431076MSJ0010.1177/1352458511431076Langdon et al.Multiple Sclerosis Journal Research Paper Multiple Sclerosis Journal0(0) 1 –8 Recommendations for a Brief © The Author(s) 2012Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS)
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Allergy Immunotherapy in the College Health Setting New York State College Health Association 2010 ANNUAL MEETING Mary Madsen RN – BCAssistant Director, Clinical OperationsUniversity Health ServiceUniversity of Rochester
Allergies: immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called Immunglobulin E (IGE) these travel to cells and release chemicals, causing the allergic reactions Allergy shots (immunotherapy) are aimed at increasing your tolerance to allergens that trigger your symptoms Allergy shots work like a vaccine, your body responds to the increased injected amounts of a particular antigen and develops a resistance and tolerance Indicated for allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, stinging insect allergy
The preferred location for administration is the prescribing physician's office, especially for high risk patients AIT must be initiated and monitored by an allergist
Pts. may receive AIT at another health care facility if the
physician and the staff are equipped to recognize and
manage systemic reactions
Full, clear, detailed immunotherapy schedule must be Constant, uniform labeling system for extracts, dilutions Procedures to avoid clerical/nursing errors (i.e. pt. photo ID) (file by DOB)
Issues in College Health Setting Information needed from allergist Policies and procedures that increase safety Immediate and delayed reactions Recognition and treatment of anaphylaxis Preparedness plan for educating staff
Immunotherapy Safety Incidence of fatalities has not changed much in the last 30 years in the US From 1990-2001 fatal reactions occurred at a rate of 1 per 2.5 million injections Most occur during maintenance phase or "rush" Poorly controlled asthmatics at greatest risk
Many deaths associated with a delay in
administering epinephrine or not giving it at all
Preparedness of health service Established medical protocols and treatment Stock and maintain equipment/supplies Physicians and staff maintain "clinical proficiency" in anaphylaxis recognition and management Consideration of drills tailored to assess skills, response, and preparedness of office staff Tailor drill to consider access to local EMS- response times vary by location
Patient Responsibility Patient must wait 20-30 minutes in office Those with prior systemic or delayed reactions should wait longer Compliance with injection schedule Report any reactions to PCP and allergist Epi-Pen kits for self treatment
Local Reactions Are Common Redness, swelling, warmth at Measurement Scales Differ between Large, local, delayed reactions do not predict the development of severe systemic reactions Compare to coin Local reactions may affect Grade 1+ - 4+ Length of reaction Options for treating local reaction Don't need MD order antihistamine prior to Hydrocortisone to site Benedryl rinse Benedryl spray to site Epi rinse Lowering dose Halt dose increase during Benadryl or Epi Rinse Instructions Draw Benadryl into syringe Pull plunger of syringe back until the entire barrel of syringe has been coated with Return Benadryl to original Benadryl Fill syringe with appropriate dose Systemic Reactions Incidence of systemic reactions ranges from 0.05% to 3.2% of Most occur during maintenance phase Poorly controlled asthmatics at greatest risk Many deaths are associated with a delay in administering epinephrine or not giving at all Risk factors include: Dosing errors Symptomatic asthma High degree of allergy hypersensitivity Use of beta blockers/ACE-I New vials Injections during the allergy season Dosing protocols (rush regimens) Symptoms of Systemic Reactions Any allergic symptom that occurs at a location other than the site of the injection Chest congestion or wheezing Angioedema-swelling of lips,tongue, nose, or throat Urticaria, itching, rash at any other site Abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting Light-headedness, headache Feeling of impending doom, decrease in level of Anaphylaxis: potentially deadly allergic reaction that is rapid in onset, most commonly triggered by food, medication or insect sting Most common:ATB (penicillin, cephalosorins) Food (nuts, cows milk, seafood) Adolescents/young adults: foods Middle age: venom Older adults: medications Recognition of Anaphylaxis for college health, this isn't just for allergy injections! Most reactions (1/2 – 1/3) occur in 20-30 minutes of vaccine 10% 30 – 60 min (asthma with multiple injections Medication 10-20 min Insect sting 10-15 min Foods 25 – 35 min Late phase (8-12 hrs) reactions possible Prompt recognition of potentially life threatening reactions by staff and patients Urticaria/angioedema are the most common initial symptoms--but they may be absent or delayed Most Common Signs and Symptoms Skin: flushing, itching, urticaria: 90% Upper and lower airway signs: cough, wheezing, dyspnea, change in voice quality, feeling of throat closing: 70% GI symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, crampy abdominal pain: 40% 5 Most Common Factors in Fatal Reactions Uncontrolled asthma (62%) Prior history of systemic reaction (53) Injections during peak pollen season (43%) Delay/failure in epi treatment (43%) Allergy injection given IM instead of SQ or dosing error (17%) Also: upright posture Recommended Equipment Stethoscope, BP cuff Diphenhydramine Tourniquet, large bore (oral and injection) IV needles, IV set-up Albuterol nebulized Aqueous epinephrine O2 and mask/nasal Oral airway Treatment log Immediate Intervention Assess ABC's
Administer epinephrine ASAP! There is no
contraindication Fatalities usually result from delayed
administration of epinephrine--with
respiratory, and cardiovascular complications
Subsequent care based on response to epinephrine 1:1000 dilution, 0.3 mg. dose administered IM or SQ q5 minutes as needed to control BP and other symptoms Tourniquet above injection site Pt can use their Epi-pen Effect of epi can be blunted by beta-blockers, with severe, prolonged sx including bronchospasm, bradycardia, and hypotension Glucagon can be used to reverse beta blockers IM vs. SQ Epinephrine Both routes of injection appear in the IM injections into the thigh have been reported to provide more rapid absorption and higher plasma levels than IM or SQ injections into the arm.
Studies directly comparing different routes have not been done Establish/maintain airway Give O2/check pulse ox IV access, hang IV fluids with NS Consider: Diphenhydramine 25-50 mg. IM Albuterol nebulized Transfer to ED Measures to reduce dosing errors Educate staff administering Standardize forms & protocols Multiple identity checks: name/DOB One patient in "shot" room Avoid distractions to staff Patient education about systemic reactions Increase administration safety Detailed instructions from allergist Develop own step by step process for giving Standardize forms to document injections Standardize treatment for systemic reaction Agreement form for student compliance All staff competency and mock systemic reaction Review of health status before injections Review Health Status Before Injections (why you don't draw injection first) Current asthma symptoms, ? Measure peak flow Current allergy symptoms and medication use New medications (beta blockers, ACE-I) Delayed reactions to previous injections Compliance with injection schedule New illness (fever), pregnancy Consultation with allergist as needed Position Statement on the Administration of Immunotherapy Outside of the Prescribing Allergist Facility, ACAAI, October 1997.
Rank MA, Li JTC. Allergen Immunotherapy. Mayo Clin Proc. Stokes JR, Casale TB. Allergy Immunotherapy for Primary Care Physicians. Lieberman P, Kemp SF, Oppenheimer J, et al. The diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis:an updated practice parameter. J Allergy Clin Immunology2005;115:S483-523.
Li JT, Lockey IL, Bernstein JM, et al. Allergen immunotherapy: a practice parameter. Ann Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.2003;90:1-40.
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