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Illicit drugs and
by Angela Dean Almost half the population of Australian
adults reports use of an illicit substance at
least once. Therefore it is likely that some
of our patients may be using illicit drugs
in combination with other medications.
Illicit substance use may contribute to
adverse effects, interfere with treatment
efficacy, or even augment treatment
effects. Additionally, regular users of illicit
substances may exhibit poor medication
adherence or impaired ability to engage in
behaviours such as blood glucose testing
in diabetes.

Systematic research on drug interactions
with illicit drugs is not routinely conducted
– most evidence comes from case reports.
However, drug interactions are important.
Many deaths that are attributed to illicit
drug toxicity alone are often actually the
result of drug interactions. This article
reviews potential drug interactions with
illicit drugs, with an emphasis on the two
most popular illicit drugs in Australia
– cannabis and methamphetamine.

Volume 25 Number 9 September 2006



Tricyclic antidepressants and
annabis (Cannabis sativa) is the most widely used illicit drug. Drug effects include well- Case reports suggest that concurrent use of being, relaxation and altered sensory perception. cannabis with TCAs or anticholingergic drugs can Acute adverse effects include psychomotor impairment, produce significant tachycardia. This may be due to dysphoria, anxiety, paranoia, tachycardia, flushing and beta-adrenergic effects of cannabis coupled with the nausea.1 There are no reports of fatalities occurring due anticholinergic effect of tricyclic antidepressants.1, 3 Increases to cannabis toxicity.2 Cannabis is generally perceived to in heart rate may be considered alarming (100-160 beats/ have low dependence liability than many other drugs of minute). In one case, heart rate was 300 beats/minute abuse. However, there is increasing awareness that some and failed to respond to IV verapamil.1 Onset is variable, users (about 10%) find it difficult to stop – this is more but typically occurs within one hour of administration. common in regular heavy users.2 Patients receiving treatment with anticholinergic medication and who use cannabis should be advised to There are more than 60 psychoactive constituents monitor their heart rate.1,3 of cannabis that contribute to its effects; these are called cannabinoids, the most important of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Synthetic THC (dronabinol, Marinol) is US FDA-approved for A single case report describes mania occurring treatment of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, following use of cannabis after four weeks of fluoxetine and appetite and weight loss associated with HIV/ treatment. It is unclear whether this was a specific AIDS.3 More recently, a buccal spray formulated from interaction, or caused by fluoxetine alone.1,3 In clinical the whole cannabis plant (Sativex), has been developed practice, cannabis and SSRIs are frequently used in Canada for treatment of neuropathic pain associated together with neglible adverse effects, suggesting that with multiple sclerosis.4 this proposed interaction is rare. (For more on interactions between antidepressants and illicit drugs see Clinical update on page 714.) A sedative medication may display added sedative Smoking both cannabis and tobacco may increase effects when used in combination with cannabis. chlorpromazine clearance.1 A case report describes a Similarly, cannabis use may augment the adverse effects patient who displayed confusion and raised serum of drugs with a similar side effect profile.
concentrations of clozapine after ceasing cannabis and be established whether some drugs interact with cannabis tobacco smoking.5 These interactions are probably via their influence on the endogenous cannabinoid mediated by pharmacokinetic effects.
Research suggests cannabis use is a risk factor for a Pharmacokinetic interactions may also occur. later diagnosis of schizophrenia, but is not considered a Cannabinoids are highly protein bound, raising the true causative factor alone.2 For patients with established potential for interactions with other highly protein schizophrenia, cannabis use is associated with a range bound drugs such as warfarin. Clearance from the body of poor outcomes, including increased risk of relapse, is slow – THC distributes into adipose tissue from and poorer adherence with antipsychotic treatment.2 where it is slowly released.
Emerging research suggests that antipsychotic treatment 1 In heavy users, it can take more than one month for cannabis to be completely may influence the endogenous cannabinoid system – the eliminated from the body and for clean urine tests. It is clinical relevance of this is unclear.6 unclear whether the delayed clearance in regular heavy users is associated with any subtle biological effects.
One study reports that cannabis use was associated Cannabinoids are also metabolised by a range of with reduced area under the curves and serum enzymes, including CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Any form concentrations for both indinavir and nelfinavir of smoking can induce CYP1A2. This effect may be (10-17%),1 although some participants exhibited an enhanced when cannabis is smoked with tobacco. increase in drug serum concentrations, making it difficult CYP1A2 substrates include clozapine, olanzapine, to determine the clinical significance of these results. theophylline, some tricyclic antidepressants and Nonetheless, patients receiving treatment with protease mirtazapine. Cannabinoids may also influence CYP3A4 inhibitors who also use cannabis should receive regular – although existing reports suggest both inhibition and monitoring of viral indicators to confirm effectiveness of induction.3 Ceasing cannabis use may also lead to altered antiviral treatment.3 serum concentrations of existing therapy. Volume 25 Number 9 September 2006



Rimonabant
palpitations, chest pain, shortness Using cannabis with cocaine may Rimonabant is a selective antagonist at of breath, and headache.13 Injecting enhance onset of action and bioavailability the central cannabinoid receptor (CB1). methamphetamine is common practice – of cocaine, leading to increased subjective It is not yet routinely available, but is many drug users accessing needle exchange effects of cocaine, and increased heart being investigated for indications such facilities are often using amphetamine rate.7,8 It is possible that cannabis-induced as smoking cessation and obesity.9 As rather than heroin. vasodilation of the nasal mucosa leads to cannabis exerts its primary effects via CB1, Policies restricting pseudoephedrine increased cocaine absorption, although concurrent use of rimonabant may reduce availability have intended to prevent these effects have also been demonstrated the effects of either drug.
its use as a precursor for amphetamine using intravenous cocaine.8 Many drug manufacture. It is difficult to determine takers use cannabis in combination with the actual impact of pseudoephedrine other drugs to enhance their effects – it The cannabinoid receptor CB2 restriction on amphetamine use in is likely that they intentionally use this mediates immunosuppressant effects and Australia. There are numerous techniques combination together to get better cocaine is currently the target of development of for manufacturing amphetamines – each novel immunosuppressants. It is unclear requiring a different range of precursors. whether using cannabis produces clinically As some precursors become restricted, relevant immunosuppression – studies of new ‘recipes' are developed that utilise Concurrent use of cannabis and disulfiram HIV patients have not supported a link different precursors. Additionally, large was associated with emergence of hypomania between cannabis use and progression of scale importation of pseudoephedrine in a man who had prior exposure to both HIV.1 It is also unclear whether cannabis and ephedrine for illicit drug manufacture drugs alone, without ill effect. However, may interfere with the actions of purported has occurred recently14 and recent reports others have used this combination without immune stimulants, such as Echinacea.
indicate that most methamphetamine adverse effects, and it has been suggested that users still find it easy to obtain.11 the cannabis involved in this case may have been adulterated.1,3 In Australia, methamphetamine is the Pharmacodynamic interactions may second most commonly used illicit drug after cannabis, with almost 10% of the population occur with a range of drug types, primarily One case report claims that cannabis having tried it.10,11 Methamphetamine cardiovascular and psychotropic medications. may interact with lithium, causing an produces similar effects to amphetamine, but Amphetamines are metabolised by a range increase in lithium concentrations. at smaller doses, it produces prominent CNS of liver enzymes, primarily CYP2D6.15 However, the actual significance of this stimulation with fewer peripheral effects. Inhibitors of CYP2D6 (e.g. paroxetine, report is uncertain, as the patient involved Amphetamines are weakly basic and are fluoxetine, ritonavir, quinidine) may increase had fluctuating lithium levels prior to available in various forms: serum concentrations of amphetamines cannabis use, and no potential mechanism and increase risk of adverse effects. (Drug • Salt form, e.g. methamphetamine interactions with psychostimulants are sulphate, commonly called ‘speed' described in Table 1, opposite page.) Sildenafil
• Free base form, which looks like a Ones report claims that the combined damp or oily paste, referred to as ‘base' use of sildenafil and cannabis contributed • Crystallised form, generally more pure, Interactions between amphetamines to myocardial infarction in a 41-year-old referred to as ‘ice' or ‘crystal meth'.
and antidepressants may occur secondary man. However, available information was The quality of methamphetamine varies insufficient to confirm the interaction, widely.11 Amphetamines may be taken pharmacokinetic effects. One case describes and both drugs have been independently orally, intranasally (‘snorting') or injected a patient maintained on dexamphetamine linked to myocardial infarction.1,3 who developed signs of serotonin toxicity after initiating venlafaxine. The primary mode of amphetamine After venlafaxine was discontinued and A number of studies report that regular action is increased release of dopamine. symptoms abated, he was initiated on cannabis use (at least twice-weekly) can Amphetamine is also able to inhibit dopamine citalopram, which lead to reemergence increase theophylline clearance and reduce metabolism and its re-uptake, and increase of serotonergic symptoms.16 Concurrent efficacy via induction of CYP1A2. Smoking release of noradrenaline and serotonin.12 use of amphetamine-related substances both tobacco and cannabis is likely to Amphetamines produce euphoria, mood and non-selective MAOIs results in severe produce a greater effect than use of either elevation, increased energy and a reduction hypertensive crisis.3 Acute elevations in drug alone. Regular cannabis users may in fatigue.12 As sympathomimetic agents, blood pressure have also been noted after require higher theophylline doses. Although they produce a range of cardiovascular co-ingestion of methylphenidate and cannabis may exert bronchodilatory effects, effects, including hypertension and increased tricyclic antidepressants.17 This interaction regular smoking contributes to poorer cardiac output. Adverse effects typically has the potential to occur with other respiratory function. Cessation of cannabis predominate at higher doses, and include antidepressants that enhance noradrenergic use may increase theophylline clearance.1,3 restlessness, tremor, anxiety, irritability, activity, including moclobemide, tricyclic insomnia, psychosis, aggression, sweating, Volume 25 Number 9 September 2006



Table 1: Drug interactions with psychostimulants: methamphetamine, MDMA and cocaine Antidepressants: All psychostimulants have the potential to interact adversely with antidepressants based on serotonergic, noradrenergic and
pharmacokinetic mechanisms. (See the text for more detail.)
Serotonergic drugs: A range of serotonergic drugs have the potential to interact with psychostimulants, especially MDMA, to produce
symptoms of serotonin toxicity. No case reports describe such interactions, but they may potentially with a range of agents, such as St John's
wort, tramadol, pethidine or triptans.
Antipsychotics: All antipsychotics antagonise the effects of dopamine at the D2 receptor. Concurrent use of psychostimulants and
antipsychotics may reduce the efficacy of either agent. The actual clinical outcome will vary with the doses of each agent. It is likely that this
effect is more pronounced with methamphetamine.
High doses of amphetamines and other psychostimulants may produce a drug-induced psychosis or psychotic symptoms.1,3 Small studies suggest that cocaine users experience greater incidence of antipsychotic-induced acute dystonias than non-cocaine users. One report described concurrent use of cocaine and clozapine leading to increased cocaine serum concentrations, but reduced psychoactive and pressor effects.1 Antihypertensives: All psychostimulants can increase blood pressure and may counteract therapeutic effect of antihypertensives.1 Patients
with hypertension who also use psychostimulants may find it more difficult to achieve adequate control.
Use of propranolol in combination with cocaine leads to greater coronary vasoconstriction compared to cocaine alone. Research and clinical opinion is divided on whether cocaine should be avoided in patients who have recently used cocaine or other stimulants. It has been suggested that use in combination with a vasodilating agent may reduce risks related to excessive vasoconstriction.1 Urinary alkalinisers: Alkaline urine increases amounts of un-ionised amphetamine, which then permits increased tubular reabsorption.
This effect may increase the half-life from 7-12 hours to 18-34 hours for methamphetamine or from seven to 16-31 hours for MDMA.12,26
Depending on the situation, some amphetamine users may find this a beneficial effect, whereas others may find it problematic.
Anticonvulsants: Methamphetamine, MDMA and cocaine lower the seizure threshold, and may cause seizures. They should be avoided in
individuals with seizure disorders.1 Of these drugs, cocaine poses the greatest risk for drug-induced seizures. Concurrent use of cocaine and
carbamazepine may lead to large elevations in blood pressure and heart rate, although this effect is not consistently reported.1
Protease inhibitors: One case report describes an individual receiving ritonavir and other antiretroviral therapy who died after using
methamphetamine and amyl nitrate. Although it is unclear whether the drug combination or methamphetamine alone contributed to the
death, the authors suggest that ritonavir may have inhibited CYP2D6 mediated methamphetamine metabolism, increasing risk of toxicity.27
Several cases are reported where concurrent use of MDMA and ritonavir produced serious, sometimes fatal interactions. In one case, serum concentrations of MDMA were 10-times higher than what was expected given the dose ingested. It is thought that this interaction is mediated via ritonavir inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.1,18 Hepatotoxic drugs: Growing evidence suggests that MDMA may be hepatotoxic.1,12 Concurrent use of MDMA and hepatotoxic medication
such as methotrexate may theoretically increase risk of adverse hepatic effects. The risk of hepatotoxicity from other psychostimulants has not
been determined.
Tobacco/nicotine: Smoking methamphetamine in combination with tobacco creates the pyrolysis product cyanomethylmethamphetamine,
which may possess stimulant properties.12 The potential toxicity of this product has not been established. Smoking is not a predominant route
of amphetamine administration in Australia.
Psychostimulants may act as behavioural stimulants, increasing rate of learned behaviour. This may lead to increases in number of cigarettes smoked and total amount of tobacco consumed.12 Cocaine and nicotine produce a synergistic effect on dopamine release in the reward areas of the brain. Cocaine and nicotine may also exert synergistic effects on myocardial oxygen supply, arterial pressure and cardiac contractility. Since nicotine, like cocaine, is a risk factor for cardiac disease, it is thought that smoking may increase the incidence of cardiac complications arising from cocaine use.12 Ethanol: Concurrent use of ethanol and psychostimulants may reduce the subjective effects of ethanol, and produce greater increases in
blood pressure than when either drug is taken alone.1,12,28 Stimulants do not reverse ethanol-related performance deficits.12 Alcohol may slow
methamphetamine metabolism and may increase serum concentrations of MDMA by 9-15%; the mechanism of these changes is unclear.12,18
Concurrent use of alcohol and cocaine use may increase risk of cardiovascular toxicity which may result from the formation of an active, ethanol-induced metabolite, cocaethylene, which is more reinforcing than cocaine, and potentially more toxic.3,12 Volume 25 Number 9 September 2006


antidepressants and venlafaxine.1 Most use may increase the risk of serotonergic convulsions. Cocaine may increase heart antidepressants (SSRIs, TCAs, venlafaxine) side effects. Four deaths have been rate, blood pressure and cardiac output, inhibit CYP2D6 and may increase adverse reported following ingestion of MDMA and enhance platelet aggregation.12,25 effects of amphetamines; the strongest and moclobemide.20 The mode of death in inhibitors are paroxetine and fluoxetine. each case was consistent with a serotonin False positive urine tests for amphetamine syndrome. Another report describes may also occur during TCA treatment.3 a fatality occurring after ingestion of Use of cocaine and MAOIs may lead to The frequency of these interactions MDMA and phenelzine.21 hypertensive crisis.3 No clear interactions have is difficult to determine, as many been documented for other antidepressants. amphetamine users receive antidepressants Most antidepressants used in Australia One report suggests that fluoxetine can reduce in practice. Apart from MAOIs, such act by inhibiting reuptake of serotonin via the euphoric effects of cocaine.1 combinations are not contraindicated, but interaction with the serotonin transporter patients should be monitored for relevant (e.g. SSRIs). Via this transporter, MDMA adverse effects such as serotonin toxicity produces serotonin release, and SSRIs Other drugs
or hypertension. The antidepressant of remove serotonin from the synapse. The Table 2 (opposite page) describes choice for patients who use amphetamines drug interaction arising from concomitant potential interactions from other drugs.
has not been established. administration of MDMA and SSRIs depends on the temporal ordering of drug Talking to patients about
Methylene
use. Initial use of an SSRI will inhibit illicit drug use
serotonin transporter function, impairing the activity of any subsequently used For many patients, illicit drug use MDMA. The ability of pretreatment with is a sensitive area. Many people will dioxymethamphetamine an SSRI to block effects of MDMA has avoid mentioning their drug use. When (MDMA) is structurally related to both been demonstrated in animal studies.22 discussing these issues, it is important amphetamine and the hallucinogen However, in the reverse scenario, if SSRIs to maintain a confidential, private and mescaline. It is usually administered orally, are used after MDMA, the opposite non-judgemental environment. In some and it is typically available as a tablet with interaction may occur. Initial use of cases, clinical information and advice an embossed logo or pictures on it.18 MDMA increases release of serotonin; use can be provided without requiring the of an SSRI after this release may prevent patient to disclose any drug use, using MDMA produces large increases in its removal from the synapse, leading statements such as ‘some people who use serotonin release via its actions on the to potentiation of serotonergic effects this medication also use cannabis from serotonin transporter.19 MDMA exerts and possible toxicity. The actual clinical time to time – this may interfere with the a variety of other monoamine effects outcome produced in real situations is beneficial effects of this drug'.
including enhancing release, inhibiting difficult to predict. One report23,24 describes reuptake and direct receptor interactions.12 a case where ingestion of citalopram and With some treatments, it may be Desired effects of MDMA relate to mood MDMA led to symptoms resembling optimal for patients to avoid illicit drugs. elevation, feeling a sense of closeness to serotonin syndrome which improved after However, encouraging substance users to others, greater sociability, sharpened sensory cessation of the citalopram.
avoid drug use is commonly ineffective. perception, and extraversion. Adverse Patients should always be informed about effects are similar to those of amphetamines Both MDMA and antidepressants interactions which are well documented related to excessive CNS and cardiovascular are able to cause hyponatraemia. There with the potential to be fatal, such as that stimulation.12,18 Additional effects related to is a theoretical risk of additive effects, between amphetamines and MAOIs. In serotonergic excess include jaw clenching especially when used in situations where most cases, harm reduction approaches and and tooth grinding.
dehydration may occur, such as long language are appropriate, e.g. ‘It is best for periods of dancing.1 your safety to avoid this combination of drugs. However, if that is not an option Similar to amphetamines, MDMA for you, we recommend that that you use can interact with a range of drugs based Cocaine is the only naturally occurring smaller amounts of drug, and have non- its serotonergic effects. MDMA is local anaesthetic. Generally, the market drug using friends with you to look after metabolised by a range of CYP enzymes, for cocaine in Australia is smaller than you or call an ambulance if required'.
primarily CYP2D6. MDMA exhibits for methamphetamine or heroin.11 Drug users are a heterogenous group. non-linear kinetics. Drugs which inhibit Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine Some will feel uncomfortable discussing CYP2D6 and other CYP enzymes may and other monoamines. Like other local their drug use, some will not. Some are increase the risk of MDMA toxicity.18 (See anaesthetics, cocaine produces direct concerned about their health, some are not. effects on cell membranes blocking sodium Some will appreciate your advice, others channel activity.12,25 Cocaine produces may not. Nonetheless, being aware of drug euphoria, mood elevation, and energy. interactions with illicit drugs can facilitate MDMA and most antidepressants Adverse effects include tremors, chest our roles as pharmacists, and improve enhance activity of serotonin; concurrent pain, agitation, aggression, paranoia and outcomes for a diverse patient group.
Volume 25 Number 9 September 2006 Table 2: Potential drug interactions with other drug groups1,3 Drug – Heroin
Interactions
– Benzodiazepines, alcohol, other opioids and other sedatives: alcohol and sedatives interact with heroin synergistically
to produce greater respiratory depression. Hypotension, profound sedation or coma may occur. Research indicates that heroin used in
combination with benzodiazepines, alcohol or sedative mediation is more likely to trigger a fatal heroin overdose compared to heroin use
alone.3,29 If such combinations are unable to be avoided, heroin users should be advised to use smaller doses of heroin in the presence of other
individuals who are able to monitor for, and respond to, signs of overdose. It is unclear whether less potent sedatives such as antihistamines or
valerian are able to increase risk of overdose.
Naltrexone: naltrexone competitively antagonises the mu opioid receptor which is the primary site of action for heroin and other opioids.
Use of naltrexone during regular or dependent heroin use may trigger a severe opioid withdrawal syndrome. Patients should be heroin-free for
at least seven days before initiating naltrexone.3
Panax ginseng: animal studies suggest that Panax ginseng is able to counteract the analgesics and other effects of opiates.3
MAOIs: It has been suggested that use of MAOIs with central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including opiates, may result in
hypotension and exaggeration of the CNS and respiratory depressant effects.3 No case reports confirming this interaction were identified.
Drug – Hallucinogens: Includes a wide range of synthetic and plant based substances, e.g. Lysergic acid diethylamide –LSD or ‘acid',
Psilocybin – ‘magic mushrooms', mescaline (Peyote cactus, Lophophora williamsii)
Interactions – Antidepressants: small studies in LSD users suggest that chronic use of TCAs and lithium may increase subjective effects of
LSD, whereas chronic use of SSRIs and MAOIs may reduce the subjective effects of LSD.1
Most hallucinogens act on serotonergic systems, so caution should be exercised with other serotonergic drugs.
Drug – Gamma hydroxybutyrate – GHB (Also called fantasy or liquid ecstasy)
Interactions – Sedative drugs: pronounced sedative effects of GHB likely to be increased by concurrent use of other CNS depressants. Some
deaths reported implicate alcohol.1
Ritonavir and enzyme inhibitors: one case report describes near fatal CNS depression occurring in a man using GHB in combination with
ritonavir and saquinavir. He had used similar and higher doses of GHB in the past without other meds and no ill effects.1
Drug – Amyl nitrite
Interactions
– Sildenafil: concurrent use of nitrates with sildenafil can lead to potentially fatal hypotension.
Drug – Volatile substances
Includes: petrol, fuels, glue, aerosol propellants, paint thinners, other solvents
Interactions – No particular drug interactions were identified. Specific toxicity profiles vary substantially between agents.
Angela Dean PhD is a Research Fellow at Kids 9. Gelfand E, Cannon C. Rimonabant: a selective blocker 19. Rothman R, Baumann M. Therapeutic and adverse in Mind Research, Mater Child and Youth Mental of the cannabinoid CB1 receptors for the management actions of serotonin transporter substrates. Pharmacology of obesity, smoking cessation and cardiometabolic risk and Therapeutics 2002;95:73-88.
Health Service, Brisbane, Queensland. factors. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2006;15(3):307-15.
20. Vuori E, Henry J Ojanpera I, Nieminen R, Savolainen T, 10. McKetin R, McLaren J, Kelly E, Hall W, Hickman M. Wahlsten P et al. Death following ingestion of MDMA Estimating the number of regular and dependent (ecstasy) and moclobemide. Addiction 2003;98(3):365-8.
methamphetamine users in Australia: NDARC Technical 21. Kaskey G. Possible interaction between an MAOI and Report No. 230.
ecstasy. Am J of Psychiatry 1992;149:411-412.
1. Wills S. Drugs of abuse. 2nd ed. London: Pharmaceutical 11. Stafford J, Degenhardt L, Black E et al. Australian Drug 22. Shankaran M, Yamamoto B, Gudelsky G. Press; 2005.
Trends 2005: findings from the illicit drug reporting system Involvement of the serotonin transporter in the 2. Copeland J, Gerber S, Dillon P, Swift W. Cannabis: (IDRS): NDARC Monograph No. 59; 2005.
formation of hydroxyl radicals induced by 3,4- answers to your questions. Canberra: Australian National 12. Dean A. Pharmacology of psychostimulants. In: Baker methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Eur J Pharmacol Council on Drugs; 2006.
A, Lee N, Jenner L, eds. Models of intervention and 3. MICROMEDEX® Healthcare Series, Thomson care for psychostimulant users - National Drug Strategy 23. Stein D, Rink J. Effects of Ecstasy blocked by serotonin MICROMEDEX, Greenwood Village, Colorado. (Edition Monograph Series,. 2nd ed. Canberra: Australian reuptake inhibitors. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60(7):485.
expires 3/2005).
Government Department of Health and Aging; 2004.
24. Lauerma H. Interaction of serotonin reuptake inhibitor 4. GW Pharma Ltd. Product Monograph: Sativex(R).
13. Degenhardt L, Topp L. Crystal meth use among polydrug and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine? Biological 5. Zullino D, Delessert D, Eap C, Preisig M, Baumann P. users in Sydney's dance party subculture: characteristics, Tobacco and cannabis smoking cessation can lead use patterns and associated harms. Int J of Drug Policy 25. Brownlow H, Pappachan J. Pathophysiology of cocaine to intoxication with clozapine or olanzapine. Int Clin abuse. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2002;19(6):395-414.
14. McKetin R, McLaren J, Kelly E. Methamphetamine supply 26. Wan S, Matin S, Azarnoff D. Kinetics, salivary excretion 6. Sundram S, Copolov D, Dean B. Clozapine decreases in Australia: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre; of amphetamine isomers, and effect of urinary pH. Clin [3H] CP 55940 binding to the cannabinoid 1 receptor Pharmacol Ther 1978;23(5):585-90.
in the rat nucleus accumbens. Naunyn Schmiedebergs 15. Wu D, Otton S, Inaba T, Kalow W, Sellers E. Interactions 27. Hales G, Roth N, Smith D. Possible fatal interaction Arch Pharmacol 2005;371(5):428-33.
of amphetamine analogs with human liver CYP2D6. between protease inhibitors and methamphetamine. 7. Lukas S, Sholar M, Kouri E, Fukuzako H, Mendelson Biochem Pharmacol 1997;53(11):1605-12.
Antiviral Therapy 2000;5:19.
J. Marihuana smoking increases plasma cocaine levels 16. Prior F, Isbister G, Dawson A, Whyte I. Serotonin 28. Foltin R, Fischman M. Ethanol and cocaine interactions and subjective reports of euphoria in male volunteers. toxicity with therapeutic doses of dexamphetamine and in humans: cardiovascular consequences. Pharmacol Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994;48(3):715-21.
venlafaxine. MJA 2002;176(5):240-1.
Biochem Behav 1988;31(4):877-83.
8. Foltin R, Fischman M, Pedroso J, Pearlson G. Marijuana 17. Flemenbaum A. Methylphenidate: a catalyst for 29. Darke S, Hall W. Heroin overdose: research and and cocaine interactions in humans: cardiovascular the tricyclic antidepressants? Am J Psychiatry evidence-based intervention. J Urban Health consequences. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 18. Oesterheld J, Armstrong S, Cozza K. Ecstasy: pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. Psychosomatics 2004;45(1):84-87.
Volume 25 Number 9 September 2006

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