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Mics4 preliminary findings





Monitoring the situation of children and women Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey
SUMMARY REPORT
Federal Republic of Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
In Memory
This report is dedicated to the 24 people killed, and those who were injured, by the bomb attack on UN House in Abuja on the 26th August 2011. Amongst the people who lost their lives was Johnson Awotunde who devoted his time, energy and personal resources to the success of the survey until his untimely departure. MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
The Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in 2011 by the National Bureau of Statistics. Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Government of Nigeria through the National Bureau of Statistics. MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The Nigeria MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children and women and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. Additional information on the global MICS project may be obtained fro National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) 2011, Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 Summary Report, ABUJA NIGERIA. MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Summary Table of Findings
Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators
Nigeria, 2011.
Indicator
Indicator
Indicator
CHILD MORTALITY
Child Mortality

Under-five mortality rate 158 per thousand Infant mortality rate NUTRITION
Nutritional

Underweight prevalence: Moderate and Severe (- 2 Stunting prevalence: Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) Wasting prevalence: Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Continued breastfeeding at 1 year Continued breastfeeding at 2 years Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods Iodized salt consumption CHILD HEALTH
Vaccinations
Tuberculosis immunization coverage Polio immunization coverage Immunization coverage for diphtheria, pertussis and Measles immunization coverage Hepatitis B immunization coverage Yellow fever immunization coverage Care of illness
Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding Care seeking for suspected pneumonia Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia Households with at least one ITN Children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated Anti-Malarial treatment Pregnant women sleeping under insecticide-treated WATER AND SANITATION
Water and
Use of improved drinking water sources Sanitation

Use of improved sanitation facilities REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
Contraception

Adolescent fertility rate and unmet
Early childbearing Contraceptive prevalence rate Maternal
Antenatal care coverage with at least once by skilled personnel Antenatal care coverage at least four times by any Skilled attendance at delivery MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Indicator
Indicator
Indicator
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Child

Early child development index Development
Attendance to early childhood education EDUCATION
Education

Literacy Among young women Primary school net attendance rate Secondary school net attendance rate Gender parity index (primary school) Gender parity index (secondary school) CHILD PROTECTION
Birth

Birth registration Child Labour
Violent discipline Discipline
Early Marriage
Marriage before age 18 Young women age 15-19 currently married or in union Female genital
Approval for female genital mutilation/
mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) Prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) among women Prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) among girls HIV/AIDS, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR
HIV/AIDS

Comprehensive knowledge about HIV knowledge
and attitudes
Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission Accepting attitudes towards people living Women who know a place where to be Women who have been tested for HIV and know the results Sex with non regular partner (women age Condom use with non-regular partners (women age 15-24) years) MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table of Contents

Summary Table of Findings . iii
Table of Contents . v
List of Tables . vii
List of Figures . viii
Acknowledgements . ix
1 INTRODUCTION
SURVEY OBJECTIVES . 1 SAMPLE DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY . 1 THE QUESTIONNAIRES . 2 2 FINDINGS
CHILD MORTALITY . 3
Infant and Under-5 Mortality Rates . 3
NUTRITION . 4
Child Nutritional Status . 4
Breastfeeding . 4
Salt Iodization . 5
CHILD HEALTH . 5
Immunization . 5
Care of Illness . 6
Malaria Prevention . 6
Malaria Treatment . 7
WATER AND SANITATION. 7
Use of improved water source and sanitation . 7
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH . 8
Adolescent fertility rate, Total fertility rate and early childbearing. 8
Contraceptive prevalence rate and Unmet needs . 8
Maternal health . 8
CHILD DEVELOPMENT . 9
Early child development index . 9
Early childhood education . 9
LITERACY AND EDUCATION . 9
Literacy among Young Women . 9
School Attendance . 10
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
CHILD PROTECTION . 11
Birth registration . 11
Child Labour . 11
Violent Discipline . 11
Early Marriage . 12
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting . 12
HIV/AID, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR . 13
HIV/AIDS. 13
Sexual Behaviour . 14
APPENDIX. 15
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
List of Tables

Table 1:
Sample Size and Response Rates . 2 Questionnaire Content . 2 Findings for selected reproductive health indicators . 8 Findings for selected sexual behaviour indicators for women age 15-24 years . 14

List of Tables in Appendix

Table CM.2:
Child mortality. 15 Nutritional status of children . 16 Breastfeeding . 17 Vaccinations in first year of life . 18 Care seeking for suspected pneumonia and antibiotic use during suspected pneumonia . 19 Household availability of insecticide treated nets . 20 Use and sharing of sanitation facilities . 21 Adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate . 22 Antenatal care provider . 23 Assistance during delivery . 24 Literacy among young women . 25 Child labour . 26 Early marriage and polygyny . 27 Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission . 28 Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among young people . 29 Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS . 30 MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
List of Figures

Figure 1.0: Map of Nigeria Showing the six geo-Political Region . 1
Figure 1.1
Under-5 Mortality and Infant Mortality Rates, by residence . 3 Under-5 Mortality Rates and Infant Mortality Rates by sex . 3 Infant Mortality Rates by geopolitical zone . 3 Under-5 Mortality Rates by geopolitical zone . 3 Figure 2.1: Percentage of children under 5 who are underweight, stunted and wasted . 4 Figure 2.2: Percentage of children under 5 who are underweight by geopolitical zone . 4 Figure 3: Selected breastfeeding Indicators . 4 Percentage of households that consume iodized salt by geopolitical zone . 5 Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received the recommended vaccinations by 12 month 5 Percentage of children under 5 with diarrhoea who received ORT with continued feeding . 6 Percentage of children under 5 with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotic . 6 Percentage of households with at least one ITN, percentage of children under 5 and percentage of pregnant women who sleep under ITNs . 6 Percentage of children under 5 with fever who received any anti-malarial treatment . 7 Percentage of household members using improved sources of drinking water . 7 Figure 11: Percentage of household members using improved sanitation facilities . 7 Figure 12: Antenatal care coverage . 8 Delivery care. 8 Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track for indicated domains 9 Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are currently attending early childhood education by wealth quintiles . 9 Literacy rates among young women age 15-24 years by wealth quintiles. 9 Figure 17.1: Primary and secondary school net attendance ratios (NAR) (adjusted) . 10 Figure 17.2: Primary and secondary school NAR (adjusted) by residence and wealth quintiles, . 10 Figure 18: Gender parity index (GPI) in primary and secondary school . 10 Percentage of children under 5 whose birth has been registered by mother education and residence 11 Percentage of children age 5-14 years who are involved in child labour . 11 Percentage of children age 2-14 years according to the discipline method used . 11 Percentage of women age 20-49 years who were married before age 18, by wealth quintiles . 12 Figure 23.1: Prevalence of FGM/C among women . 12 Figure 23.2: Prevalence of FGM/C among girls . 12 Figure 23.3: Percentage of women who approve FGM/C practice . 12 Figure 24: Comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention, for women age 15-49 years, by education and residence . 13 Knowledge about HIV mother-to-child transmission, for women age 15-49 years, by education and residence . 13 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV, for women age 15-49 years . 14 Percentage of women who know a place for HIV testing and who have been tested and received the results in the last 12 months . 14 MICS Nigeria, 2011
Page viii
Summary Report
Many individuals and organizations contributed to the success of this report. This report would not have been possible without the commitment of United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) joined by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) which provided technical and financial assistance for the project, the contributions of the staff of the National Bureau of Statistics that participated in the survey from planning to the report writing stage, and the survey respondents who were willing and actually share personal information for the benefit of children and women in Nigeria. The NBS acknowledges the support and cooperation from all other stakeholders who took part in the project in various forms. These include the National Planning Commission, the MDG Office, the National Population Commission, the Federal Ministries of Health, Education, Women Affairs, Information and Communication, and various Non Government Organizations. The role of other development partners which include UNDP, DFID and the World Bank is hereby appreciated. Special thanks go to the trio of Isiaka Olarewaju (Head of Household Surveys and MICS4 National Coordinator), Tunde Adebisi (Sampling Expert) and Folorunso Busari (Programer/Analyst), who led other staff in the planning and implementation of the project. Dr. Yemi Kale Statistician-General MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report

This executive summary presents various results and indicators on the key topics covered in the MICS Nigeria 20111.
A full report is also available scheduled for publication in the first quarter of 2013.
1.1.
SURVEY OBJECTIVES
The 2011 Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) has the following primary objectives:  To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Nigeria; To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established in the Millennium Declaration and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action; To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Nigeria and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems; To generate data on the situation of children and women, including the identification of vulnerable groups and of disparities, to inform policies and interventions. Figure 1.0
MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING THE SIX GEO-POLITICAL REGIONS
SAMPLE DESIGN AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY
The sample for the 2011 Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the 36 states of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory as well as for the six geo-political zones of Nigeria namely South West, South East, South-South, North West, North East and North Central. Among those states, a total of 1,480 clusters were randomly selected. A total sample of 29,151 households was canvassed but 29,077 households were successfully interviewed thereby yielding household response rate of 97.7 percent. The shortfall in the response rate was due to households that moved residence or not at home throughout the period of the survey and those that refused to answer. 1 For more information on the definitions, numerators, denominators and algorithms of indicators covered in MICS4 see MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table 1: Sample Size and Response Rates
Number completed Response rate Household questionnaire Questionnaire for individual women (age 15-49) Questionnaire for children under five THE QUESTIONNAIRES
Three questionnaires were used for data collection. The questionnaires were the standard MICS4 questionnaires2 which were later adapted to the Nigeria context. Table 2: Questionnaire Content
Household
Questionnaire for Individual
Questionnaire for
Women (age 15-49)
Children under Five
Household Listing Form Woman's Background Birth Registration Water and Sanitation Desire for Last Birth Household Characteristics Maternal and Newborn Health Insecticide Treated Nets Illness Symptoms Indoor Residual Spraying Child Discipline Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence Marriage/Union Sexual Behaviour HIV/AIDS 2 Sfor standard MICS4 questionnaires. MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report





FINDINGS
CHILD MORTALITY
Infant and Under-Five Mortality Rates
Infant and under five mortality rates were calculated Figure 1.1 Under-5 Mortality Rates and Infant
based on an indirect estimation technique. Estimates of Mortality Rates (refer to mid-2006),
the mortality rates refer, on average, to mid-2006. Nigeria, 2011
Figure 1.1 shows an infant mortality rate of 97 per thousand live birth and an under-5 mortality rate of 158 per thousand at national level. Both rates are higher in rural areas than in urban with infant mortality rate at 68 per thousand in urban and 110 per thousand in rural areas. Under-5 mortality rate is 106 per thousand in urban as against 182 per thousand in rural. The infant mortality rate for male child is 106 per Under-5 Mortality Rate Infant Mortality Rate thousand against 86 per thousand for the female child. The under-five mortality rate is 170 per thousand and 144 per thousand for the male and female child respectively (Fig 1.2). Figure 1.2 Under-5 Mortality Rates and Infant
Mortality Rates by Sex (refer to mid-2006),
Nigeria, 2011
Infant and under-5 mortality rates are lowest in the South West zone with 55 and 83 per thousand respectively while for North West, rates are 123 and 208 per thousand respectively (Fig 1.3 and 1.4). Level of wealth and education also has an impact on the mortality rates (Table CM.2). Under-5 Mortality Rate Infant Mortality Rate Fig. 1.3; Infant Mortality Rate, by Geo-political
Figure 1.4; Under-5 Rate, by Geo-political Zone,
Zone, Nigeria, 2011
Nigeria, 2011
N-West N-East N-Cent S-East S-South S-West
N-West N-East N-Cent S-East S-South S-West


MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
2.2 NUTRITION

Child Nutritional Status
The key indicators for monitoring the Fig 2.1: Percentage of Chi l
d
nutritional status of a child under 5 are ren under 5 who are
underweight, stunted, an
d wasted, Nigeria, 2011
underweight, stunting and wasting (Fig 2.1 In Nigeria, 24 percent of children under 5 are underweight (9 percent severely), 36 percent are stunted (19 percent severely) and 10 percent are wasted (3 percent Malnutrition rates in the North West and East regions are higher than in the South Children in rural areas are more likely to have nutritional deficiencies than those in Figure 2.2: Percentage of Children under 5 who are
urban areas with respectively 19 percent underweight, by Geo-political Zone, Nigeria, 2011
underweighted against 31 percent. Prevalence of malnutrition decreases with education of mother and as wealth status improves from poorest to richest quintiles N-West N-East N-Cent S-East S-South S-West
Only 15 percent of children 0-5 Figure 3: Selected Breastfee
ding Indicators, Nigeria, 2011
months old are exclusively breastfed as recommended by WHO and UNICEF, with very little differences between male (16 percent) and female (14 percent). Similarly, a higher percentage of children in the urban areas (21 percent) are exclusively breastfed than children in rural areas (13 percent). Percentage of exclusively breastfed children whose secondary education is about 21 breastfeeding at 1 breastfeeding at 2 solid, semi-solid or percent, while those of mothers with soft foods (children no education is about 8 percent MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Salt Iodization
Most of the households (80 percent) consume adequately iodized salt (15 parts per million) or more). North West
region has the lower iodized salt consumption level, at 63 percent (Fig 4).
Figure 4: Percentage of households that consume iodised salt, by Geo-political
Zone, Nigeria, 2011

2.3 CHILD HEALTH

Immunization
In Nigeria, almost two third (62 percent) of the
children aged 12-23 months have received BCG by the age of 12 months, but only 43 percent have Figure 5: Percentage of children age 12-23
received three doses of DPT and 46 percent have months who received the recommended
received the third dose of polio vaccine (Fig 5). vaccinations by 12 months, Nigeria, 2011
The coverage for measles vaccine is about 49 percent and yellow fever is 40 percent. It appears that 28 percent of children have received all their vaccines by the age of 12 months and one fifth (20 percent) have not received any vaccinations (Table CH.1). Overall, only a quarter (24 percent) of the children 12-23 months had vaccination cards. Vaccinations vary according to characteristics: for instance, only 10 percent of children have received all their vaccines when the mother has no education against 45 percent when she has secondary level and more. MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Care of Illness
Diarrhea.
In Nigeria, 14 percent of the children under 5 Figure 6: Percentage of children under 5 with diarrhoea who
had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the received ORT with continued feeding, Nigeria, 2011
survey. The recommended treatment for diarrhea is oral rehydration therapy (ORS packet or recommended homemade fluid or increased fluids) with continued feeding. More than a quarter (28 percent) of children under 5 who had diarrhea received ORT with continued feeding. Children in urban areas are better treated than children in rural areas (respectively, 35 percent and 26 percent, Fig Pneumonia
Figure 7: Percentage of children under 5 with suspected
Only 4 percent of children under 5 had pneumonia who received antibiotics, Nigeria, 2011
suspected pneumonia in the 2 weeks before the survey. For 40 percent of them, treatment was sought from any provider (Table CH.7). Almost half of children with suspected pneumonia (45 percent) received antibiotics. This level reaches 53 percent in urban areas while it drops to 43 percent in rural (Fig 7). Malaria Prevention
Sleeping under insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) is one of the Figure 8: Percentage of households with at least one ITN,
most effective ways of preventing percentage of children under age 5 and percentage of
malaria transmission. Particularly pregnant women who sleep under ITNs, Nigeria, 2011
vulnerable to malaria are pregnant
women and their unborn children
and children under five.
households have at least one ITN
(Fig 6). Proportion of households in
possession of areas (45 percent)
than urban areas (32 percent)
Only 16 percent of children under five sleep under ITNs (Fig 8) with almost the same proportion for Household availability Under-5s sleeping male and female. About 17 percent sleeping under ITNs of pregnant women in Nigeria sleep under ITNs. MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Malaria Treatment
The main symptom of malaria is fever. In Nigeria, 20 Figure 9: Percentage of children under 5
percent of children under age five had fever in the two with fever who received any antimalarial
weeks preceding the survey. Among these children, 45 treatment, Nigeria, Year
percent received anti-malarial medicine (Fig 9). In rural areas, malaria treatment of children with fever was 40 percent compared to 58 percent in urban areas. About 25 percent of children with fever were given Chloroquine, 6 percent were given SP/Fansidar, and only 4 percent received Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT). WATER AND SANITATION

Use of improved water source and sanitation
Overall, more than half (59 percent) of the population in Nigeria use an improved water source. The difference between
urban and rural areas is large: only 73 percent of household members in rural areas use an improved water source,
while the corresponding percentage for urban areas is 51 percent (Fig.10).
Overall, 31 percent of household members use an improved sanitation facility (not shared). The sanitation indicator
shows similar disparities as the improved source of water: only 26 percent of household members in rural areas use
improved sanitation facility against 41 percent in urban areas (Fig.11). Still, 29 percent of the population practices open
defecation (Table WS.6).
Figure 10: Percentage of household members
Figure 11: Percentage of household
using improved sources of drinking water,
members using improved sanitation
Nigeria, 2011
facilities, Nigeria, 2011
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
2.5 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

Table 3. Findings for selected reproductive health indicators, Nigeria, 2011
Adolescent Birth Rate
Per 1000 women age 15-19
Total Fertility Rate
Children per women
Early Childbearing
Contraceptive Prevalence Rate
Unmet Need
Adolescent birth rate is at 89 births for 1000 women age 15 to 19; however it reaches 170 births in Northwest region (Table RH.1). Total fertility rate is 5.7 children per women and reaches 7.2 in Northwest region. Almost a third (29 percent) of 20-24 year old women have already had a live birth. Only 18 percent of married women age 15-49 years use a contraceptive method and the unmet need for contraception (for either spacing or limiting births), is 19 percent. Maternal Health
Two third (66 percent) of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey received
antenatal care (ANC) at least once by skilled personnel (Fig.12); the majority of urban women (88 percent) received
antenatal care (ANC) at least once versus 56 percent of rural women (Table RH.6). Only 42 percent of women
received antenatal care in the North West region. Overall, 57 percent of women made the 4 antenatal care visits,
regardless of the provider, as recommended.
During delivery, 49 percent of women were attended by skill personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife or auxiliary
midwife) and 45 percent delivered in a health facility (Fig.13). Among the poorest women, only 11 percent were
attended at birth by skill personnel against 90 percent of the women from the richest households (Table RH. 9). We
observe similar patterns for delivery in health facilities.
Figure 12: Antenatal care coverage,
Figure 13: Delivery care,
Nigeria, 2011
Nigeria, 2011
At least once by skilled
Skilled attendant at
personnel
delivery
At least 4 times by any
Institutional deliveries
provider
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
2.6 CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Early Child Development Index
Young children's development in four key
domains was assessed in the survey: literacy-
Figure 14: Percentage of children age 36-59 months
numeracy, physical (motor skills, freedom of who are developmentally on track for indicated
recurrent illness), social-emotional and learning domains, Nigeria, 2011
(ability to follow simple instructions, ability to occupy herself/himself independently). The Early Child Development Index (ECDI) is the percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in at least three of Social-Emotional these four domains. In Nigeria, the ECDI score is 61 percent. Specifically, literacy-numeracy with Literacy-numeracy 32 percent is the least score among the key domains for measuring child development while physical is the highest with 93 percent (Fig 15). Early Child Dev Index Score Early Childhood Education

Early childhood education reaches 43 Figure 15: Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are
percent of children between 36 to 59 currently attending earlychildhood education by wealth
months (Fig 14). However, inequities are quintiles, Nigeria, 2011
large: eight times more children from the richest households participate in an early childhood education program compared to the children of the poorest households (respectively, 84 and 10 percent). Poorest Second
Fourth Richest

2.7 LITERACY AND EDUCATION
Literacy among young women
Overall, in Nigeria, about 66 percent of young women age 15-24 years are literate. Among Figure 16: Literacy rates among young women age
women living in the poorest households, the 15-24 years, by wealth quintiles, Nigeria, 2011
literacy rate is as low as 22 percent. In contrast, the literacy rate is 94 percent among women in the percentage of literate women is higher in the urban areas (86) than in the rural with 54 percent (Table North West and North East zones have very low literacy rates of 32 percent and 37 percent respectively as against higher rate of at least 89 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Country
percent in each of zones in the South. MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
School Attendance
School attendance is still low in Nigeria, particularly among the
secondary school age children. For instance, 70 percent of Figure 17.1. Primary and secondary
children of primary school age (6-11 years) are attending school net attendance ratios (NAR)
primary school and only 54 percent of children of secondary (adjusted), Nigeria, 2011
school age (12-17 years) are attending secondary school (Fig
Inequities exist for primary level as 87 percent of urban
children of primary age are in school versus 62 percent for
rural; however these inequities are at their highest between
the poorest households (34 percent of children are in primary)
and the richest (94 percent of children at primary school) (Fig
17.2).
Primary school NAR Secondary school NAR Figure 17.2. Primary and secondary school NAR (adjusted) by
residence and wealth quintiles, Nigeria, 2011
Primary school NAR Secondary school NAR Girls and boys are attending school to about the same extent; the Gender Parity Index (GPI) is 0.94 for Figure 18: Gender parity index (GPI) in primary
primary level and 1.00 for secondary level (Fig .18). and secondary school, Nigeria, 2011
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
2.8 CHILD PROTECTION

Birth Registration
Overall, 42 percent of children under 5 have been registered at birth. Children in rural areas are less likely to be registered than children in urban areas (32 percent compared to 63 percent in urban areas). Mother education is also an important factor for birth registration; indeed, two thirds of children under 5 whose mother have at least secondary education level have been registered at birth compared to 21 percent of children whose mother has no education. Figure 19. Percentage of children under 5 whose birth has been registrered
by mother education and residence, Nigeria, 2011
Child Labour
Overall, 47 percent of children age 5-14 years are Figure 20. Percentage of children age 5-14
years who are involved in child labour,
involved in child labour in Nigeria. Children in rural areas are more likely to be involved in child labour than children in urban areas (50 percent compared to 41 percent in urban areas) (Fig 20). Gender disparities are very small, however large differences are observed between children from poorest and richest households (Table CP.2). Violent Discipline
Overall, 91 percent of children age 2-14 year experience violent discipline, with 34 percent receiving severe violent
discipline (Fig 21). Seven percent of children received only non-violent discipline method.
Figure 21: Percentage of age 2-14 years according to
discipline method used, Nigeria, 2011
Non-violent Psychological Physical (any) Severe physical Any violent MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Early Marriage
The percentage of women age 20-49 years who were first married or in union (living together with Figure 22. Percentage of women age 20-49 years
a man as if married) before age 18 is 40 percent in who were married before age 18, by wealth
Nigeria (Fig 22). Large differences by wealth quintiles, Nigeria, 2011
quintiles exist: 68 percent of women from the poorest households were married before age 18, while 15 percent from the richest households were married before this age. Two women 15-19 year old out of 10 (20 percent) are already married/in union by age 15 (Table Poorest Second Middle Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
The practice of female genital mutilation/cutting (FMG/C) is still ongoing in Nigeria. Twenty-seven percent of women age
15-49 years reported to have undergone some form of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) (Fig 23.1). The practice
of FGM/C is less pronounced in the Northern zones as against the South zones (Table CP.8) The prevalence of FGM/C is also
associated with education and wealth status.
Among girls age 0-14 years, 14 percent have undergone some form of FGM/C, as reported by their mothers (Fig 23.2).
Overall, 22 percent of women age 15-49 years are in favour of continuing the practice of FGM/C (Fig 23.3).
Figure 23.1: Prevalence of FGM/C
Figure 23.3: Percentage of women
Figure 23.2: Prevalence of FGM/C
among women, Nigeria, 2011
among girls, Nigeria, 2011
who approve FGM/C practice, Nigeria,
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
2.9 HIV/AIDS, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR

HIV/AIDS
A very high proportion (90 percent) of women 15-49 years and of women 15-24 years have heard of AIDS (Table HA.1 and HA.2). However, only 23 percent of them have a comprehensive knowledge of the disease, (know the two ways of preventing HIV/AIDS, reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have HIV/AIDS) (Fig 24). Only 11 percent of women with no education have a comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS against 28 percent of women with secondary and more education. Fig 24: Comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention for
women age 15-49 years by education and residence
Primary Secondary Half of the 15-49 year old female population of Nigeria knows about the three ways of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS, 57 percent in urban areas and 45 percent in rural areas (Fig 25). As for the previous indicator, knowledge of mother-to-child transmission increases with education from 35 percent to 58 percent. Figure 25. Knowledge about HIV mother-to-child transmission, for women
age 15-49 years, by education and residence, Nigeria, 2011
Primary Secondary MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Stigmatization against people living with HIV/AIDS is still very high since less than 10 percent of all women express accepting attitudes towards them (Fig 26). There are no variations according to education or wealth (Table HA.4). However regional differences are observed: Northern Central zone has the highest acceptance rate with 18 percent. Almost two third (61 percent) of 15-49 year old women know a place for HIV testing and 11 percent have been tested in the last 12 months and have received the results (Fig 27). Those percentages are similar among women age 15 to 24. Figure 27: Percentage of women who know a place for HIV testing and who
have been tested and received the results in the last 12 months, Nigeria, 2011
Knowledge of a place for testing Tested with results in last 12 months Sexual Behaviour
Table 4. Findings for selected sexual behaviour indicators for women age 15-24 years, Nigeria, 2011
Ever had sex
Sex with non-regular partners
Condom use with non-regular partners
In Nigeria, 63 percent of young women age 15-24 years have had sex. Thirty two percent of young women had sex with a non-regular partner (a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner) in the 12 months preceding the survey. Forty seven percent of young women reported that a condom was used during sexual intercourse with their last non-regular partner. MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table CM.2: Child mortality
Infant and under-five mortality rates, North Model, Nigeria, 2011
Infant Mortality Rate Under-five Mortality Mother's education
Wealth index
quintiles
Geopolitical zone
[1] MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2; [2] MICS indicator 1.1; MDG indicator 4.1
North Model was assumed to approximate the age pattern of mortality in Nigeria

MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table NU.1: Nutritional status of children
Percentage of children under age 5 by nutritional status according to three anthropometric indices:
weight for age, height for age, and weight for height, Nigeria, 2011
Mean Z-Score (SD) Mother's
education
Wealth index
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 2.1a and MDG indicator 1.8; [2] MICS indicator 2.1b; [3] MICS indicator 2.2a, [4] MICS indicator 2.2b; [5] MICS indicator 2.3a, [6] MICS indicator 2.3b
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table NU.3: Breastfeeding
Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at selected age groups, Nigeria, 2011
Children 0-5 months Children 12-15 months Children 20-23 months Percent breastfed Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding (Continued breastfeeding Mother's
education
Wealth index
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 2.6; [2] MICS indicator 2.9; [3] MICS indicator 2.7; [4] MICS indicator 2.8
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table CH.1: Vaccinations in first year of life
Percentage of children age 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before
the first birthday, Nigeria, 2011
Vaccinated at any time Vaccinated at any Vaccinated at any time before the survey Vaccinated by 12 before the survey according according to: Mother's survey according to: to: Vaccination card Polio 3 [2]
Measles [4]
HepB at birth
HepB 3 [5]
Yellow fever [6]
All vaccinations
No vaccinations
[1] MICS indicator 3.1; [2] MICS indicator 3.2; [3] MICS indicator 3.3; [4] MICS indicator 3.4; MDG indicator 4.3; [5] MICS
indicator 3.5; [6] MICS indicator 3.6;

MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table CH.7: Care seeking for suspected pneumonia and antibiotic use during suspected pneumonia
Percentage of children age 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia in the last two weeks who were taken to a
health provider and percentage of children who were given antibiotics, Nigeria, 2011
Had suspected pneumonia in Percentage of children with the last two weeks suspected pneumonia who received antibiotics in the last two weeks [2] Mother's
education
Wealth index
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 3.9; [2] MICS indicator 3.10
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table CH.11: Household availability of insecticide treated nets
Percentage of households with at least one mosquito net, percentage of households with at least one long-
lasting treated net, percentage of households with at least one insecticide treated net (ITN), Nigeria, 2011
Percentage of households Percentage of households with at least one mosquito with at least one long- households with at lasting treated net least one ITN [1] Education
of

household
Wealth
index

quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 3.12
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table WS.6: Use and sharing of sanitation facilities
Percent distribution of household population by use of private and public sanitation facilities and use of shared facilities, by users of improved and unimproved sanitation
facilities, Nigeria, 2011
Users of improved sanitation facilities Users of unimproved sanitation facilities Education of
household
head

Wealth index
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 4.3; MDG indicator 7.9
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table RH.1: Adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate
Adolescent birth rates and total fertility rates, Nigeria, 2011
Adolescent birth rate [1] (Age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19) Mother's
education
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 5.1; MDG indicator 5.4
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table RH.6: Antenatal care provider
Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey by type of personnel providing antenatal care
during the pregnancy for the last birth, Nigeria, 2011
Person providing antenatal care Mother's
age at birth
Education
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 5.5a; MDG indicator 5.5
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table RH.9: Assistance during delivery
Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey by person assisting at delivery and rths delivered by C-section, Nigeria, 2011
Person assisting at delivery Mother's age at
Public sector health facility Private sector health facility Place of
delivery

Education
Wealth index
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 5.7; MDG indicator 5.2; [2] MICS indicator 5.9
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table ED.1: Literacy among young women
Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are literate, Nigeria, 2011
Percentage literate [1] Percentage not known Education
Wealth index
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 7.1; MDG indicator 2.3
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table CP.2: Child labour
Percentage of children age 5-14 involved in child labour, Nigeria, 2011
Child labour for Total child labour Child labour for children age 5-11 Mother's
education
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 8.2
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table CP.5: Early marriage and polygyny
Percentage of women age 15-49 years who first married or entered a marital union before their 15th birthday, percentages of women age 20-49 years who
first married or entered a marital union before their 15th and 18th birthdays, percentage of women age 15-19 years currently married or in union, and the
percentage of women currently married or in union who are in a polygynous marriage or union, Nigeria, 2011
Percentage of women Percentage of women Percentage of women Percentage of women Percentage of women age 15-29 married before 20-49 married before age 20-49 married 15-19 years currently 15-49 years in polygynous before age 18 [2] married/in union [3] marriage/ union [4] Education
Wealth index
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 8.6; [2] MICS indicator 8.7; [3] MICS indicator 8.8; [4] MICS indicator 8.9;
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table HA.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission
Percentage of women age 15-49 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus, percentage who
reject common misconceptions, and percentage who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission Nigeria, 2011
Percentage who know Percentage who know that HIV cannot transmission can be reject the two most be transmitted by: know that a healthy misconceptions and looking person can know that a healthy have the AIDS virus looking person can have the AIDS virus Education
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 9.1
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table HA.2: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among young people
Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus, percentage who reject
common misconceptions, and percentage who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission, Nigeria, 2011
Percentage who know Percentage who know that HIV cannot be transmission can be Ever married/in union Marital status
Never married/in union Education
Wealth index
quintiles
Geopolitical
zone

[1] MICS indicator 9.2; MDG indicator 6.3
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report
Table HA.4: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS
Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS who express an accepting attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS, Nigeria, 2011
Percent of women who: Believe that a female Would not want to Are willing to care vegetables from a teacher with the AIDS keep secret that a for a family member shopkeeper or vendor virus and is not sick family member got with the AIDS virus who has the AIDS should be allowed to infected with the continue teaching Ever married/in union Never married/in union Education
quintiles
[1] MICS indicator 9.4
MICS Nigeria, 2011
Summary Report

Source: http://naca.gov.ng/sites/default/files/MICS4_Nigeria_SummaryReport_2011_Eng%20(1).pdf

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