by Burkhart and Burkhart demonstrated that tacrolimus has
International Cosmetic Dictionary) such as deionized water,
superior efficacy to alclometasone dipropionate which,
zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, isopropanol,
according to several classifications, is a mid-potent cortico-
triethanolamine and benzoic acid. This composition has low
steroid similar to hydrocortisone butyrate.
skin toxicity and is also quite antiseptic. The Rejuvi Tattoo
Finally, the authors write that in a 3-week study, topical
Remover has a great chemical affinity to most tattoo
steroids were found to be more effective than topical
pigments: it is capable of mobilizing tattoo pigments from
immunomodulators, but fail to mention that the comparator
the skin and blends well with them. The Rejuvi Tattoo
used in that study was pimecrolimus cream. To discuss our
Remover forms a scab with tattoo pigments on the treated
results in the context of pimecrolimus is not relevant due to
skin area, which then peels off in 10–20 days. It is recom-
the clear differences in potency between tacrolimus ointment
mended to perform the treatment on a tattoo area not greater
and pimecrolimus cream. In conclusion, while patient satis-
than 15 cm2 in order to control the discomfort level after
faction is of major importance, the study setting of Burkhart
treatment. If needed, a second treatment should be performed
and Burkhart was not satisfactory with respect to evaluating
on the same area after sufficient skin healing (usually about
the efficacy of treatment.
In approximately 5 years of study and practice, Rejuvi
Department of Dermatology, Helsinki
Tattoo Removal has been found to be noncolour-selective (it
University Central Hospital,
removes all tattoo pigments). In the initial study (98
Meilahdentie 2, Helsinki, SF-00250
patients), the success rate was 100% for removal of cosmetic
facial tattoos (tattooed eyebrows) and 92% for body tattoos.
The scarring rate was 0% for cosmetic facial tattoos and 6%for body tattoos. No pigmentary change was found for eithertype of tattoo.5 Compared with all other tattoo removal
techniques, Rejuvi Tattoo Removal appears to be effective,
1 Reitamo S, Harper J, Bos JD et al., for the European Tacrolimus
safer, simple and cost-effective.6 Rejuvi Tattoo Removal can
Ointment Group, 0Æ03% tacrolimus ointment applied once or twice
be used independently or together with laser techniques (pre-
daily is more efficacious than 1% hydrocortisone acetate in children
or post-treatment). Some typical results from Rejuvi Tattoo
with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis: results of a randomized
Removal are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
double-blind controlled trial. Br J Dermatol 2004; 150: 554–62.
2 Reitamo S, Leent EJM, Ho V et al. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus
ointment compared with that of hydrocortisone acetate ointmentin children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109: 539–46.
3 Reitamo S, Rustin M, Ruzicka T et al. Efficacy and safety of
tacrolimus ointment compared with that of hydrocortisone buty-rate ointment in adult patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2002, 109: 547–55.
Chemical extraction technique for tattoo removal
SIR, I write in response to the correspondence ‘Adverseside-effects following attempted removal of tattoos using anon-laser method'.1 Laser treatment is a modern technique fortattoo removal. Various lasers such as the Q-switched rubylaser, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, CO2 laser and Q-switchedalexandrite laser are popularly used to remove tattoos. Theadverse effects including textural change, scarring, hypopig-mentation, hyperpigmentation, partial removal and tattoocolour darkening have been well addressed in the literature.2–4
The Rejuvi Tattoo Removal chemical extraction method
was developed recently as a new modality for both facialcosmetic tattoos and body tattoos.5 The technique involvesapplication of the Rejuvi Tattoo Remover on the unwantedtattoo area using normal tattooing or a micropigmentationmethod. It is very close to a tattoo-over procedure.
The Rejuvi Tattoo Remover contains only cosmetic ingre-
Figure 1. (A) The patient had two tattooed eyebrows. (B) The upper
dients (International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient or
eyebrow was removed by chemical extraction technique.
2004 British Association of Dermatologists, British Journal of Dermatology, 151, 1272–1288
Rejuvi Tattoo Removal has been successfully and widely
used by many permanent make-up artists, tattooists, derma-tologists and plastic surgeons in the U.S.A. Extensive tattoo-ing experience and good training are the keys for suchsuccess.
Rejuvi Laboratory, Inc., South San
Francisco, CA 94080, U.S.A.
E-mail: [email protected]
1 Veysey E, Downs AMR. Adverse side-effects following attempted
removal of tattoos using a non-laser method. Br J Dermatol 2004;150: 770–1.
2 Kuperman-Beade M, Levine VJ, Ashinoff R. Laser removal of tat-
toos. Am J Clin Dermatol 2001; 2: 21–5.
3 Varma S, Swanson NA, Lee KK. Tattoo ink darkening of a yellow
tattoo after Q-switched laser treatment. Clin Exp Dermatol 2002;27: 461–3.
4 Levine VJ, Geronemus RG. Tattoo removal with Q-switched ruby
laser and the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: a comparative study. Cutis1995; 55: 291–6.
5 Cheng W. A non-laser method to reverse permanent makeup and
tattoos. Cosmet Dermatol 2001; 14: 47–50.
6 Varma S, Lanigan SW. Reasons for requesting laser removal of
unwanted tattoos. Br J Dermatol 1999; 140: 483–5.
Figure 2. (A) The patient had a deep tattoo on the upper arm. (B)The tattoo was removed by chemical extraction technique; the lettersremaining were kept at the request of the patient.
Chemical extraction technique for tattoo removal:reply from authors
Similar to laser techniques, the success of tattoo removal
(all techniques) very much depends upon the original tattoo
condition including depth of tattoo pigment in the skin,uniformity of pigment depth (amateur or professional),
SIR, Very few manufacturers take the opportunity to respond
location and skin type, as well as the removal skill.2
to comments made about their products or devices in medical
Compared with laser techniques, Rejuvi Tattoo Removal
journals. Dr Cheng's response provides more insight and
may need more skill or experience, particularly for the
knowledge to the readership about a medical device ⁄ treat-
removal of body tattoos. The primary requirement is that a
ment that lies at the fringes of dermatology practice. We
technician must have good experience in tattooing or
merely reported two adverse incidents with the Rejuvi
micropigmentation. For the removal of facial cosmetic
tattoo removal method and summarized past and present
tattoos, most permanent make-up artists can perform a good
tattoo removal treatments.1
and safe treatment because the tattoo pigments are at a
It is far too easy for a wide range of medical devices to be
shallow depth in the skin (epidermis or upper dermis). For
used by nonmedical personnel in the U.K. with disastrous
removal of body tattoos (usually quite deep, mid-dermis or
consequences. Doctors without proper training and care, and
below), training and procedures become very important in
practising outside the scope of their expertise, can also do
minimizing adverse effects such as hypertrophy and pigmen-
much harm. We agree that Q-switched laser tattoo removal
tary change. It is found that adverse effects consistently occur
systems are not without their problems and are unhelpful for
with a technician who does not have proper training or skill
many types of tattoos. More articles published in peer-
reviewed medical journals are needed to help see where
In the last 5 years of practice a conservative application
chemical extraction tattoo removal systems best fit into
procedure has been developed for body tattoo removal, and
mainstream cosmetic dermatology practice.
the rate of adverse events is below 1% (after good training).
The key to the procedure is to avoid deep and prolonged
Department of Dermatology, Royal
puncturing to the skin (do not intend to remove all tattoo
Devon and Exeter Hospitals, Exeter
colours in one treatment). The detailed procedures can be
EX2 5DW, U.K.
provided upon request (E-mail address at the end of this
2004 British Association of Dermatologists, British Journal of Dermatology, 151, 1272–1288
DEKT Stuttgart 2015, Freitag, 5.6, 9:30-10:30 Ich lese die Passage in der Kirchentagsübersetzung. Danach möchte ich ihr nach wenigen Schwabenlandhalle Fellbach, Hölderlinsaal Notizen zu diesem Buch und seinem Verfasser Abschnitt für Abschnitt und manchmal Wort für Wort folgen. Dabei werden öfter verschiedene Übersetzungen zu Wort kommen. Denn Jürgen Ebach
APL, a powerful research tool in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Claude Chachaty e-mail : [email protected] Keywords : NMR, ESR, spin, hyperfine coupling, spectra, simulations, automated fitting. I-Introduction In spite of its outstanding scientific potential, APL is up to now ignored or scarcely exploited by research workers. During 15 years as the head of the Magnetic Resonance Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Center at Saclay, the author has extensively used APL in his works [1-3] and continues to promote its scientific applications. The Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) includes two main branches, the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) also called Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The NMR is a priviledged method for the identification and conformational analysis of organic and biological molecules and is well known for its medical application, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The ESR/EPR which is the main subject of this topics, is the specific method for studying paramagnetic molecules i.e. molecules possessing at least one unpaired electron, namely the free radicals resulting from the breaking of a chemical bond, triplet fundamental (e.g. the oxygen of air) or lowest excited states and some metal coordination complexes. Most of these species are very reactive and are initiators or intermediates in a large number of chemical and biological processes : oxidation, combustion, polymerization, radiation damaging, photosynthesis etc… An important application common to the NMR and ESR is the molecular dynamics which provides thorough information on some physical properties of condensed matter. II-Principles