Receptionist
Qualifications may not be needed, but some employers require GCSEs – English and Mathematics in
particular. Apprenticeship schemes are a route into acquiring experience and gaining qualifications in order to get a foot in the door. It is important to have good spoken and written communication skills; a friendly manner and have the ability to deal firmly with difficult people. Hours of work are about 30 – 40 per week and normally from 9am to 5pm. However, some jobs may require weekend and/or shift work. There are many part- time positions. Starting salaries can be from £12,500 per annum.
On-the-job training from the employer is usually provided but there are qualifications such as NVQ Levels 1 – 3 in Business and Administration; NVQ Levels 1 – 3 in Customer Service and NVQ Level 2 in Providing Security Services (Reception Security). There are many other qualifications that can be gained, depending on the sector one may be working in. (For e.g. a receptionist working in the healthcare field may study for an Intermediate Diploma in Medical Administration; a Certificate in Medical Terminology and a Certificate in Health Service Administration.) Administrative Assistant/Clerical Assistant
Almost every type of organisation in the UK employs administrative assistants. Entry requirements
vary, but some employers may just want to test keyboard, filing and telephone skills instead of asking for qualifications. There may be an apprenticeship scheme to get a foot in the door. Additionally, colleges provide full- or part-time courses in administration (Award, Certificate or Diploma in Business and Administration Levels one to three). Most training will take place in the workplace, including induction covering the organisation's office systems and procedures. During employment, opportunities exist to train towards qualifications such as those above if not already achieved as well as recognised IT qualifications like CLAiT Plus or European Computer Driving Licence (ECDL). There are specialist qualifications available for specialism in certain areas such as legal, financial or medical administration.
Salaries can be between £12,000 and £20,000 per annum depending on duties performed and where one is working. Hours of work tend to be between 35 and 40 hours per week, usually from Monday to Friday. Flexible, part-time and temporary hours are widely available.
Fact Sheet
Ex 1. A Day At The Office (Interview 1)
1A. An office clerk talks about her working day
Listen to the interview and then listen again in parts to answer the questions in exercise 1B.
1B. True or false?
Read the sentences below. Listen to the interview and tick the T box for true or the F box for false. Mrs Bennett works as a clerk in a building company.
She goes to work at 7.30 am.
She spends the morning working on the company accounts. She finishes work at about 5 o'clock in the afternoon.
1C. A typical day
Listen to the interview again.
What is Jane Bennett's normal day like? Take some notes (time of day, tasks at work, etc).
Use the third person singular to tell your partner about Jane's day.
Teacher's tip: you could add more true or false questions if required. Please note that the transcript is on the
Meet The Need web site and available for downloading. "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
1D. Role play
In pairs, act out a role play where one person is an interviewer and the other works in an office. Use the words and phrases from the dialogue and your notes to help you. Then swap roles. A: What do you do? B: I am an office assistant.
A: What are your working hours? Teacher's tip: you could hand out the dialogue to learners to refer to and also revise making questions (e.g.
look at the text to help make questions: My working day starts at 9.00 am When does your working day B: I start work at 9am and I finish at about 5.30 pm. A: What tasks do you do? B: Well, I do a lot of photocopying! Ex 2. A Day At The Office (Interview 2)
2A. An interview with an office receptionist
Listen to the interview with Victoria, who talks about a typical day working as a receptionist in an office.
2B. Victoria's tasks
1. Listen to the audio clip again for specific detail and make a note of Victoria's 2. Review the interview as a whole class and compare notes (perhaps with the transcript that your teacher can give out after the listenining activity above – and which can be downloaded from the Meet the Need web site).
Tell your partner (using the third person) all about Victoria's day.
2C. Vocabulary – office work
Now read the transcript to the interview and highlight all the nouns relevant to office work. Then create a spidergram of all the words in your notepad. Check for meanings using a dictionary.
2D. Sentences – office work
Write example sentences about working in an office using the nouns.
Example: We have a meeting at ten o'clock tomorrow.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 3. Health And Safety At The Office
3A. Video: safety in the office
Watch the video – focusing on what health and safety hazards there could be in an office and how to avoid accidents so that people can work in a safe In pairs or groups discuss the hazards shown on the video.
3B. Vocabulary focus: gap fill
Look at the phrases in the box below and choose which ones can be used to complete the sentences below (1 – 6). wet or slippery surfaces
poor lighting
open desk drawers
cords, cables and wires
inappropriate footwear
incorrectly stored items objects left lying around
loose flooring or carpet tiles
stacked boxes (in the walkway)
1. People can slip on 2. Files and folders on the floor are 3. means that someone may bump into a cupboard.
4. If you don't close them, will be a hazard.
are not secured and kept away from where people walk, someone could trip over them.
6. People can fall over in the walkway.
Teacher's tip: the video is a free preview on the web site, but the word ‘preview' pops up now and again
during the showing. 3C. Grammar focus: the imperative
What do we have to do to prevent accidents happening in the workplace? Match the list of imperatives to the phrases to make a set of instructions.
damaged flooring.
warning signs for wet or slippery surfaces.
cords, cables and wires away from where people walk. items left lying around.
appropriate shoes – ideally with non-slip soles.
items in their correct place.
any boxes or items blocking a walkway.
Report/Repair office desk (or filing cabinet) drawers left open. special steps or stepladders to reach high shelves.
3D. Making comparisons
Tell your partner about health and safety in your own home. Are there hazards in your home that are similar to those shown at the office? "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 4. Friendliness – Unfriendliness
4A. Friendly or unfriendly?
Listen to the sentences and then decide: which sound friendly and which sound unfriendly? Write F for friendly and U for unfriendly.
4B. Sounding friendly or unfriendly
Listen to the sentences again and repeat them. 4C. Rewriting sentences
Read the following sentences and rewrite them so that they sound friendlier (more friendly). Pay attention to the grammar. Review as a whole class.
1. Mrs Smith, come and see me in the office.
2. Telephone company. Ms Jones speaking. I want to speak to Mr Brown.
3. The copier is broken. Miss Young, call the technician right away.
4. Mrs Beadle isn't here. Teacher's tip: you could download the transcript of the audio from the Meet the Need web site under 4A.
4D. Say something friendly
Read the sentences below. Change them so that they sound friendly.
Pay special attention to the grammar and vocabulary.
The first sentence has been done for you as an example.
1. Write the invoice up.
Please write the invoice up. / Could you please make up the bill?2. Miss Brooks, I need a copy of the contract.
 3. Good morning. I want to speak to Mr Andrews.
 4. Mr Grey, help me.
 5. Give me the pen.
 6. Call me back later.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 5. Office Communications: Answering The Telephone
5A. Telephone conversations
Listen to three telephone conversations. Then listen to each conversation again and complete the exercises.
Telephone Conversation 1
1. Is the statement below true or false? Put a circle around either T (true) or F (false).
The boss wants Daniella to sign the timesheets. 2. Tick which statement is correct: a, b or c? Tick one box only.
a) Danielle cannot do the task immediately. b) Danielle will take a cup of tea to the boss immediately. c) Danielle will take the timesheets to the boss. Telephone Conversation 2
1. Is the statement below true or false? Put a tick for either T (true) or F (false).
Anna's daughter is unwell.
2. Tick which statement is correct: a, b or c? Tick one box only.
a) David is able to transfer the call to Personnel.
b) David offers to take a message.
c) Anna cannot leave a message.
Telephone Conversation 3
1. Is the statement below true or false? Put a tick for T (true) or F (false).
The boss wants Linda to order some office supplies.
2. Tick which statement is correct: a, b or c? Tick one box only.
a) They are running low on stocks of colour ink cartridges.
b) Linda wants to know how much to order.
c) Linda must order 5 packets of photocopier paper and 3 colour ink cartridges.
5B. Giving instructions and reporting instructions
When giving instructions, the imperative is used.
Exercise 1. Make the words into instructions, using the imperative form and using the correct word order. What word don't you need? Exercise 2. When reporting what the boss has told you to do, you use reported
speech / indirect speech. Complete the sentences using this form. Use the
instructions from exercise 1 to work with.
1. What Instructions has the boss given his staff?
Example: You - me - please - the folder – bring
 Please bring me the folder.
1. You - get - the agreements - for Mrs. Muller - please

2. You - call - please - Mr. Miller

3. You – fax – please – to T&C Ltd – the invoice – for me

4. You – to me – show – the documentation – please

2. What did the boss say?
1.
 The boss has told me to bring the folders to him.
2.
 The boss has told me to
3.
 The boss has told me to
4.
 The boss has told me to
5C. Giving instructions over the phone
Using material from the audio and from exercise 1 and exercise 2 for ideas, (i.e. tasks that people carry out in an office) give your partner instructions over the phone. Then swap roles.
Teacher's tip:
you could go round asking the pairs what their instructions were and encourage them to use
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 6. Notes
6A. Writing an internal email or memo
Who is writing to whom? Read the texts below and match the texts to the letters a) to c). This exercise relates to communications within a company via email or memo, in which case the style is usually informal – using ‘Hi' rather than ‘Dear' and ‘Regards' rather than ‘Yours sincerely/faithfully'.
I have moved your appointment to Monday morning.
Please could you copy the A&B Company contract for my records? We've moved our meeting to 10 am next Monday.
A colleague is writing to: a) another colleague b) the boss c) the secretary 6B. Match the texts
Read the following note and match the text from the note with the information in the list.
Mr Yoke has cancelled his appointment at 3 pm on Friday. He would like to arrange a new appointment with you. Please let me know when you would like to reschedule the appointment.
1. Greeting 2. Title 3. Information for the recipient 4. Complimentary close 5. Signature Teacher's tip: you could change the order of the content in the list to differentiate for more able learners.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
6C. Writing a note
Write a note. Choose a subject to write about.
1. You would like to eat lunch with your colleague, Sadie, in the canteen at 1 pm. You have an appointment before that, however, and cannot meet your colleague until 1.30. Write a brief message to your colleague.
2. You receive a call from the company A&C at your office. They want to talk to your boss, Ralph. Ralph is in a meeting and needs to call A&C back. You are about to finish work in five minutes, and cannot wait for Ralph any longer. Write him a message to let him know.
Write a note.
. to your colleague: Teacher's tips:
1. If possible, source office message pads (from colleagues teaching office/secretarial) or email templates for the
learners to write their notes on. 2. For an extension exercise, source up-to-date memorandum forms (e.g. from Google images on the internet) to show learners how different the composition and layout are to the messages above. 6D. Reply to a note
You find a note on your desk from your colleague Mark. Write a short message in response to Mark.
Include the following in your message: 1) What juice you bought 2) Why you didn't buy any chocolate biscuits 3) Why you also bought tea and coffee As you know, we have that important meeting with our new client in the morning, and we still need some drinks and biscuits, and some fruit. Would you possibly be able to organise that for tomorrow? Mineral water, juice, chocolate biscuits and grapes are always a good idea. Unfortunately, I won't be able to manage this today, as I won't be getting back from my meeting until late. Please could you drop me a quick line to say that you've got everything.          "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
6E. Correcting notes
Correct the notes below. Pay attention to spelling and correct English. Note: while it may be acceptable to write without capitals in private emails, in official communications in the office it is important to use capitals.
we are out of paper for the photocopier. please could you order some more? we also need black and red ink cartridges, biros and paper clips please can you ask Paper & Co and Paperwork for quotes? james king Sarah Miller from Salt & Sons called to cancel ur appointment tomorrow afternoon. She would like arrange a new apointment with you. Unfortunately, there is no gap in hair scedule this week, as she away on busness for the rest of the week. She is available too meat u next week, however. Please could you let me no when u would like too meet Ms Miller next week? Margaret Decker Ex 7. Business Letters
7A. The chronological course of an order process
Read the texts below and match a) to e) to 1 to 5.
1. Quote request 3. Order/Contract 4. Order confirmation a) A sales assistant offers a product at a given price.
b) A customer requests the price of a particular product.
c) Sets out the cost of the product bought. d) A customer orders a product from a sales assistant. e) A sales assistant confirms an order to a customer.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
7B. Quote request – building blocks for emails
Read the email and then match a) to e) to 1 to 5.
Dear Sir or Madam, Please could you send me a quote for the following items: 1. 10 x boxes of index cards2. 5 x boxes of photocopier paper3. 100 x pencils4. 20 x ink cartridges Yours faithfully, 1. From: 2. To: 3. Cc: 4. Bcc: 5. Re: Note: Cc stands for Carbon copy; Bcc stands for blind carbon copy; Re stands for Regarding. a) This field is for the recipient's email address.
b) This field contains the reason for writing.
c) This field is for the sender's email address.
d) This field is for additional recipient addresses that all recipients can see.
e) This field is for additional recipient addresses that only the sender can see. 7C. The quote – money vocabulary
Read the email below, then mark all the terms relating to "money" and explain them together orally in the group. The focus of this exercise is to be able to understand how to read a quote, such as, understanding the symbols (x, @, £, % and decimal point); using correct terminology for UK money verbally (one pound twenty-five) and working out how each item has been calculated.
Dear Mrs Martins, We are pleased to provide you with the following quote in connection with your request: boxes of index cards boxes of photocopier paper £ 240,00
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
7D. The order – compound nouns
Read the letter below and underline or highlight all the compound nouns relating to "office materials". Then break down the compounds and note the class of word of each element in the The first question has been done for you.
Bridgewater Office Supplies24 Garden RoadWarmingtonWM2 1BB 2nd May 2012
Order
I would like to order the following items in accordance with your Quote No 001: 1. 10 x cartons of index cards2. 5 x cartons of photocopier paper3. 100 x pencils4. 20 x ink cartridges Yours faithfully, 1. Index carda) index, cardb) noun, noun 7E. Thought shower/thought pooling: compound nouns
Put your heads together and come up with other compound nouns on the topic of "office stationery and equipment". (For example, paperclips, notepads, answering machine, etc). Add these to a spidergram on the board and in your own notepads. These can be added to as you progress through the course.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
7F. Order confirmation – terms for quantities
Read the letter below, then mark all the terms expressing quantity and explain them together orally in the group. Bridgewater Office Supplies Suzie Martins 19 Beach RoadWarmingtonWM2 1BB 4th May 2012
Order confirmation
Dear Mrs Martins, We hereby confirm your order of 02/05/2012 as follows: boxes of index cards boxes of photocopier paper £ 240,00
Your estimated delivery date is 12th May 2012.
7G. Thought shower/thought pooling: designations of quantity
Put your heads together and come up with other words for quantities (e.g. packet/s) in relation to the topic of "office stationery and equipment". Add these to a spidergram on the board and in your own notepads. These can be added to as you progress through the course.
Teacher's tip: you could bring in realia for this exercise.
7H. Invoice – terms for quantities
Read the following invoice and match up the terms 1-10.
Number 2 has been done for you.
1. Recipient's address Bridgewater Office Supplies 2. Invoicing party's Tel. (03682) 123789 3. Invoice number 4. VAT registration 5. Unit prices and total Delivery note No: 007 7. Delivery note number Summary and cost breakdown for office supplies delivered: boxes of index cards boxes of photocopier paper 9. Description of the 10. Own bank details £ 240,00
Payable in full immediately.
Bridgewater Office Supplies, ABC Bank, Sort code: 11-22-33, Account: 1011 9099 "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
7I. Write your own business email/letter
In pairs refer to the above four texts (letters and emails) representing the process of asking for a quote (by email) through to the invoice (letter). Depending on time and ability, you can choose either to write one letter/email each or recreate the four texts. Partner A: You want to order the following office supplies for your company: 1 box of Post-it note blocks, 200 packs of staples and 50 biros.
Partner B: You sell office supplies.
Teacher's tip: you could use the email and letter templates above for the students to write on, by downloading
and adapting the texts from the Meet the Need web site. Ex 8. Vocabulary Training: In The Office – Let's Get Started!
8A. Thought shower/Thought pooling: the work station
What items are there at a workstation in an office? What terms can you come up with as a group? Add the items to a spidergram on the board and in your own Teacher's tip: you could bring in pictures for review purposes.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 9. In The Office – The Workstation
9A. Matching words and pictures
Take a look at the photo and match the words from the box below to the items you can see.
Christian Seidel desk calendar
office chair
business card
keyboard
highlighter
9B. Verbs for office tasks
Read the words in the box below and fill in the gaps in the text below.
put holes in
call (back)
1. Mary, do you have a pair of scissors I could use, by any chance? I'd like to this newspaper article about our company.
2. Where's my hole-puncher? I'm sure I left it by the stapler yesterday. I really need to these photocopies.
3. My tray is full again. I really need to these documents later.
the bottom part of this photocopy using scissors.
5. David, please could you lend me your ruler for a minute? I'd like to a couple of details in this memo.
the individual sheets with a stapler or paper clips. Otherwise it won't be long before something goes missing.
7. Oh, I really need to . She's got my answering machine twice now! 8. Excuse me, Brian. Do you have a highlighter, by any chance? I can't find mine, and I'd like to a couple of things in this text.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 10. Guessing Game: "In Other Words"
Repetition and consolidation of (specialist) vocabulary Number of participants: at least six (three per team)
1 sand timer (or a stopwatch), 1 sheet of paper and 1 pen for scoring, or, in a group, chalk and a Rules of play
Variant 1

s The course group is split into two teams, A and B.
s The cards are laid face down on the table.
s One player from each team sits at the table.
s The team A player takes a card and attempts to describe the bold, underlined term without using the words listed below it, or parts of them. The team B player sits alongside him/her and ensures that the team A player abides by the rules. Hand movements and noises to make the description easier are not allowed.
s Team A must correctly guess as many terms as they can before the sand timer runs out. Once the timer has run out, the two players at the table switch roles.
s Every correct guess wins team A a point. s If team A does not guess a term or if the player at the table does not know the term on a card, that player may take another card in its place and at any time. s The instructor notes the score.
s If the team A player uses one of the words listed on the card and the team B player notices this, team A's turn ends immediately. s The team A player then becomes the monitor for the team B player, and team B take their turn at guessing the terms.
s The winners are the team with the most points after a period of time decided before start- ing play (at least 20 mins). Variant 2
s The course group can also be split into several groups of 2 teams so that everyone can play at the same time. This option is better for larger course groups. This increases the talking time for each participant considerably.
Guessing game: "In other words"
USB memory stick
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Guessing game: "In other words"
Office chair
Petty cash
Guessing game: "In other words"
Clear plastic folder
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Guessing game: "In other words"
Break room
Fountain pen
Glue stick
Guessing game: "In other words"
put someone through To punch holes
To staple
To photocopy
attach (together) To highlight
To order (place an order)
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Guessing game: "In other words"
To instruct
To underline
To staple together
To rub out
To sharpen
To fill in
Ex 11. Find The Matching Cards
Repetition and consolidation of (specialist) vocabulary Number of participants: at least four (two per team)
Preparation: copy & cut out the cards, laminate if desired
Rules of play
Variant 1

s The course group is split into two teams, A and B.
s The cards are laid face down on the table and shuffled.
s A player from team A goes first, turning over two cards. s The aim is to find the word that matches the picture, and vice versa.
s If the picture and word match, team A keep the cards. Team A can then turn over two s If the picture and the word do not match, team A's turn is over, and team B get to turn two s All the players should take turns within their groups so that everyone gets to play.
s The team with the most matched pairs at the end wins. The game finishes when all the picture and word cards have been matched.
Variant 2
s The course group can also be split into two groups of 2 teams so that everyone can play at the same time. This option is better for larger course groups. Variant 3
s The game can be expanded upon by getting a player successfully matching a picture and a word card to form a sentence using the term in question. This can also be used to practise and consolidate tenses, (colour) adjectives, etc.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Block of Post-it notes "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
(waste paper basket) Overhead projector Clear plastic folder Correction roller Application portfolio "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Contents Table for Construction Chapter
Ex 1. Construction Sector Jobs . 158
1A. Professions . 158 1B. Typical tasks . 159 1C. Research: further tasks and activities for workers in the construction field . 159 1D. Presentation: further tasks and activities . 159 1E. Requirements for people who want to work in construction . 160 Ex 2. On The Construction Site: The Bricklayer . 162
2A. The job of a bricklayer . 162 2B. Assigning titles . 163 2C. Nine steps to building a house . 164 2D. Research: tools of the trade . 164 2E. Presentation: tools of the trade . 164 Ex 3. On-Site Safety . 165
3A. Personal protective equipment (PPE) . 165 3B. In what way does personal protective equipment protect you? . 166 3C. Protective equipment in use . 166 Table of Contents
Ex 4. Health And Safety In The Construction Sector . 167
4A. Research: health and safety on the construction site . 167 4B. Presentation: health and safety on the construction site . 167 4C. Accidents caused by vehicles . 167 4D. Key issues . 168 Ex 5. Experience In The Profession . 169
5A. An interview with Linda Hofer . 169 5B. Portrait . 170 5C. Video: female workers in the construction sector . 170 5D. Discussion: female workers in the construction sector . 170 Ex 6. A Day On The Construction Site . 171
6A. Listening: a typical daily routine . 171 6B. True or false? . 171 6C. Construction work disasters . 171 "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Construction Sector Fact Sheet
Under UK health and safety laws every construction worker – regardless of their status in this country
– has the right to good practice, legal standards and working conditions. To clarify: even if a person working in construction is not legally allowed to work in this country due to immigration restrictions, that person is still entitled to the same health and safety protection as his or her colleagues. The Health and Safety Executive has a web site dedicated to giving information, advice and guidance regarding all aspects of health and safety in different professional sectors, including construction. The target audience is made up of employers and employees – including special information for overseas workers about their rights and responsibilities. Information is also available in Polish, Romanian, Hindi, Punjabi and Gujurati and for many other languages there are links to health and safety information leaflets. It is very important that a person who wishes to work in construction is aware of, and protected from, the hazards of working in such a sector. Advice is given about protecting against safety hazards such as, when working at height and working with dangerous machinery, and health hazards such as, when dealing with asbestos and working with substances that can cause respiratory diseases or breathing difficulties. The web site link is: http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/index.htm.
In the construction industry the range of jobs and professions is immense and it is not possible in this space to cover the profile of each and every one. According to http://www.careersinconstruction.
com, the sectors within the industry are: architecture, building services, construction management, engineering, environmental services and surveying. A construction manager could hope to get from £27,000 to over £45,000 per annum depending on experience and senior managers can earn more than £70,000 per annum. A very useful resource to use for a lot of information about different jobs in the industry is the UK National Career Service's web site: One just has to click on the relevant job title, such as ‘bricklayer' to gain information about what the job involves, starting salary (£15,000 + per annum), typical working hours (39 per week), entry requirements, courses, training and development. A further link that may be of interest is: www.
Although formal qualifications may not be needed for some jobs, people with some on-site experience are at an advantage. (English and maths GCSEs may also be a requirement.) Apprenticeship schemes are the most common way to get qualified in the UK and they combine study at a college with experience on-site for a period of 2-3 years (4 years in Scotland). For more information about apprenticeships, higher apprenticeships and specialist apprenticeships and the jobs that they do, click on the following link: http://www.cskills.org and for a related useful video link: Fact Sheet
Ex 1. Construction Sector Jobs
In the construction sector you can find different professions. Match the jobs or professions with the photographs in the boxes below. stove fitter
floor layer
ground building specialist/civil contractor/engineer
stucco plasterer and interior walling specialist
plate and tile setter
form worker
Teacher's tip: if you work in a college with a construction department, you could arrange a visit to enable
interested learners to see what skills they can learn at college in order to progress into the field of construction. "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
1B. Typical tasks
Who does what? Match the typical tasks in the sentences below with some of the job titles from exercise 1A. measures, cuts and installs flooring materials (such as hardwood) in homes and businesses.
makes temporary wooden or metal moulds into which wet cement is poured to make concrete walls, staircases, beams, bridges, etc.
installs gas stoves or multi-fuel or wood burning stoves.
builds interior and exterior walls by using bricks, and sand, cement and lime to make mortar.
uses special materials to protect the inside of a building from heat loss or noise from the outside.
lays a surface (called paving) made up of flat stones laid in a pattern.
1C. Research: further tasks and activities for workers in the construction field
Do you know about any other tasks/activities for the jobs above? Carry out research on a construction job of your choice/or one that your teacher may give you. You can use the internet for the task if it is available.
You can find informative videos on www.videojug.com under DIY & Home. You can also find informative videos on www.youtube.com if you enter the job title name in the search area.
1D. Presentation: further tasks and activities
Present the results of your research work to the class. If possible, use visual aids with your presentation (e.g., images or video clips on the internet, or by using Teacher's tip for 1C: if there is a construction department where you teach, you could ask them for web site
addresses or information to help the learners. 1E. Requirements for people who want to work in construction
Read the list below of important vocational requirements for people who want to work at a construction site. Work with your partner and ask for the missing Model:
Question: What does it take to carry heavy material?
Answer: You need a strong constitution.
Question: Why do you need a strong constitution?
Answer: To carry heavy material.
Person A
What does it take to.?

Why do you need.?
It takes.
a strong constitution carry heavy material.
carry material and work in all types of weather.
physical agility and a good sense of balance be able to work on a scaffold.
manual dexteritygood eye-hand co-ordination fit prefabricated components and conduct plastering work.
be able to work with cement, lime, etc.
spatial imagination build walls and carry out renovation and technical understandingan ability to co-operate work together in groups.
prevent accidents on construction sites.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Person B
What does it take to.?

Why do you need.?
It takes.
to .
carry heavy material.
physical endurance carry material and work in any type of weather.
physical agility and a good sense of balancemanual dexterity plaster manually and take measurements.
fit prefabricated components and conduct plastering work.
non-sensitive skin be able to work with cement, lime, etc.
spatial imagination technical understanding work with machines (e.g., diggers and excavators).
work together in groups.
a good ability to react prevent accidents on construction sites.
Ex 2. On The Construction Site: The Bricklayer
2A. The job of a bricklayer
Read the text below about the job profile of a bricklayer. Use a dictionary to Job profile – Bricklayer
1.
Bricklayers build civil engineering structures and parts of structures from various construction
materials and/or prefabricated elements, as well as carrying out repairs, restoration and conversion work on such structures. Civil engineering structures include the likes of residential housing, public buildings, industrial and transport infrastructure, bridges and power station structures.
2.
Bricklayers erect masonry and buildings according to technical documents such as construction
drawings, plans and sketches from a wide variety of building materials such as bricks, stone and concrete (reinforced or otherwise). They use mixers to produce mortar for bricklaying and plastering. In interior work especially they use fillers and insulating materials. A bricklayer's tools include a trowel, a plane, a mortar mixing vessel and a float. They check their work using a spirit level and a perpendicular. [.] 3.
When a structure is being built, there are other specialists within the industry, such as form workers
and plasterers, and auxiliary industries, such as painters, who work alongside bricklayers, as well as semi-skilled workers and assistants.
4.
Bricklayers lay the foundations of a building in the construction pit, which is usually excavated by
diggers in accordance with the building plan. Once the concrete used for the purpose has set, they build the basement walls out of concrete or moulded concrete blocks. They ensure the damp-proofing of the building by applying a protective coating of paint to the outer walls of the basement. The bricklayers build a concrete solid ceiling over the basement walls. This is formed, reinforced and cast or can also be delivered to the building site as a prefabricated building element. The bearing walls are then built. These can be brick-built on site or assembled from prefabricated components delivered to the site. As well as bearing walls, the bricklayers also build non-bearing partition walls, which likewise may be either brick-built or assembled.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
5.
When building brick and concrete walls, bricklayers work to 1:50 scale execution plans (site foreman's
plans). The following working steps are necessary when building a brick wall. After scarifying the ground for the wall, the bricklayers lay the first set of bricks into a mortar bed. They arrange the individual bricks using string, a perpendicular and a spirit level, and join them together with a layer of mortar. Mortar is a mixture of sand, water and cement or lime that sets to bind the brickwork together. [.] When building walls, ceilings and foundations, bricklayers use plans marking all the openings for doors and windows, as well as grooves and cut-outs for gas, water and electricity connections. The bricklayers then plaster the walls and ceilings using grout [.]. Bricklayers plaster both interiors and exteriors in single or multiple layers either using plastering machines or by hand. 6.
As part of their finishing work, bricklayers lay a screed (which is a strong layer of concrete around 5
cm thick) for the subsequent floor. They fit door and window frames and build the stairs. They also concrete in manholes and cleaning ducts, and lay sewage pipes.
Source: http://www.berufslexikon.at/pdf/pdf.php?id=138&berufstyp=1 (slightly shortened edited and translated from German to English) 2B. Assigning titles
The text above is divided into paragraphs. Match each title listed below to the correct paragraph. Write the titles in the lines labelled: 1 to 6 in the text above. Other professions in the construction industry
Other work
Important construction materials and tools
The main working tasks of a bricklayer
From the foundations to the walls
2C. Nine steps to building a house
In the text there is a description of how a bricklayer builds a house. Can you find it? Put the tasks below into the correct order by writing step numbers: 1-9 in the first column. Step one has been done for you (1).
The foundations of the building are laid.
A concrete ceiling is then built on top.
The basement walls are damp-proofed.
1. The construction pit is excavated.
After the ceiling is formed and reinforced, it is then cast.
The basement walls are built.
The bearing walls are then built.
The ceiling is formed and reinforced.
Partition (non-loadbearing) walls are then brick-built or assembled.
2D. Research: tools of the trade
You have read about some tools that a bricklayer uses in his everyday work. Research further tools from catalogues or the internet. For internet catalogues you can try, for example: www.tooled-up.com or www.toolventure.co.uk/trades/bricklaying/ or 2E. Presentation: tools of the trade
Present the results of your research for exercise 2E to your group. Use visual aids for your presentation, such as PowerPoint or pictures from catalogues or the Extension: you can also make up your own picture dictionary to help you learn the tools which are difficult to remember. Teacher's tip for 2A: you may wish to simplify the text depending on the level of the learners, but it is im-
portant to keep as many of the technical nouns and expressions as possible – especially for those learners who are keen to investigate working in construction. "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 3. On-Site Safety
3A. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
On a construction site there are a lot of sources of danger. That is why employers have to provide personal protective equipment and employees have to use it. What items of protective equipment do you know? Label the pictures with the words from the box below.
, fotolialerüleum N safety helmet (hard hat)
steel-capped protection boots (toe tectors)
ear protectors/defenders
dust mask
work gloves
work garment
3B. In what way does personal protective equipment protect you?
What does a sahelmet protect you from? Match the protective clothing items from the box in exercise 3A to the correct sentences. Write the item at the beginning of the sentence to complete it. The first one has been done for you. The body garment protects the body and the skin from chemical substances, for example.
protects the ears from hearing damage.
protects the head from falling items.
protects the feet from falling or sharp items.
protects the eyes from wood shards or chemical burns.
protects the bronchial system from dust, gases or vapours.
protects the hands from injuries or aggressive substances.
3C. Protective equipment in use
Connect the questions to the correct answers. When do you have to wear a safety helmet? When do you have to wear protective During the use of cranes, structural work (when walls and ceilings are concreted) and during the construction of canals. This is When do you have to wear work gloves? During grinding and cutting work, e.g., with an angular grinder or a circular saw.
When do you have to wear steel capped For example, during demolition work protection boots? with lots of dust.
When do you have to wear a work For example, when working with an angular grinder, a circular saw or a machine for cutting bricks.
When do you have to wear a dust mask? When carrying heavy items or when concreting and plastering.
When do you have to wear ear protectors?  All the time. It should be tear-resistant and close-fitting.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 4. Health And Safety In The Construction Sector
4A. Research: health and safety on the construction site
In pairs or small groups carry out research on the internet and find out about official regulations for the protection of people working on construction sites. What information can you find, for example, on fire safety or working Useful web site: www.hse.gov.uk/construction/safetytopics 4B. Presentation: health and safety on the construction site
Report your findings from your research to the class.
Extension 1: Create posters/PowerPoints warning of the specific dangers of working on a construction site.
Extension 2: In groups, prepare PowerPoint presentations to cover the different aspects of health and safety rules on construction sites.
4C. Accidents caused by vehicles
Read the texts below from the web site listed above and answer the questions.
1. An average of seven workers die each year as a result of accidents involving vehicles or mobile plant on construction sites. A further ninety-three people are seriously injured. Multiple choice: tick the correct description for text 1. This text.
a) gives statistics.
b) explains how to prevent accidents.
2. Vehicles are cars, vans, lorries, low-loaders. Mobile plant includes excavators, lift trucks and site dumpers, etc. The law states that a construction site should be organised so that vehicles and pedestrians can move around safely. Good planning and management of transport operations throughout the construction process can, and should, prevent construction site vehicle accidents. Poor planning and control is the root cause of many construction vehicle accidents.
a) What is an excavator? b) What is a pedestrian? c) What is the root cause of many construction vehicle accidents? 3. Key issues in dealing with traffic management on construction sites are: s Keeping pedestrians and vehicles apart s Minimising vehicle movements s Turning vehicles s Signs and instructions a) What is another word for key in this text? b) How do you think pedestrians and vehicles can be kept apart? c) What does visibility mean? 4D. Key issues
Write the descriptions giving advice under the correct key issue in the table below. An example for each column has been given to help you.
To keep pedestrians and
To ensure good visibility, a
vehicles apart, provide:
construction site needs:
separate entry and exit gateways for pedestrians and aids for the drivers such as mirrors, CCTV cameras and reversing alarms. s separate entry and exit gateways for pedestrians and vehicles. s aids for the drivers such as mirrors, CCTV cameras and reversing alarms.
s trained signallers to control vehicle manoeuvres.
s pedestrians on site to wear high-visibility clothing.
s firm, level, well-drained pedestrian walkways that take a direct route where possible.
s clearly signed crossing points where walkways cross roadways.
s good lighting so that drivers and pedestrians can see each other easily – especially after sunset or in bad weather.
"Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 5. Experience In The Profession
5A. An interview with Linda Hofer
Read the text below, which is from an authentic interview with a woman who has worked in the construction industry.
Interviewer: Until a few years back, you worked in the construction sector for quite some time. How did you end up in that profession? Interviewee: Well, in my case both my father and my grandfather – and in fact a total of 6 generations before me – had already worked in the construction sector. So I do just have something of a genetic predisposition to it, and so I came into the business, too. That said, I have no technical training myself, but I am qualified in business, so I just headed the company and was self-employed as a building contractor. Interviewer: Tell me, what did you find particularly challenging or difficult about your work?Interviewee: It is just the way it is that you have to keep studying on a regular basis so that you are on top of the latest regulations and the ones that have been tightened-up. There's always a lot of change going on, and that's the way it should be, but it does mean that you really have to be on your toes all the time. And for me as a self-employed person there were a lot of things, like tax issues, financial planning and social insurance rules – all those things in the background that employees don't need to pay any attention to – that were quite difficult to deal with and sometimes really stressful for me.
Interviewer: What did you like most about your work?Interviewee: Well, the nice thing in the construction industry is the recognition of achievement. When you've built or restored something beautiful, then you get something back. And you can also take great pleasure, for example, in properly restoring the facade of an old building, which you get to bring back to its former glory – and that's something that everyone can see. So what you get is the feeling that you've created something with a lasting value, at least for a while – decades maybe, all being well – and that's a nice Interviewer: Thank you for an interesting interview. 5B. Portrait
Read the interview again and fill in the portrait.
Name: Linda Hofer
s Reasons for choosing this job: s Education/Training: s Her job title: s Specific challenges: s The great things about her job: 5C. Video: female workers in the construction sector
For the building of the Olympic site in London, female as well as male workers were employed in construction. Watch the video where some female construction workers talk about their jobs.
www.YouTube/Women (Your teacher will put ‘Women in Construction' and click on the Havering College link.) 5D. Discussion: female workers in the construction sector
Discuss the video you have watched. What jobs do they do? What are their experiences? Do you know any women who work in this area of construction? What are your experiences? What is you opinion of women working in the construction industry? Why? Teacher's tip: you could show other video clips from the same YouTube site and research women working in
the construction sector. You could show a clip from the film "Flash Dance" and lead a discussion about men's attitudes to women working in construction – then and now. "Meet the Need" Compendium – Teacher‘s Guide
Ex 6. A Day On The Construction Site
6A. Listening: a typical daily routine
This is an interview with a boss of a construction company. She is talking about a typical daily routine. 6B. True or false?
Listen to the audio clip again and decide if each sentence below is true or false. Tick only one box for each sentence.
True False
1. A working day is eight hours. 2. At the start, the workers gather at the site or in the site office.
3. Workers have to work in all weather conditions.
4. Every worker has to write a daily progress report in the evenings.
5. Workers work in teams.
6. Workers never have to collect building supplies.
6C. Construction work disasters
Watch the video showing many different jobs in construction. However, there are many interesting scenes with lots of construction industry failures to see. Can you see them and explain what is wrong? www.YouTube.com/Funny (Your teacher will type in, ‘Funny Construction Work'.
Teacher's tip for 6B: you could create further multiple-choice questions. You can download the audio tran-
script from the Meet the Need web site for reading related activities. Teacher's tip for 6C: this video is very amusing and should make the learners laugh. They can be encouraged
to express what construction disasters they can see and how not to do things. The clip is about 5 minutes long. (There are many funny type video clips, but the one to clickon is of the lorry halfway down a cliff.)

Source: http://languageforwork.ecml.at/Portals/48/documents/lfw-web_item-15_meet-the-need_materials-compendium.pdf

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