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Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's . Page 1 of 32 Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause
heart disease
by Dr John Briffa on 15 January 2010 in Cholesterol and Statins, Food and Medical Politics, Healthy Eating,
Unhealthy Eating!
One of things I try and do on this blog is right what I see as nutritional wrongs. So, if there's acommon perception that artificial sweeteners are better than sugar for weight loss, but there'sreal y no evidence for that, then I'm inclined to write about it. If the evidence suggests thatmargarine is likely to be unhealthier than butter, I'l write about that too. Similarly, I've beenkeen to point out that it appears that saturated fat, widely taken as to be artery-clogging andheart disease-provoking, is nothing of the sort.
I have written more than once about this, most recently here. This review of the literaturefound no evidence that saturated fat causes heart disease. And it's a shame (in my opinion,anyway), that this study got no mainstream publicity.
The same, appears to be true, of a recent report published in the Annals of Nutrition andMetabolism [1]. You can read a complete version of this report here. The whole edition of thisjournal was dedicated to reporting an ‘Expert Consultation' held jointly by the World HealthOrganization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the US. Theconsultation took a wide, sweeping look at the relationship between fats, physiology andhealth, and took place in late 2008. One of the things that was inevitably a focus of theconsultation was the link between saturated fat and heart disease.
The ‘experts' responsible for assessing this relationship looked at two lines of evidence:epidemiological studies and intervention studies. Let's look at both in turn.
Epidemiological studies look at the relationship between factors (such as smoking and lungcancer, exercise and dementia, saturated fat and heart disease) in populations. These studiescan only real y tel us about associations between things, but can't general y be used to informus if one thing is causing another. Nevertheless, if saturated fat does truly cause heart disease(like we've been told for the last few decades), then the epidemiological evidence should showthat higher levels of saturated fat are associated with a higher risk of heart disease (alsoknown as ‘coronary heart disease' or ‘CHD' for short).
Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's . Page 2 of 32 Wel , according to the WHO/FAO report, there is no association. Here's what the report states: "Intake of SFA [saturated fatty acids] was not significantly associated with CHD mortality… SFA intake was not significantly associated CHD events [e.g. heart attacks]…" And now on to intervention studies In such studies, individuals a subjected to some sort of intervention (such as a medication,increased exercise or dietary change). The relevant intervention in this area is to put peopleon a low saturated fat diet diet, and see how they fare compared to individuals who are notsubjected to this change. Unlike epidemiological studies, intervention studies can prove‘causal' links between things. For example, if eating less saturated fat leads to a reduced riskof heart disease, then it's a pretty good bet that saturated fat causes heart disease (al otherthings being equal).
So, what did the WHO/FAO report find with regard to relevant intervention studies? Here'swhat: "…fatal CHD was not reduced by…the low-fat diets…" Just this week saw the publication of another huge study which assessed the relationshipbetween saturated fat and heart disease [2]. This study was actual y an amalgamation (meta-analysis) of 21 epidemiological studies. Taken al together, this review monitored almost350,000 people over between 5 and 23 years. And here's what it found: 1. No association between saturated fat and risk of heart disease 2. No association between saturated fat and risk of stroke You know what this al means, don't you? That there real y is no evidence that saturated fatcauses heart disease or cardiovascular disease general y.
Despite al this evidence to the contrary, I suspect the idea that saturated fat causes heartdisease wil perpetuate for some time. One reason for this has to do with cholesterol. There issome evidence that saturated fat puts cholesterol levels up, and we al know that cholesterolcauses heart disease, right? So, if saturated fat puts cholesterol up, it must increased the riskof heart disease too. Wel , this line of argument assumes that cholesterol causes heartdisease, and actual y the evidence shows this is far from assured. But even if it did, the logic isstil faulty. We could use the same logic to claim that if something causes cholesterol to fal itmust be good for heart health. So, if arsenic and cyanide reduce cholesterol, should we al beswigging these poisons down every day?




Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's . Page 3 of 32 Anyway, while the ‘cholesterol causes heart disease' paradigm is prevalent, I think saturatedfat is going to be in the firing line. Shame, because at worst it appears an innocent bystander.
Another reason that saturated fat is likely to get a hard time for some time yet has to do withthe fact that paradigms do tend to change very slowly. And at least some of this has to do witha reluctance some of us have to changing our minds about things we ‘know'. Some of us feelwe ‘know' saturated fat causes heart disease, because we've been told it so often andconsistently we're not even inclined to chal enge this notion. And if we happen to be healthprofessionals or academics who, at least in part, define ourselves by our ‘knowledge' and‘intel igence', it can be mightily difficult to admit that we were wrong.
Not being a literary type, I'm not real y a quote person either. But I do know at least one. It isBritish economist's John Maynard Keynes' assertion that When the facts change, I change mymind. What do you do, sir? How I would like to see health professionals and Governmentdepartments take a leaf out of Keynes' book, and make pronouncements regarding saturatedfat and other dietary factors based on science fact (not fiction).
1. Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2009; 55 (1-3).
2. Siri-Tarino PW, et al. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the associationof saturated fat with cardiovascular disease Am J Clin Nutr 13 January 2010 [epub ahead ofprint].
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Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's . Page 4 of 32 Related Posts:
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instead
< Artificial sweeteners fail to fool the brain Is another reason why ‘primal' and low-carb diets work because they're simple? > 85 Responses to Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Margaret Wilde 15 January 2010 at 5:15 pm #
"It is British economist's John Maynard Keynes' assertion that "When the facts change, I change my mind. What do you do, sir?"" That's a great quote you've given us, Dr Briffa! Thank you.
It's very disturbing that Government agencies condemn ‘fatty food' so stridently. I rememberreading years ago about very young children in a family actual y dying because their foodcontained so little fat! – Their wel -meaning but il -informed parents were under the impressionthat a low fat intake was healthy and had thought they were doing their best for their children.
The highly paid government ‘experts' who are constantly given airtime are clearly not readingup-to-date research as you are doing, Dr Briffa, and yet keeping up with new research shouldbe part of the job description, surely? – I wonder if/when anyone who has suffered harmbecause of accepting the ‘expert' advice wil sue for professional negligence, or whatever thecorrect terminology is… Dr John Briffa 15 January 2010 at 5:24 pm #
"I wonder if/when anyone who has suffered harm because of accepting the ‘expert' advice wilsue for professional negligence, or whatever the correct terminology is…" Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's . Page 5 of 32 I don't want to be unduly cynical, but my sense is that only once we have one more more classactions instigated by those who appear to have suffered at the hands of unsupportable andunscientific advice, wil real progress be made.
Margaret Wilde 15 January 2010 at 5:45 pm #
"I don't want to be unduly cynical, but my sense is that only once we have one more more class actions instigated by those who appear to have suffered at the hands of unsupportableand unscientific advice, wil real progress be made." I think you are right, John.
Chris 15 January 2010 at 7:09 pm #
We're lacking a few key concepts to get the case across. It is not just a question of persistence with the old and resistance to the new. The issues range much wider in society. Iam working on something. My family complain I am obsessed, a rift is developing with siblings,my thoughts isolate me from the rest of humanity, my thoughts distract me, I miss motorwayjunctions for being lost in thought. It's madness, John, but truly I would go insane if I didn'tpersist and run with my convictions. Luckily, one or two people express recognition andsupport in the ideas I run with.
‘Trick and Treat' (Barry Groves) resounds with me because of the lengths he goes to il ustratethe corruption. The burgeoning cost to the health service is unsustainable.
I have developed one or two conceptual tools that contribute to a wider expose. Something,even I am not quite sure yet, is dropping out of this melange (sometimes blancmange) ofthoughts in my head. When it does I'l have some weaponry to counter this madness. Once it'scomplete I wil wil ingly share the reasoning and concepts.
Thanks for the blog and thanks for the references, John. You are a source of great inspiration.
Hilda Glickman 15 January 2010 at 8:38 pm #
It is not nutritionists but dieticians who perpetuate these myths. It is al so simple. Eat fat that we were meant to eat such as unprocessed nuts and seeds, free range meat , oily fish. Keepaway from ALL processed fats that have been made in a lab. However the problem is the wayin which animlas have been raised. Eat organic grass fed beef (if possible). See Dr Myhil -fabsite on healthy eating. Hilda Glickman Nutritionist Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's . Page 6 of 32 Hilda Glickman 15 January 2010 at 8:38 pm #
Hilda Glickman says: It is not nutritionists but dieticians who perpetuate these myths. It is al so simple. Eat fat thatwe were meant to eat such as unprocessed nuts and seeds, free range meat , oily fish. Keepaway from ALL processed fats that have been made in a lab. However the problem is the wayin which animlas have been raised. Eat organic grass fed beef (if possible). See Dr Myhil -fabsite on healthy eating. Hilda Glickman Nutritionist Peter Silverman 15 January 2010 at 9:21 pm #
It seems like most recent research absolves saturated fat of causing heart disease but implicates it as a cause of breast cancer and other cancers.
Edward 15 January 2010 at 9:27 pm #
In physics at least (my former field of study) paradigms tend to over-shoot – rather like cartoon characters going past the edsge of a cliff – until the evidence for rebuttal is way pastthe seemingly necessary level. They then flip remarkably quickly.
It has even been suggested that the paradigm shift requires a generational change, so thatthose who know "how it is" have retired and been replaced by those brought up on the newevidence.
Catherine Dignan 15 January 2010 at 10:30 pm #
It is very difficult to change entrenched ideas particularly when they are peddled as gospel by the medical profession, who I am reliably informed don't receive much in the way ofnutritional training. But at least some progress has been made in the last ten years: thebenefits of fish oils, for example, have been recognised and not lumped together in the "al fatsare bad for you" mantra as they were until quite recently, in spite of the fact that fats andcholestorol itself are essential building blocks needed by the body.
As regards saturated fats, Dr Natasha Campbel McBride has some interesting things to sayabout these and cholestorol in her book "Put Your Heart in Your Mouth". Referring to Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's . Page 7 of 32 cholestorol, she says "If you are found at the scene of the crime you are likely to be blamed forit". Damaged cholestorol is another matter.
So what is it that damages cholestorol? She describes how the endothelium becomes injuredand the liver sends more and more cholestorol in an attempt at repair in a never endingprocess of inflammation with the presence of C-reactive protein, not cholestorol being theuniversal marker for heart attack and stroke. This process of chronic inflammation as the rootcause of most degenerative diseases of the Western world has been described by manywriters in the field. In addition, as far back as 2002, Dr Briffa pointed out in his book "UltimateHealth" other factors such as damaged fats, especial y hydrogenated fats and trans-fatty acids,the presence of homocysteine and the importance of control ing insulin by avoiding and excessof refined foods and too much sugar or anything which converts quickly to sugar such asprocessed carbohydrates. The link between cardiovascular health and the development ofother major diseases such as diabetes, poor thyroid function and probably also dementia,too,makes sense since many of these also point to a lack of nutrients rather than the presence ofone single substance as a likely explanation of such epidemics. Nutrients such as magnesium,Vitamin D, B vitamins, co-enzyme Q10, selenium and many others are probably lacking insufficient quantitiy in the modern diet. As the saying goes, if it is a plant, eat it; if it's made in aplant then don't.
There are probably many factors underlying the process of chronic inflammatory disease aswel as diet. Gum health is known to be important as wel as lack of activity. A recent studylinked the number of hours spent watching TV directly with poor vascular health. In one sense,although they often died of infections, the Victorian working classes were apparently muchhealthier than us because their lives were more physical y demanding.
Jamie 16 January 2010 at 12:55 am #
Thanks for that summary. I like this extract from:Review of Fat and Fatty Acid Requirements and Criteria for Developing Dietary GuidelinesSmit, L.A. ; Mozaffarian, D. ; Wil ett, W.
Ann Nutr Metab 2009;55:44-55 "The 1994 FAO/WHO report recommended a saturated fat intake <10% of energy for adults.
The most often cited criteria for saturated fat recommendations are effects on onephysiological measure of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, namely LDL-C. Saturated fatsincrease LDL-C, but also increase HDL-C anddecrease triglyceride levels, resulting in little net effect on total cholesterol:HDL-C comparedwith carbohydrates [Mensink et al., 2003]. Studies suggesting adverse effects of saturated fatonheart disease often use polyunsaturated fatty acids or whole grains and fruits and vegetablesas replacements for saturated fat [Mann, 2002]. In contrast, exchanging easily digestedcarbohydrates for saturated fat (such as in a low-fat diet) would have little predicted net benefiton serum lipids and lipoproteins for reducing risk of CVD, because this would lower HDL Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's . Page 8 of 32 proportional y as much as it lowers LDL, and also raises triglycerides [Sacks and Katan, 2002].
Therefore, limits on saturated fat intake should be considered in the specific context of thereplacement nutrient, as replacement with carbohydrates(particularly easily digestible carbohydrates) may have little benefit." I note too in another passage that reductions in saturated fat only ever showed reductions inCHD after the inclusion of the Oslo study to the meta-analysis. However, this study alsoincluded a smoking cessation programme so the effect likely came from that rather than thereduction in SFA.
Until recently, I was a health professional (nutritionist) that towed the party line on this & otheraspects of public health nutrition. And I note too that one of the papers referenced by you Johnwas from the University of Otago where I trained & was written by my ‘fat' lecturer, Dr MurraySkeaff (who has always been pro-fat but obviouysly also had to tow the line in teaching thatSFA was implicated in CHD/CVD).
I real y started to smel a large rodent with what I had be taught when looking at vitamin D circa2006 – what I had been told about vitamin D wasn't stacking up. Anyway, I am very glad that Ididn't go on to study dietetics (would most likely have been a lost cause then… I recalcleaning up after a dietician col eague tried to convince a farmer to go vegetarian!), that I haveremained open to new information, that I have stayed outside of public health (means I cansay what I like in terms of advice given), and that I have been fortunate to tap into like-mindedcritical thinkers such as yourself Dr Briffa.
Alison Simpson 16 January 2010 at 12:56 am #
It is not only health professionals and the government that perpetuate these myths about the role of saturated fat and cholestrol in heart disease …. what about the food industry and bigpharma? With the start of the new year, predictably al the press and adverstising is focussedas per usual on the so cal ed healthy alternative of the low-fat if not no-fat diet. There's toomuch money being made by big business, so I imagine they are keen to keep these kinds ofstudies under the radar! As the saying goes ‘Fol ow the money'!! Keep up the good work John– you're one of the few medics that talks any sense! Sue 16 January 2010 at 3:05 am #
I can't see how saturated fat is implicated in breast cancer and cancers? Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's . Page 9 of 32 Dr John Briffa 16 January 2010 at 11:02 am #
Can you substantiate your claim that saturated fat is implicated in breast cancer withreferences? Derek 16 January 2010 at 11:25 am #
Back in '06, I suffered a heart attack. The condition was not recognized for around 6 hours, because I had entered zazen (Zen meditation) to keep calm and transcend the pain of what Ithought was a stomach condition such as an ulcer. My heart rate and BP remained normalthroughout and it was only an ECG that confirmed heart attack. During a subsequentangiogram, I was told my arteries were in A1 condition. My blood was very clotted and this wasgenetic and that condition would be addressed.
I was put on statins, beta blockers, an ace inhibitor and aspirin on leaving hospital, and my lifebecame one big struggle with constant exhaustion and muscle pain. I was also on a low-fatdiet. After two years of this, I quit al the drugs except for the low-dose aspirin and got myenergy back. My muscles however have remained painful. I have also learned that loweringmy cholesterol too much with the statins may have been causing such side-effects and thatmay be permanent.
I now monitor my cholesterol and it is according to the "authorities" high. My "sticky blood" isfine. Whether or not the drugs would have extended my life or not, I wil never know, as "howlong is a piece of string?" I prefer quality to quantity and one thing is certain… we al diesooner or later and in nature, death comes with little warning.
Margaret Wilde 16 January 2010 at 2:38 pm #
If you want to lower your cholesterol you can do so by minimising your sodium intake. Seehttp://rayhayden.us/lowsodium.html This is one of the many benefits of sodium reduction that is rarely mentioned.
Susan 16 January 2010 at 5:16 pm #
Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 10 of 32 Apart from heart disease I have read that high cholesterol is associated with increased risk ofAlzheimers disease.
What's your comment on this Dr Briffa? Peter Silverman 16 January 2010 at 5:20 pm #
Dr. B: you asked for some citations about saturated fat and increased cancer risk.
It looks to me like we don't have the final answer yet on saturated fat and cancer risk.
Jill H 16 January 2010 at 9:26 pm #
Jonathan Dawid a physicist at Harvard wrote ‘ Every scientist is aware of the limitations of his craft. How can it be otherwise in a profession where each step of progress requires theconsignment of another man's work (and often one's own) to the dustbin'. A lack of arroganceand an open mind must be important attributes to a scientist. I remember reading back in 1994that we were al in danger of suffering overdoses of Vit D because too many foods werefortified with it. Fast forward to 2010! In his book ‘The Great Food Gamble' John Humphreyswrites that we cannot afford to be ‘blind worshippers' at the alter of science because then youdo not spot things that start going wrong, for example what might happen if we turned cowsinto carnivores. Sometimes intuition and culture are the most important tools we have andsadly the thread is being broken – mothers no longer pass on recipes to children for examplein many cases. I lived in Hol and for a while and a traditional dish there was stamppot (kaleand spicy sausage with lots of other root veggies); my Irish grandmother made a mean IrishStew (lamb, lots of root veggies and pearl barley when available) Al animals of course wouldbe pasture grazed and free ranging to use their own intuition and graze on rich herbs, wildthyme and clover and bird's-foot trefoil. The animals need no scientists to tel the what is goodfor them and where they should go to get the nutrition they need. Michael Pol en' words springto mind from his book ‘In Defense of Food' – Eat food, not too much, mostly plants' Jamie 16 January 2010 at 9:58 pm #
Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 11 of 32 Given your leg pain & your use of statins, I'd suggest a vitamin D test if you haven't alreadyhad one as your vit D status may have been compromised.
Hilda Glickman 16 January 2010 at 11:56 pm #
Cholesterol is neither good nor bad . It is needed by every cel in the body. It is oxidised cholesterol that is the problem. It is used to patch up damaged arteries caused by freeradicals. These cause inflammation so maybe statins work by reducing inflammation. A diethigh in antioxidants is vital to prevent thisThose on stains should read abou coQ10 as statins reduce this in the body. CoQ10 is neededfor energy, the heart , almost everywhere in the body.
Sue 17 January 2010 at 3:54 am #
Peter, those are al news reports – need to read the actual paper.
Sue 17 January 2010 at 4:04 am #
Peter, just by reading those news articles it doesn't make me think that saturated fat is implicated in breast cancer and other cancers. I think they are trying to implicate saturated fatanyway they can.
Richard 17 January 2010 at 6:37 pm #
Re: Fat and cancer. Like sugar, an excess of fat (approx 37% and above of energy in diet) may impair insulin sensitivity… which can upset hormone balance in the favour of theproliferation of cancer tumors.
Vessby B, Uusitupa M, Hermansen, K, Riccardi G, Rivel ese A, Tapsel LC, Nalsen C,Berglund L, Louheranta A, Rasmussen BM, Calvert GD, Maffetone A, Pedersen E, GustafssonIB & Storlien LH (2001) Substituting dietary saturated for monounsaturated fat impairs insulinsensitivity in healthy men and women: the KANWU study. Diabetologia 44: 312-319 Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 12 of 32 Tanya 17 January 2010 at 7:50 pm #
Re those news reports The one about cancer of the smal intestine states that rates have been increasing since the1970s – round about the time then that people started eating more processed foods (whichoften included trans and polyunsaturates), and were also told to increase their carbs!Coincidence??? Chris 17 January 2010 at 8:44 pm #
"A recent study linked the number of hours spent watching TV directly with poor vascularhealth. In one sense, although they often died of infections, the Victorian working classes wereapparently much healthier than us because their lives were more physical y demanding." I'm in agreement, perhaps sedentary lives are an issue and maybe a good basal level ofactivity intrinsic to lifestyle beats general sedentarianism compensated by an occasionalresentful half hour at the gym; an observation that may apply to some visitors I've seen atgyms.
Studies linking hours spent watching TV with poor health have a trait in common with the FSAstudy into the content of primary school lunchboxes. They can't say anything about thefunctionality of food in health but they can implicate behaviour and practice.
Both share the trait that the results are largely predictable.
With the TV study, is it the implied inactivity that has consequence, or is it the transmissionand reception of al the advertising that directs individuals to stock up on naff groceries, or is itboth?And the TV is interesting, what about the FSA ‘Mutton Fat Blocks Drains' anti-saturated fatmessage that would wil ful y direct consumers to migrate to polyunsaturated fats? Is that apromoter of good health or a promoter of il health. And is the marketing of margarine usingfunctional claims applied to it being fortified with omega-3 EFAs ("…unique blend of essentialfatty acids") directing consumers to improved or reduced health? Bear in mind, thepolyunsaturates are pro-inflammatory, and we have a poor conversion rate for the ‘healthy',supposed counter-inflammatory, plant derived omega-3 that is used to fortify the product, apoint recently vehemently and impatiently registered in a petition to EFSA by Wnkler and co-signatories.
If the content of primary school lunchboxes is largely snack foods conjured from sugar, refinedcarbs and vegetable oils high in polyunsaturated fat how did they come to be there? Nothing todo with the TV and supermarket marketing tricks, then? The Victorians had to battle infectious disease. Quacks use the term ‘communicable' to meaninfectious. Our modern afflictions are referred to as ‘non-communicable'. Might that be amisnomer? Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 13 of 32 When I travel I see posters of David Cameron proclaiming his intent to, "cut the deficit, not theNHS." Might a mantra of, ".tough on inflammation, tough on the causes of inflammation.", bemore enlightened? Google ‘Mente systematic review', that's the study John brought to our attention back in April,and it returns few results. None of our national papers picked up on it. Unilever, one maker ofmarg, have a marketing budget of £2.6bn: the papers clamour for a slice of that as advertisingrevenue. That kind of money is corrupting influence. It's the corruption that kil s me.
John's correct, these studies and reviews won't get the coverage they deserve and it isdisappointing. Science minister, Lord Drayson, says al is wel with coverage of science in themedia. Hmm.
Cath, I like your points, can you provide a link or reference to that TV study? Jill H 17 January 2010 at 8:53 pm #
I like your blog Dr Briffa – it gets me thinking. And al the varied and informative contributions get me thinking too. I revisited today Daphne Mil er, M.D.s book "The JungleEffect" to look again at what has been said about the diet of Crete (upon which many of theelements of the supposedly heart-healthy Mediterranean diet are based) And what she seemsto conclude is that it is not necessarily what is in the diet that could be a causative factor forheart disease – for example saturated fat – but more to do with the synergy of a diet andtherefore what used to be eaten in a protective diet and is now left out. For example if animalsare no longer pasture fed – we no longer get from that meat Omega 3 EFA's along with thesaturated fat. In fact what she seemed to discover in Crete (apart from being told that she musteat slowly!!) is a lesson in the importance of synergy. Using a research paper by AntoniaTrichopoulou that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine looking at Cretanfood and giving it a points rating she found the fol owing ‘To my surprise, al these supposedlyhealthy foods such as fish, vegetables, fruits, beans, grains and olive oil al had a hazard ratiofor death that was only or slightly less than one. Furthermore, foods general y consideredunhealthy such as saturated animal fats had a ratio of only slightly more than one. So howcould it be that the Med diet as a whole could be so protective against heart disease ….andyet individual parts of the diet did not stand out as being extra protective?' The conclusion shecame to was that it was a perfect example as to why we have to focus on indigenous dietsrather than specific nutrients or individual foods. It could be said that the healing effects of aMediterranean diet could not be distil ed down to a handful of specific foods – it was the foodsynergy – the way the foods interacted in the recipes – for example olive oil and lemonincreased the availability of nutrients in the greens and antioxidants in the olive oil and greensprevented lipid peroxidation of saturated fats. And a glass of wine, of course, containedwonderful y protective polyphenols (sadly just the one!) Dr John Briffa 17 January 2010 at 9:08 pm #
Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 14 of 32 Thanks for your kind words. And as far as the Mediterranean/Cretan diet goes, we should also perhaps remember non-dietary ‘confounding factors' including sunlight and psychologicaland social factors too.
Chris 18 January 2010 at 11:58 am #
Dr J – a timely post. Ronald Krauss's meta-analysis (http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/ajcn.2009.27725v1),on the association of saturatedfat and heart disease (conclusion: there is no association), did the rounds of the ‘paleo blogs'earlier this month. This did not seem to get widespread exposure on the news.
Today I see this story getting widespread coverage "Butter is utterly bad for everyone, sayssurgeon" (http://www.metro.co.uk/news/809426-ban-butter-and-live-longer-says-top-surgeon).
The fear of satfat is a meme that wil take years to ‘breed out' of popular consciousness. Tomuch has been invested in creating this myth to al ow it to die easily. The pharmaceutical andexercise industries stand to lose mil ions from the debunking of this myth and the governmentwil lose a lot of credibility from its deconstruction.
There wil be no change soon.
Keep up the good work.
Joseph 18 January 2010 at 2:50 pm #
Good Morning Dr Briffa. This morning news contains comments from Mr Kolvekar, a consultant at University Col ege London Hospitals. He suggests that butter should be banned!The first person i though of when i read this was your good self so i though i would post thisand see if you have any comment on Mr Kolvekars suggestion? Dr John Briffa 18 January 2010 at 3:17 pm #
If we believe that science should inform such advice, then it seems to me the Mr Kolvekar isjust plain WRONG regarding his opinion of saturated fat/butter.
Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 15 of 32 Don't call me cynical !! 18 January 2010 at 6:31 pm #
.even if I am, sometimes.
I just took my regular cyber-promenade to the Food Standards Agency pages and I could nothelp but notice (Joseph) that Kolvekars' release coincides with the Agencies phase 2promotion of the anti-saturated fat campaign. Link and Link. Despite my cynicism, I expresslydo not want Dr Briffa or any visitors to his blog to think that there may be an implied connectionbetween these reported events or that a leading brand of margarine might be behind them,because without supporting evidence that would be utterly irresponsible. But between you, me,and the gatepost I do know that the pursuit of profit can make perfectly ordinary people do thestrangest things, when they work as part of a large and faceless corporation.
(Jil ) As regards synergies is it not so that certain vitamins etc are fat soluble? Although Iwonder if (some) Nutritionists sometimes overplay the synergy card, fat solubility of certain vitsand mins is definitely a synergy.
Can someone verify a query about calcium in milk – does reducing the fat content of the milkrender the calcium to be less bio-available? Final y, healthy green leaves can be high in fat. What should we make of that?Watercress is more that 23% fat! Check for your self.
The packs have nutrition-boxes so have a look when next shopping. You might needreminding that Watercress is mostly water and you just need to work the percentage accordingto the total amount of ‘dry matter' which is about 5.9g per 100g of product. Wil they launch low-fat watercress, I wonder? The other (non-dietician)Kate 18 January 2010 at 8:58 pm #
I was going to comment on the ‘leading heart surgeon recommends banning butter' too.
Interesting points in ‘The Independent's' comments pages. Al back up what people have beenwriting here and more specifical y pointing the finger at the ‘healthy spread' (something to dowith flowering plants!) manufacturer. Can't name names of course as people seem to be suedfor tel ing the truth (as in the latest Private Eye issue about kidney disease and contrast dye).
Keep up the good work.
Chris 18 January 2010 at 9:03 pm #
To cynical and to Kate.
Unilever do feature as cited on the Advertising Standards Agency (ASA) website as receivingadvertising standards complaints with some frequency, so counter ‘healthy spread sentiment'may be gathering. ASA do have to take FSA nutritional guidance at face value though, and thetraceable history shows complaints are not general y upheld.
Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 16 of 32 ‘Cynical', I like your points, but had you considered timing of Kolvekars release might havesomething to do with the anticipated publication of this second reference (Siri-Tarino) Dr Briffabogs about? Nobody could be sure, and it could also be a reaction to increasing hostilityexpressed via complaints to ASA. There's no way of knowing for certain.
Timing can be serendipitous. Back in Apiril 2008 Mente was just days after the FSA anti-sat-fatlaunch, and now Siri-Tarino e-pub preempts FSA phase 2 launch.
Make the most of serendipity.
That said, are we certain evidence is clear against excess of poly-unsaturates?Kate, mis-appropriation of knowledge economy is a common defense tactic as was the casewith tobacco industry.
Dr John Briffa 18 January 2010 at 9:33 pm #
I was fol owing comments regarding this ‘story' on the Daily Mail website. By mid-afternoon,there were more than 300 comments, and almost al of them were in the margarine isrubbish/nothing wrong with butter/don't talk rubbish vein. Very heartening.
Then, about 4.00 pm the comments just vanished into the thin air.
And then the piece was pul ed from the front page of the website (usual y stories sit there for aday or more).
All very odd, though I'm sure there's a rational explanation for al this.
Dr John Briffa 18 January 2010 at 10:20 pm #
Update: comments are back on the Daily Mail piece. You can read the piece and commentshere: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1244048/Ban-butter-save-thousands-lives-says-heart-surgeon.html Janet Alton 18 January 2010 at 10:29 pm #
Worth pointing out (as I do to personal contacts ad nauseam, I'm sure) a couple of related facts that are never mentioned in the context of saturated fat and cholesterol.
1. Carbohydrates wil raise cholesterol as wel . Why? Because when your food is beingmetabolised (turned into sugars for fuel) BOTH fats and carbohydrates are converted into the Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 17 of 32 SAME substance (acetyl coA) as part of the process. Acetyl coA is the basic building block forcholesterol.
2. Cholesterol cannot be synthesised by the body from acetyl co-A unless insulin is active inthe bloodstream/liver. When is insulin at its highest activity? When CARBOHYDRATE hasbeen eaten.
So it could be argued that a high-carb diet is just as detrimental as a high-fat diet, in thecontext of cholesterol synthesis.
Tanya 19 January 2010 at 1:33 am #
Oh – look whose name appears in this article on the Unilever website! Tal 19 January 2010 at 10:49 pm #
I just wish to thank you for your integrity, honesty and courage in writing this post. You havebal s that other media doctors and nutritionists do not Jennifer, Geriatric Clinical Nurse Specialist, USA 20 January 2010 at 9:15 am #
Dr. Briffa and al - I applaud everyone for seeing through our mainstream medical/health advisors who areintimate bedfel ows with unethical profit driven pharmaceutical and food industries. Yourcomments are so encouraging. Daily I see the majority of 75 yr and older patients on statinsand "low fat heart healthy diets". Both they and their caregivers (often very fatigued spouses orsiblings) ignorantly and obediently suffer for what is simply the result of our modern world'sbiggest profit makers. I just want to weep at the unnecessary suffering. Every day Irecommend a "trial" off of statins and a reduction in numerous other meds for patients with"dementia", neuropathies, muscle pain, fatigue, fal s etc. But it is an uphil one voice battle. Dr.
Briffa your blog has given me new fuel to be (not to be vainglorious) practice FlorenceNightingale ethics. Her battle was to provide her patients the basics-clean air, sunshine, andclean environment. These basics plus so much more as you've shown in your blogs are stilignored today. I am very tired of my ethical dissonance, working in acute care, but at the sametime chipping away at mistruths to advocate for real quality of life into old age. Western societymedicine are walking on dangerous grounds while on one hand Pal iative or sx management Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 18 of 32 gains esteem but at the same time accept this suffering as inevitable without looking at why itis becoming so prevelant. I could go on. .
I'm afraid I've rambled and broke whatever blog brevity rules there are but it was cathartic as Ihave never used any venue to talk about this before.
I have read chlsterol myth a couple of times (gave it away both times) plus others like yourself.
Has anyone developed a simple point by point rebuttal on the use of statins and low sat fatsetc. I would like something like that so I can provide talking points to physicians who want toknow the truth or question my recommendations. One advantage I may have is the biggestphysician group I work with are al trained in critical research appraisal. I have sat through twoof their seminars, ironical y they never use statin studies as examples of poor studies.
thankyou for taking time to read this.
Jgl Chris 20 January 2010 at 11:51 am #
Some short points late in the day on this.
Can "ethical dissonance" always be expressed briefly? My eyes are moist after readingJennifer above.
Lunchbox survey is available on FSA webpages.
Around this time last year stats for new diagnoses of type 2 diabetes during 2008 werereleased to the media. To refresh memories it was 150,000 for 2008 as against 100,000 for2007. Have you, Dr Briffa, or anyone heard the stats for 2009? Kris Johnson, reformed dietitian 20 January 2010 at 8:55 pm #
On the connection between Alzh. and cholesterol – Inflammation has been associated with Alzh. and many other chronic diseases. The body's response to inflammation is try to quel theinflammation, and one of the tools it uses is cholesterol. Hence elevated cholesterol is theresult, not the cause.
Kris Johnson, reformed dietitian 20 January 2010 at 9:41 pm #
Here are some links to omega-6 research. (click on my name) Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 19 of 32 Christer Sundqvist 21 January 2010 at 12:05 am #
I sure was delighted to receive, read, analyze and share with my friends Dr. Krauss excel ent meta-analysis published in an early January issue of AJCN. Needless to say, I wasof course reading other blogger's responses to the mentioned Krauss-paper. I enjoyed readingthe discussion in Dr. Briffa's blog.
My simple blog posting (in Finnish!) triggered a massive debate on the role of saturated fats inour food. Prominent Finnish scientists from abroad and living in Finland agreed on theimportance of this paper. However, low-fat vs. high-fat stil is a very controversial issue inFinland. I managed to toggle down a short summary in English. Otherwise the debate is mostlyin Finnish, a tongue you might not be familiar with. Anyhow, here is first the short summary,and the the link to my blog.
Summary in EnglishA considerable amount of readers from the USA, Sweden, Spain and Germany drop in on myhealthblog. Most of you might not be familiar with the Finnish language. To make yourdisappointment smal er, I have decided to toggle down a short summary in English, inparticular if the news I am delivering might deserve international attention.
Some days ago the famous lipid scientist Ronald M Krauss sent me his latest meta-analysis inAJCN of saturated fats vs. cardiovascular disease. Being a keen lover of butter and saturatedfats, I found Krauss' paper of utmost importance. Decades of decades the gospel of low-fathas been heard here in Finland. My friend director Pekka Puska is in love with his North-Karelia-project, and his message has dominated the discussion of fat and carbohydrate eversince the early 1970-ies.
In a scientific meeting organized by simply me, doctor Mikael Fogelholm and director PekkaPuska in February 9th 2009, people of Finland could feel the first real signs of a tide that mightbe turning. Even here in low-fat Finland things could change for the better: fat is not thenumber one kil er after al ! Director Mikael Fogelholm has several times indicated that thenational guidelines of nutrition are about to change for the better: less carbohydrates and morefats.
My discussion of the importance of Krauss' recent paper has provoked a lively discussion.
Several scientists have expressed their support for me and especial y for doctor Krauss. Weare struck by the astonishing fact: Not a single newspaper in Finland has taken up the issue ofsaturated fats vs. cardiovascular disease in the light of the new meta-analysis. However, wehave seen warnings not to consume too much butter. It is wrongly supposed to ruin yourhealth. I take great pains to summarize and analyze the discussion (in Finnish).
Please feel free to contact me, should you be interested in nutrition, health and fitness. Thosefamiliar with blog functions might be able to post their comments in other languages thanFinnish. Time permitting I wil make your comments available for the Finnish audience. I feelthe year of 2010 wil be a year when the renessaince of fat is gaining importance even here inthe far-away country of Finland. Fat lovers unite! Please feel free to contact me should you need any assistance considering the discussion offats here in Finland. I'l be happy to serve you.
Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 20 of 32 Christer SundqvistSport Nutrition, PhDFinland Catherine Dignan 21 January 2010 at 1:01 am #
For Chris and anyone else interested – the reference for the study on sedentary lifestyle and heart disease is as fol ows: Professor David Dunstan, from the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute in Victoria, Australia.
Don't call me cynical !! 21 January 2010 at 11:47 am #
Coverage of the heart consultants' press release cal ing for the banning of butter real y added some topicality to the thread.
I can't avoid noticing the release is very coincident in time with the launch of the second phaseof the FSA anti-saturated fat campaign.
Oddly, the consultants' name has appeared in timely coincidence before – as the above linkil ustrates.
The other (non-dietician)Kate 22 January 2010 at 12:56 pm #
Thanks Dr J, – I'l take your word for it that the Daily Mail comments are thankful y more rational than the ‘Oh my God, butter wil kil you!' reporting.
But, but, it's the Mail! Not my favourite newspaper, I'm an Indie girl.
Isn't it great that at some level there are so many more cholesterol sceptics now! Again – keep up the good work. I have MS by the way and I'l keep trying to spread (oops,sorry) the word on various sites. However, most people know that Omega 3 is better for youthan the inflammatory Omega 6.
Would it be possible for you to include an email alert to track replies to your blog?very best wishes,Kate Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 21 of 32 Nigeepoo 22 January 2010 at 8:48 pm #
RE Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, the right hand doesn't know what the left
hand's doing. From Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition: Introduction, "In contrast, the
high intake of saturated fatty acids, and to an even greater extent trans fatty acids,
substantial y contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases." WHAT?
Jon 25 January 2010 at 9:26 pm #
An increase of saturated fat may increase you hormone (estrogen) level that would have been depressed by suppressing your thyroid function with poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).
This could increase the likelyhood of estrogen-receptor cancers such as breast, etc. The key isto not suppress your immune system with PUFA and maintain sufficient vitamin d levels suchthat you have proper cel ular differentiation and don't get cancer in the first place because yourimmune system knows how to fight it.
Hilda Glickman 26 January 2010 at 1:12 am #
So cal ed polynsaturated fat is also saturated if it is hydrogenised as the hydrogen attaches to the bonds that should be there so not insat any more-a sat fat but a much worse one thanmeat etc.
Hilda Glickman 26 January 2010 at 2:42 am #
To Peter Silverman, If there are studies which associate eating sat fat with breast cancer this may be because ofother aspects of a high sat fat diet and not the fat intself. Saturated fat is from eggs, meat anddairy but these are often raised, produced etc with female hormones given to the animals. Thismay be the cause if there is one, So eat only organic grass fed meat etc Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 22 of 32 Peter Andrews 26 January 2010 at 11:07 pm #
The WHO/FAO is not a single report. Instead it is a set of papers, some of which state that saturated fat does not cause heart disease whereas there are other places such as theIntroduction article that say things such as "Incontrast, the high intake of saturated fatty acids, and toan even greater extent trans fatty acids, substantial y contributesto the development of cardiovascular diseases." While I am a fan of this blog, perhaps the title of this posting is not total y justified — at least inregard to the WHO/FAO report.
Saul Rogers 7 March 2010 at 3:11 am #
My mother had a series of heart attacks which left her incapacitated.
She was given statins and beta blockers which she was hesitant to use so they remaineduntouched.
Instead she fasted on water for 4 days which got her on her feet and al owed her to walkunaided thereafter. She also replaced the oral spray with cayenne pepper (organic) to greateffect.
Now she supplements with B3 (naicin), magnesium malate, vit c 1gram/day, Vit D 2000 iu ,multi vits, calcium, boric acid, virgin coconut oil.
Her diet is mainly vegetable with some meat. She avoids too much carbohydrate but when shedoes consume too much bread for example she experiences lethargy and angina.
Her progress has been remarkable considering that she has also continued to smoke duringthe past 2 years since her condition was identified. In her opinion her condition would havebeen normalised if she had ceased smoking permanently – hopeful y this wil be the casesoon.
Her diet before her heart attack was high in sugars/carbohydrate.
Her diet now stil contains fats but natural animal fats for the most part and coconut oil. Herstamina and ability to cope with strenuous exercise continues to improve while some of herfriends of similar age and condition have significantly deteriorated after fol owing courses ofstatins and beta blockers and maintaining a low fat diet.
Thanks for your articles – much appreciated David manovitch 14 April 2010 at 5:27 am #
I am a psychiatrist from the UK with an interest in the effects of nutrition upon health in general but mental health in particular. I have become increasingly aware throughout mycareer of the influences on the practice of medicine of the pharmaceutical companies, thosecompanies producing processed foods and the dairy industry. It is clear that a lot of money has Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 23 of 32 been made by the manufacturers of margarine and polyunsaturated cooking oils, and by thepharmaceutical companies who peddle drugs aimed at the cardiovascular system and mostnotably Statins. I am appal ed at the degree of influence that these bodies exert upon themedical profession and the number of people in the UK now who are on statins.
I am persuaded that the omega- six to omega three imbalance that existis in Western diets is apernicious influence, as is the widespread use of sugar, margarine and dairy products. Cow'smilk is intended for baby cows and not for adult humans. The dairy industry of course tel s usthat we wil suffer from calcium deficiency if we don't have lots of milk and butter etc. Whatthey don't tel us is that in China where the consumption of dairy products is extremely lowthey have very little breast cancer whereas approximately 1 in eight women wil develop it inthe course of their lifetimes in the so-cal ed Western world. I would like to congratulate Dr JohnBriffa and others who are publishing their thoughts regarding fat is nutrition in general andcardiovascular health, on the Internet.
There is also a theory that the Omega 6/ Omega 3 imbalance contributes to inflammatoryconditions in general such as rheumatic conditions and the epidemic of depression in Westernsocieties of the last 20 years which may be as a result of this switch to fats rich in omega sixfatty acids. This rise in depression has done wonders for the balance sheets of pharmaceuticalcompanies marketing SSRI antidepressants. If you're not on a statin or an SSRI then theremust be something wrong with you! T 15 September 2010 at 6:23 pm #
The health authorities are ful y aware of the serious flaws and omissions in this meta- analysis. This study was funded by the National Dairy Council, dairy being the number onecontributor of saturated fat in the U.S. and many other parts of the world. It was alsoconveniently published just before the USDA lowered the dietary recommendations ofsaturated fat for the first time in 20 years, from 10% to 7% of total calories.
Below is a section from the statement released by the European Heart Network in regards totheir opinion of this meta-analysis, titled "European Heart Network position piece: Impact ofsaturated fat on cardiovascular disease obscured by over‐adjustment in recent meta‐analysis" "However, the meta‐analysis (and an accompanying opinion piece by the same authors (4)) iscompromised by a number of serious flaws and omissions. These are enumerated anddiscussed in detail in an editorial from Jeremiah Stamler (5). The most serious of these flaws isan over‐adjustment for serum cholesterol levels. The meta‐analysis involves data from 16studies that evaluate the impact of saturated fat intake on CHD incidence or mortality, and 8studies that evaluate the impact of saturated fat intake on stroke incidence or mortality. Theauthors state that ‘wherever possible, risk estimates from the most ful y adjusted models wereused in the estimation of the pooled [relative risks]'. It is wel ‐established that saturated fatintake is associated with increased level of serum cholesterol (6), and that serum cholesterollevels are associated with CHD and CVD (7). Therefore, serum cholesterol levels lie on thecausal chain between saturated fat intake and CHD and CVD, and to adjust for serumcholesterol levels in a meta‐analysis wil obscure the impact of saturated fat intake on these Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 24 of 32 health outcomes. Yet 7 of the 16 studies included in the meta‐analysis of CHD events, and 4of the 8 studies included in the meta‐analysis of stroke events were adjusted for serumcholesterol levels. These studies accounted for nearly half of al CHD and CVD eventsincluded in the meta‐analyses. Adjustment for serum cholesterol levels wil inevitably bias theresults of the meta‐analyses towards finding no association between dietary saturated fatintake and cardiovascular disease, but the authors do not mention this limitation in their article.
As Jeremiah Stamler asserts in his editorial, what was actual y found by the meta‐analysiswas ‘a statistical y non‐significant relation of SFA [saturated fat] to CHD… independent ofother dietary lipids, serum lipids, and other covariates' (5). A more appropriate and informativeanalysis would have included non‐adjusted associations between saturated fat andcardiovascular disease. An examination of the forest plots provided in the article shows thatthose cohort studies that did not adjust for serum cholesterol levels were more likely to find apositive association between saturated fat intake and cardiovascular disease, suggesting thata meta‐analysis of unadjusted data would likely produce positive results. " References 5-7(5) Stamler J. Diet‐heart: a problematic revisit. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010;91: 497‐499.
(6) Clarke R, Frost C, Col ins R, Appleby P, Peto R. Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol:quantitative meta‐analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ, 1997; 314: 112.
(7) Prospective Studies Col aboration. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex,and blood pressure: a meta‐analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with55,000 vascular deaths. The Lancet, 2007; 370: 1829‐1839.
The ful statement from the European Heart Network can be found here:http://www.sydan.fi/lehtiarkisto/sydan_210/artikkelit/fi_FI/elainrasvat/_files/83538765767049682/default/EHN%20position%20piece%20-%20sats%20meta%20analysis.pdf Below is a published study showing reversal of severe heart disease backed up withangiogram evidence.
http://www.heartattackproof.com/resolving_cade.htm david manovitch 2 December 2010 at 9:03 pm #
I wonder if Dr Briffa or anyone else could comment on the European Heart Network statement, suggesting flaws and bias in the WHO study? Al 9 July 2011 at 7:16 pm #
The real reason we wil not see a grand proclamation of the truth on this subject is due to economic issues. Medical schools could immediately change their tune on this subject if they


Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 25 of 32 wanted to but mainstream medicine is not in the business of health and healing, they are in thebusiness of disease maintenance and symtoms management.
The main problem with tel ing people that saturated fat does not cause heart disease is thefact that people wil want to reexamine the problem and want an answer as to what is real ycausing heart disease. Wel that might lead people to Linus Pauling and others who have saidthat heart disease is nothing more than chronic low grade scurvy. If people realize that thecure is nothing more than vitamin C then that wil be the end to a multi-bil ion dol ar industry.
I'm even open minded enough to believe that getting the cure out to the public might angersome of the population control nazi's Claire Boyles 17 October 2011 at 6:21 pm #
thank you for sharing this information Shocked 24 February 2013 at 11:56 pm #
Anyone that believes this puss needs their head read. What utter rubbish, i can't believe doctors who are meant to be intel igent push this crap. So I dare you to prove me wrong Mrsmarty pants doctor….conduct a 1-2 year long experiment where 80% of what you consumeeveryday is Sat Fats, and put that on your blog. Get the meat and Dairy industry to fund it….( Ibet they won't because they know the truth) If you're so confident then put your own butt onthe line……….
Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart … « Anees Khan - 15 January2010[.] See original here: Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart … [.]Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart … Heart Disease Fact - 15January 2010[.] from:  Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart … Comments [.]Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart … disease database - 15January 2010[.] post: Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart … Tags: alzheimer,makes-sense, nerve-cel , now-detect, retina-which, technique-developed, the-eye, [.]Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart … health - 15 January 2010[.] Read the original:  Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart … [.] Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 26 of 32 Twitter Trackbacks for Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's Blog [drbriffa.com] on Topsy.com - 16 January 2010[.] Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's Bloghttp://www.drbriffa.com/blog/2010/01/15/two-major-studies-conclude-that-saturated-fat-does-not-cause-heart-disease – view page – cached A health-focused blog that makes sense of science, andoffers accurate, trustworthy and practical advice about al aspects of healthy living., One of things Itry and do on this blog is right what I see as nutritional wrongs. So, if there's a common perceptionthat artificial sweeteners are better [.]The Healthy Skeptic · New study puts final nail in the "saturated fat causes heart disease" coffin - 16January 2010[.] like to read more about it, John Briffa and Chris Masterjohn have written articles about it here and[.]Don't miss these great links! - 28 January 2010[.] Even more links to recent studies about the "connection" between dietary consumption ofsaturated fat and heart disease from Dr Briffa. [.]Is Saturated Bad For You Or Not? « purehealthclinic news - 4 February 2010[.] http://www.drbriffa.com/blog/2010/01/15/two-major-studies-conclude-that-saturated-fat-does-not-cause… [.]Fat Loss Programs â€" Do they Real y Work? Fitness Deconstructed - 4 August 2010[.] Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa's Blog[.]Nutrition and Physical Regeneration » What To Do If Your Study Contradicts Conventional Wisdom -11 August 2010[.] the Masai from the deadly saturated fats in their diet. A more parsimonious explanation is thatsaturated fat per se doesn't cause heart disease. It's also more consistent with other healthy culturesthat ate high-fat diets like the Inuit, [.]Science Daily – Big Fat Fail Natural y Engineered - 23 September 2010[.] Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease [.]Canibais e Reis » Blog Archive » Gorduras saturadas e colesterol entupidores de artérias, a novelamexicana eterna da saúde cardiovascular - 20 October 2010[.] como por exemplo a Slate. Os blogueiros também pegaram no assunto, veja por exemplo o Dr.
John Briffa, o céptico Chris Kresser, o diabético David Mendosa, etc. Os autores destas [.]The New "MyPlate" Recommendations Won't be on My Plate — Wel ness Mama - 8 June 2011[.] they missed al the recent information about major studies concluding that saturated fat doesn'tcause heart disease, or the meta-analysis showing no link between fat and heart disease,  or al theinformation [.]Low-Carb Diets Are Dangerous? Body Transformation Lab - 2 July 2011[.] When you look into the research, there is little to no evidence that suggests a high-fat intake isrelated to heart disease in any way (short literature reviews here and here). [.]How to not eat like a retard V « The Crusade against Fat People - 19 July 2011[.] butter, and coconut oil. People think these are bad for you but in reality they are not. They do notcause heart disease, they don't clog your arteries, they don't give you cancer, they don't have some[.]"MyPlate" USDA Dietary Guidelines. You can't be serious?! – GenerationWel nessMission.org - 20July 2011[.] the $2 mil ion dol ar committee-based-effort just forgot to include the recommendation for any fat.
Maybe they missed al the recent information about major studies concluding that saturated fat Two major studies conclude that saturated fat does NOT cause heart disease Dr Briffa'. Page 27 of 32 doesn…, or the meta-analysis showing no link between fat and heart disease, or al of theinformation [.]Good News! Dr. Weil starting to "Get It" Paleo Vil age - 17 September 2011[.] The guy that was preaching to avoid Coconut Oil in 2009 because " it is a highly saturated fat…idCoconut Oil in 2009 because " it is a highly saturated fat" changed his opinion. A [.]Fats and Cholesterol: Out with the Bad, In with the Good TheHealthy.net - 18 September 2011[.] Engl J Med. 2009; 360:859-873. Source: Harvard School of Public Health – Harvard UniversityIntroduction "Eat a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet" has been the mantra for healthful eating for dec…ting opportunity, food companies re-engineered thousands of foods to be lower in fat or fat free. [.]Figuring Out Fat Vinny News - 22 September 2011[.] are too high in certain saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol can raise blood cholesterol.
With so much information available about the effects of dietary fat on health, understanding the rol…energy source and carries fat-soluble vitamins needed for proper growth and development. It also [.]Is Saturated Fat Actual y Bad for You, or a Myth? — Truth About Abs - 24 November 2011[.] [.]What is the Problem with Trans Fatty Acids? What Is Omega 3 - 28 November 2011[.] way. Avoid the trans fats and saturated ones as much as possible and add omega 3 to your dailydiet.As everyone became aware of the dangers of saturated fats years ago, how the fatty acidsraised our …found in coconut and palm oil. This type of fat raises our LDL cholesterol which is thebad type. [.]How to render beef fat « OCEANS OF JOY - 21 December 2011[.] http://www.drbriffa.com/2010/01/15/two-major-studies-conclude-that-saturated-fat-does-not-cause-hear… [.]Considering You » Just another WordPress site » USDA's MyPlate Examined - 18 February 2013[.] The "Fear the Fat" message has been debunked. Find out how to eat fat and lose weight andwhy saturate fat does not cause heart disease. The bottom line is that low-fat foods are highlyprocessed products that have been replaced with [.]USDA's MyPlate Examined - Primal Docs - 13 July 2013[.] The "Fear the Fat" message has been debunked. Find out how to eat fat and loseweight and why saturated fat does not cause heart disease. The bottom line is that low-fat foods arehighly processed products that have been replaced with [.]Coconut Oil : The Doctors Are In The Wrong? Coconut Oil Miracles - 23 July 2013[.] Two Major Studies Conclude that Saturated Fat Does Not Cause Heart Disease [.]Eat Fat Be Thin Hi t Blog - 25 July 2013[.] that hydrogenated vegetable oils (aka trans fats) cause heart disease, not saturated fats. A 2010study also confirmed that there is no association between saturated fat and risk of heart disease or[.]GOOD FATS, BAD FATS e a r t h . a n d . s o u l . h o l i s t i c s - 17 December 2013[…] Saturated fat – predominantly found in animal products (think red meat, dairy, eggs). How can Idescribe this without going into the hypothesis that we've been total y brainwashed to think thatsaturated fat is detrimental to health and leads to heart disease, when in actual fact, there is little (ifany) reputable evidence to show this. Another great article by Dr Briffa here. […]




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Índice Global Es una entidad privada no lucrativa, conformada por Vision of Humanity 2012 a título personal, independiente de intereses sectoriales, gremiales o partidistas. FUNDESA nació en 1,984 por el interés de empresarios iendo la paz una percepción subjetiva respecto a las condiciones propias de guatemaltecos de generar e